Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 101

High Voltage Testing

Training Module/CTR
10-03-2003 - User’s Guide
© ABB Ltd - 1
 Introduction
 Definitions, Significance of insulation, Why testing?
 High voltage testing techniques
 Definitions, General requirement, Generation and measurement, Test
procedure, Methods of evaluation, Uncertainty in tests and
 High voltage tests on high voltage products
 Test objects and various high voltage tests, General safety and
precautions, Test objects standard requirement, Evaluation of test
© ABB Ltd - 2
High Voltage Testing
Training Module/CTR Techniques
10-03-2003 - User’s Guide
© ABB Ltd - 3
 Definitions and general standards requirements
 Generation of high voltages
 Measurement of high voltages
 Test procedures
 Uncertainty
© ABB Ltd - 4
 IEC 60060-1 – High-voltage testing techniques
Part 1 – General definitions and test requirements
 Describes general definitions and test requirements in high voltage
testing techniques

 IEC 60060-2 – High-voltage testing techniques

Part 2 – Measuring devices
 Describes general definitions and measuring systems requirement in
high voltage testing techniques
© ABB Ltd - 5
 Disruptive discharge (also referred as “electrical breakdown”)
 Failure of insulation under electrical stress, in which the discharge completely bridges the
insulation under test, reducing the voltage between the electrodes practically to zero
 It applies to electrical breakdown in solid, liquid and gaseous dielectrics and combinations of
 Non-disruptive discharge (also referred as “partial discharges”)
 A discharge that does not completely bridge the insulation between electrodes, the voltage
between the electrodes does not drop to zero
 Sparkover
 Disruptive discharge occurs in a gaseous or liquid medium
 Flashover
 Disruptive discharge occurs over the surface of a dielectric in a gaseous or liquid medium
 Puncture
 Disruptive discharge occurs through the solid dielectrics
© ABB Ltd - 6
 External insulation
 Is the air insulation and the exposed surfaces of the solid insulation of the
 Internal insulation
 Is the internal solid, liquid or gaseous elements of the insulation of equipment
 Self-restoring insulation
 Is the insulation which completely recovers its insulating properties after a
disruptive discharge caused by the application of test voltage
 Non-self-restoring insulation
 Is the insulation which losses its insulating properties, or does not recover them
completely, after a disruptive discharge caused by the application of test voltage
© ABB Ltd - 7
 Impulses
 Is an intentionally applied aperiodic transient voltage or current which
usually rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls slowly to zero
 Lightning and switching impulses
 Impulses with front duration up to 20 µ s are defined lightning impulses
and those with longer fronts are defined as switching impulses
© ABB Ltd - 8
General requirements for test procedures
 The requirements of test procedures are dependent on the follwing
 Required accuracy of tests results
 Random nature of observed phenomena / polarity dependence of
 Progressive deterioration with repeated voltage application
© ABB Ltd - 9
Requirements for test objects
 Test object should be complete in all respects;
 Complete in all details
 Should be processed in normal manner for similar equipment
 General arrangement in terms of clearances to other live /
grounded parts should be taken care of
 A clearance of not less than 1.5 times of the shortest possible
discharge path should be maintained from extraneous structures
© ABB Ltd - 10
Dry tests
 Test object should be dry and clean
 Test should be made at ambient temeprature
 The procedure for voltage application is as per IEC 60060 – 1
 The voltage value and various configuration to be tested is as per
relevant product standard
© ABB Ltd - 11
Wet tests
 Intended to simulate performance of test object when overvoltages occur in rain
 The procedure for voltage application is as per IEC 60060 – 1
 The voltage value and various configuration to be tested is as per relevant product
 Precipitation condition for standard procedure
 Water resistivity – 100 ± 15 Ω m
 Precipitation rate – 1 to 2 mm/min in horizontal and vertical
 Water temperature – ambient temperature ± 15 °C
 Test specimen should be wetted for minimum15 minutes before start of testing
 Reproducibility of wet test results is low
 Adequate precautions on collecting vessel and method precipitation measurement are
taken to minimize this dispersion
 The test object may be cleaned with a surface-active detergent. This is to be removed
before beginning of wetting
© ABB Ltd - 12
Atmospheric conditions
 The standard reference atmosphere is;
 Temperature to 20 °C
 Pressure bo 101.3 kPa
 Absolute humidity 11 g/m3

 As products are tested under exsisting ambient conditions the

applied voltage has to be corrected for the prevailing conditions
 Refer to relevant product standard for applicability of correction factors
© ABB Ltd - 13
Correction factors
 The total correction factor Kt is the product of
 air density correction factor k1 and humidity correction factor k2
 The applied voltage is calculated as
 U = Uo Kt where Uo is the specified test voltage
 Air density correction factor at temperature t and pressure b is

k 1 = δm
b 273 + t o
where δ =
b o 273 + t
m = is taken from figure
© ABB Ltd - 14
Correction factors
 Humidity correction factor

k2 = kw
where k = is dependent on type of test voltage and ratio
w = is based on value of g (refer graph in previous slide)
g =
500 L δ k
where UB is the 50% distruptiv e discharge voltage
(if not available assume 1.1times test voltage)
L is the minimum discharge path in metres
 No humidity correction shall be applied for wet
© ABB Ltd - 15
Correction factors
 Conflicting requirments for testing internal and external insulation
 Due to laboratory altitude and or extreme climatic conditions, the
correction factor results in withstand level for internal insulation in
excess to discharge voltages of external insulation
 In such condition the test object may be immersed in oil or
compressed gas so that there are no discharges in external
insulation during test
 Reverse may happen in some cases, where external insulation is to be
tested at significantly higher voltages. In order to assess the external
 Either the internal insulation is reinforced for test purpose or
 The test is made with dummies
© ABB Ltd - 16
Altitude Correction factors
 For installation at an altitude higher than 1 000 m, the insulation level of external insulation is
determined by multiplying the insulation withstand voltages required at the service location by a
factor Ka in accordance with figure (see next slide)
 Also see product standard for specific requirements
 Ka is also give by following formula;

Ka = e m(H-1000)/8150
 H is the altitude in metres
 m is taken as fixed value in each case for simplification as follows:
 m = 1 for power-frequency, lightning impulse and phase-to-phase switching impulse voltages
 m = 0,9 for longitudinal switching impulse voltage
 m = 0,75 for phase-to-earth switching impulse voltage.
© ABB Ltd - 17
Altitude Correction factors
 For internal insulation, the
dielectric characteristics are
identical at any altitude and
no special precautions need
to be taken. For external and
internal insulation, see IEC
 For low-voltage auxiliary and
control equipment, no special
precautions need to be taken
if the altitude is lower than
2000 m. For higher altitude,
see IEC 60664-1
© ABB Ltd - 18

 Definitions and general standards requirements

 Generation of high voltages
 Measurement of high voltages
 Test procedures
 Uncertainty
© ABB Ltd - 19
Types of high voltage waveshapes
 High ac voltage of power frequency
 High ac voltage of higher frequency
 Impulse voltage
 Lightning impulse ( High transient or
impulse voltage of very short duration)
 Switching impulse ( Transient voltage
of longer duration)
 High dc voltage
© ABB Ltd - 20
Alternating voltages
 A sinusoid in the range 45 to 65 Hz
 Value of peak to rms ratio should be √2 ± 5%
 For test durations upto 60 s the measured value of test voltage shall
be maintained within ± 1%
 For test durations exceeding 60 s the measured value of test
voltage shall be maintained within ± 3%
 The total uncertainty of measurement of test value should be no
more than ± 3%
© ABB Ltd - 21
Generation – Power frequency voltages
 Single phase testing transformer
 Cascaded transformer
 Resonance test transformer
 Testing transformers are generally designed to withstand frequent short circuit
 Short circuit current rating is 10 to 20 times rated current.
 Three Phase test transformer
© ABB Ltd - 22
Test circuit requirement
 The voltage in the test circuit should be stable enough to be practically
unaffected by varying leakage currents
 Non-sustained disruptive discharges may cause over-voltages in the test
circuit due to uncontrolled resonance conditions produced by the
interaction of leakage inductance of the source and the varying
impedance of the high-voltage circuit
 This can be eliminated
 by providing sufficient damping resistance in the high-voltage circuit or
 short-circuiting the primary voltage to the high-voltage test transformer
immediately following a disruptive discharge
 Controlled high-voltage resonant circuits do not produce over-voltages
following disruptive discharges since they “de-tune” whenever the load
impedance changes
© ABB Ltd - 23
Testing transformer requirement
 They are designed to withstand frequent short circuits when the test object
fails or experiences flashover
 They should have higher impedance than typical HV power transformer.
Typical range is 20-30%. Too high is not good for regulation.
 Short circuit current should be
 Minimum 0.1 A for dry tests on solid and liquid insulation
 On external self restoring insulation 0.1 A for dry tests and 0.5 A for wet tests. 1
A may be necessary for wet test on large specimens.
 For artificial pollution test this value should be upto 15 A. Also R/X ≥ 0.1
 In order to prevent large dip in applied voltage during non-disruptive partial
discharges the total capacitance of test object and any other capacitor in
test circuit should be in the range of 0.5 to 1 nF
© ABB Ltd - 24
Single phase testing transformers
 Though power station equipment are three phase, single phase testing
transformer is normally used for testing
 Features;
 They differ from power transformer in the sense that they have higher short
circuit impedance to withstand frequent short circuit
 It can be operated with overload for short duration
 Major advantage of this below 200 kVA is less cost
 Major disadvantage above 300 kVA is more cost
© ABB Ltd - 25
General arrangement
© ABB Ltd - 26
Tank type
© ABB Ltd - 27
Tank type
© ABB Ltd - 28
Tank type
© ABB Ltd - 29
Tank type
© ABB Ltd - 30
Cylindrical type
 The test transformer are of the
insulating shell design with metallic
cover and base
 The insulating cylinder is made of
reinforced Fibreglass, covered with a
moisture-rejecting paint
 It is important to keep the surface of
insulating cylinder dry and dust free all
the time
 During high moisture periods infra-red
lamps are used to keep the cylinder
surface warm and prevent
© ABB Ltd - 31
Cylindrical type
© ABB Ltd - 32
Cascaded Transformer
 Cost of insulation for a single unit is square of operating voltage
 When the voltage higher than 400 kV cascade is done
 as the insulation required is very high in conventional type
 Transportation and assembly are easy as the whole unit is divided into smaller
 Natural cooling is sufficient
 The units are enclosed by large size metal rings to prevent corona
© ABB Ltd - 33
Block diagram
© ABB Ltd - 34
Construction of Cascaded Transformer

V1 3V2


© ABB Ltd - 35
Cascaded transformer
 First unit is energized from low voltage primary
 In the same unit second unit excitation winding is available with the
same no of turns as the primary of the first unit
 Second unit primary is fed from the first unit
 The potential of Second unit is fixed by the potential of secondary of
the first unit
 Secondary of second stage transformer is connected in series with
secondary of first unit
 Some times the second transformer unit is grounded at the half of
the potential to reduce the insulation to half
© ABB Ltd - 36
Cascaded transformer
© ABB Ltd - 37
Cascaded transformer
© ABB Ltd - 38
High voltage resonant circuits
 Series resonant circuit
 Consists of an inductor in series with a capacitive test object, or a capacitor in
series with an inductive test object
 By varying circuit parameters or the supply frequency, the circuit can be tuned to
achieve a voltage considerably greater than that of the source and with a
substantially sinusoidal shape
 This circuit is useful when testing objects such as cables, capacitors in which the
leakage currents on the external insulation are very small in comparison with the
capacitive currents through the test object
 Unsuitable for testing external insulation under contaminated conditions
 Parallel resonant circuit
 Consists of a capacitive test object in parallel with a variable inductance and a
high-voltage source
 By varying the inductance, the circuit can be tuned, resulting in a considerable
reduction in the current drawn from the high-voltage source
© ABB Ltd - 39
Equivalent circuit with Capacitive load
 Transformers’ simplified equivalent circuit can be modeled as shown in figure.
 The output voltage, V0 for the circuit is given by the expression
 I Vo/ V I = 1/ {( ω RC)2 + (ω 2LC - 1)2 }0.5
 For the light loads C is very less.
 As the load increases output voltage R
increases. L
Vo = I * Xc
= V/R * Xc
= 1/(ω CR) * V
V C Vo
 Q is the quality factor of the circuit. It is designed with the value of 50 to 70

So the output voltage is Q times input voltage applied
© ABB Ltd - 40
High voltage resonant circuits
 Advantages
 Low input power requirements
 Negligible harmonic distortion
 Fault Current is limited in the series
resonant mode preventing damage to the
test sample
 Smaller in size compared to similar rating
of conventional transformer
 Used for routine and type tests of MV and
HV and general purpose laboratory tests
including wet tests
© ABB Ltd - 41
High Voltage Impulse Generation
 Transient over voltages due to lightning and switching surges causes fast
rising voltage on transmission tower and hence on electrical equipments
 To simulate the service transient condition on the equipment for its
withstand strength it is necessary to generate the impulse voltage
 On the basis of the front and tail time following classification is made
 Lightning impulse generation
 Switching impulse generation
 Very fast transient generation
© ABB Ltd - 42
High Voltage Impulse Generation
 The impulse is usually generated by an
impulse generator consisting of
 a number of capacitors that are charged in
parallel from a direct voltage source and then
discharged in series into a circuit that includes
the test object and the measuring system
© ABB Ltd - 43
Impulse generator – Block diagram
© ABB Ltd - 44
Single Stage Marx Circuit


V0 Rp C2
C1 V (t)

Rs - Front resistor V0 - Rectified voltage

Rp - Tail resistor V(t) - Impulse voltage
C1 - Generator capacitor
C2 - Load capacitance
G - Sphere gap
© ABB Ltd - 45
Three stage Marx Circuit

Uo – charging voltage
Cs – impulse capacitor
f – sphere gap
Re – discharging resistor
RL – charging resistor
RD – damping resistor
© ABB Ltd - 46
Lightning impulse waveshape
 Impulses with front duration up to 20 µ s are defined as lightning
 Standard Lightning Impulse  Nomenclature

 1.2/50 µ s  U – Peak value

 1.2 µ s is front time (± 30%)  T1 – Front time
 50 µ s is time to half-value(± 20%)  T2 – Time to half-value (tail time)
 Peak value (± 3%)  T – Time between point A and B
(30% and 90% of peak value
 O1 – Virtual origin
© ABB Ltd - 47
Chopped lightning impulse waveshape
 A chopped lightning impulse is a prospective full lightning impulse
during which any type of discharge causes a rapid collapse of the
 The collapse of the voltage can occur on the front, at the peak, or on
the tail
 Tc – Time to chopping – virtual origin to instant of chopping
© ABB Ltd - 48
Chopped lightning impulse waveshape
 A standard chopped lightning impulse is a standard impulse that is
chopped by an external gap after 2 to 5 µs
 Other time values for chopping may be specified by the product
 Because of practical difficulties in measurement, the virtual duration of
voltage collapse has not been standardized.
© ABB Ltd - 49
Chopped lightning impulse waveshape
 Chopped impulse is defined by
 Peak voltage U
 Front time T1
 Virtual steepness S = U/T1. This is the
slope of a straight line drawn between
points E and F
 This front-chopped impulse is considered
linearly rising if the front, from 30%
amplitude up to the instant of chopping, is
entirely enclosed between two lines
parallel to the line E-F, but displaced from
it in time by 0.05 T1
© ABB Ltd - 50
Switching impulse waveshape
 Impulses with longer front duration (>20 µ s) are defined as switching
 Standard switching impulse  Nomenclature
 250/2500 µ s  U – Peak value
 250 µ s is time to peak (± 20%)  Tp – Time to peak
 2500 µ s is time to half-value(± 60%)  T2 – Time to half-value (tail time)
 Peak value (± 3%)  Td – Time above 90% of peak
© ABB Ltd - 51
Impulse current
 Exponential
 Defined by the front time T1 and the time to half-value T2
 1/20 impulse: front time : 1 µs time to half-value : 20 µs
 4/10 impulse: front time : 4 µs time to half-value : 10 µs
 8/20 impulse: front time : 8 µs time to half-value : 20 µs
 30/80 impulse: front time : 30 µs time to half-value : 30 µs
 Tolerances
 Peak value ±10%
 Front time (T1) ±10%
 Time to half-value (T2) ±10%
© ABB Ltd - 52
Impulse current
 Rectangular
 Defined by the duration of the peak Td and the total duration Tt
 Rectangular impulse currents with durations of the peak of 500 µs,
1000 µs, or 2000 µs and total durations from 2000 µs to 3200 µs
 Tolerances
 Peak value +20% - 0%
 Duration of peak +20% - 0%
© ABB Ltd - 53

 Definitions and general standards requirements

 Generation of high voltages
 Measurement of high voltages
 Test procedures
 Uncertainty
© ABB Ltd - 54
Introduction to HV Measurement
 Low Voltage system: Voltage < 1 kV
 Moving iron and moving coil type instruments are used with series
resistance (multiplier) for low voltage measurement
 Factors in high voltage measurements
 The measurement of voltage and current in the HV tests are difficult by
conventional measuring and recording systems
 When the voltage increases power consumed by multipliers increases
 Reduction of stray capacitance is not easy
 The other difficulties are related to large sizes necessary to
 control electrical fields
 avoid flashover
 to control heat dissipation within the circuits
© ABB Ltd - 55
HV measuring system
 Measuring system
 Complete set of devices suitable for performing a high-voltage or
impulse-current measurement is called as measuring system
 Components of HV measuring systems consists of
 Converting device
 Transmission device
 Recording device
© ABB Ltd - 56
Classification HV Measurement
 Direct method
 Voltage is measured when the meter is connected directly
with high voltage system
 Examples;
 Electrostatic voltmeter
 Sphere gap / rod-rod gap
 Indirect method
10 kV Electrostatic voltmeter
 Voltage is measured by scaling it down to suitably lower
 Examples;
 Series resistance Micro ammeter
 Voltage transformer Peak volt meter
 Potential dividers Oscilloscopes , HV probe

HV probe
© ABB Ltd - 57
Sphere gaps
 IEC 60052 - Voltage measurement by means of
standard air gaps
 A uniform field spark gap will have sparkover
voltage within tolerance under constant
atmospheric conditions
 By precise experiments, the breakdown voltage
variation with gap spacing, for different diameters
and distances, can be measured
 Two identical metal spheres made of copper,
aluminium or brass is used separated by an air

 The potential difference between the spheres is
raised until a spark appears
 Standard values of Diameter of spheres are 6.25,
12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 cm
© ABB Ltd - 58
Sphere gaps
© ABB Ltd - 59
Effect of atmosphere
 The density of the gas (generally air) and humidity affects the spark-over
voltage for a given gap setting
 The spark over voltage for a given gap setting under STP must be
multiplied by the correction factor to obtain the actual spark-over voltage
 Spark over voltage at NTP, U = KtU0
 The atmospheric correction factors have been described earlier
 In the uniform field configuration, sparkover voltage is 30 kVpeak/cm in air at
20 0C and 101.3 kPa pressure
© ABB Ltd - 60
Sphere gaps – Protection
 A series resistance of 100 to 1000 kΩ is connected in series with
sphere gap to
 limit the break down current as causes pitting of sphere gap
 suppress unwanted oscillation in the source voltage when break down
occurs in the case of impulse voltage
© ABB Ltd - 61
Factors affecting measurement
 Tolerance on size, shape and conditions of spheres and their surfaces
 Nearby earthed objects
 Humidity
 Irradiation and polarity
 Dust particle
 Rise time of voltage waveforms
© ABB Ltd - 62
Peak values – disruptive discharge voltages
© ABB Ltd - 63

Reference: Table 2 from IEC 60052

Sphere gaps
 Advantage
 The sphere gap method of measuring high voltage is the most reliable
and is used as the standard for calibration purposes
 It can be used to measure peak ac voltage up to 1 MHz
 Accuracy of measurement is proved as 3 %
 Disadvantage
 It can not be used for the voltage having rise time of lesser than 0.5 µ s
 DC spark over voltage reduction was about 20 % for lesser gap
distances (1.3mm) with irradiation
 At long gap spark over voltage is not linear with dc voltage
© ABB Ltd - 64
Rod gap measurement
 The rods shall be made of steel or brass, with a
solid square section, sides between 10 mm and
25 mm and have a common axis. The ends
shall be cut at right angles to the axis leaving
the edges sharp in order to get a reproducible
breakdown mechanism
 The clearance from the tip of the high voltage to
earthed objects and walls, other than the ground
plane, shall be not less than 5 m
© ABB Ltd - 65
Rod gap measurement
 The disruptive discharge voltage Uo for positive and negative direct
voltage at standard reference atmosphere is given, for either the
vertical and horizontal gap by;
 Uo = 2 + 0,534 d
 Where, Uo is in kilovolts and d is the gap spacing in millimeters
 This equation is valid for gap distances d between 250 mm and 2 500 mm
and for a humidity range h/δ between 1 g/m3 and 13 g/m3
 Under these conditions, the disruptive discharge voltage Uo has an
estimated uncertainty of 3% for a level of confidence not less than 95%
 The rod-rod gap shall not be used as an approved measuring device at
gap spacing less than 250 mm because of the absence of streamer
© ABB Ltd - 66
Resistance in series with Micro ammeter
 High series resistance (specially designed to withstand high voltage) and
resistance of 20 kΩ /V is used with micro ammeter (having 50 µ A -
 This method is applicable for both ac and dc
 A safety gap or neon lamp is connected across the micro-ammeter
© ABB Ltd - 67
Resistance in series with Micro ammeter
 Advantage
 By using a stable supply (of accuracy 0.1%) 1% accuracy can be
 Disadvantages
 When the above method is used for alternating voltages, there would
be the effect of the distributed capacitances
 Their stability of resistances are temperature dependant
 The two resistors are set by heat dissipation and heat transfer outside
 Current limits can be up to 1 to 2 mA
© ABB Ltd - 68
Peak reading voltmeters
 Peak value measurement is important in HV measurement
 Types of Peak voltage measurement
 Capacitor charging method
 Neon Lamp Method
 Rectifier-Capacitor current method
 Rectifier with divider method - Impulse voltage measurement
© ABB Ltd - 69
Voltage/potential transformer
 Voltage is measured by stepping down the voltage from one side to
another side by Faraday’s law principle

Inductive voltage transformer

Potential transformer

Capacitor voltage transformer

© ABB Ltd - 70
Inductive voltage transformer
 High voltage is measured by stepping down
according to the ratio of turns between the
primary and secondary
 Very simple design and construction
 Error due to Phase angle and ratio
 It does not permit fast rising transient
 Insulation required for very high voltages more
than 100 kV is more and hence not cost effective
© ABB Ltd - 71
Capacitor voltage transformer
 Capacitance divider with a inductive voltage
transformer is used
 These are field measuring equipment unlike
dividers are laboratory measuring equipments
with very good accuracy
 Advantages
 The high voltage capacitor can be used in PLCC
application instead of coupling capacitor
 Simpler design and easy installation
 Disadvantages
 Voltage ratio will vary with temperature
 Ferro resonance occurrence in power system
 Limited power output
© ABB Ltd - 72
Capacitor voltage transformer
© ABB Ltd - 73
High Voltage divider
 Potential divider consists of two impedances , HV arm (Z1) and LV
arm (Z2) connected in series
 High voltage is applied to HV arm and measuring voltage is taken
from LV arm
 The height of the divider depends on the flashover voltage between
the electrodes
 Connection between LV arm and and measuring instrument is
made by shielded cable to avoid stray capacitance

Resistive dividers

Types of Dividers Capacitance dividers

© ABB Ltd - 74

Mixed dividers
Resistive potential divider
 Used for the measurement of all kind of high
impulse voltages with steep wave fronts
measurement of front chopped impulses
 Used when an additional capacitance in the test
circuit is not permissible
 A distributed screen of sections and using an
auxiliary potential divider to give fixed potential to
the screens
 These are housed in flexi-glass cylinders
containing a matched set of precision metal film
resistors, alternatively anti inductively wound CrNi
wire wound resistors
© ABB Ltd - 75

200 kV and 100 kV

Resistive potential divider
 Advantages
 Resistive Voltage Dividers can measure up to 100 kV ac or 200 kV dc
with accuracy better than 0.5%
 It is possible to measure the impulse voltage 2 MV by the careful design
of low voltage arm
 They are generally used when an additional capacitance in the test
circuit is not permissible due to the slowdown effect on the rise time
 Disadvantages
 Distributed capacitance significantly affect the resultant ratio.
 More than 200 kV resistive divider design is difficult
© ABB Ltd - 76
Capacitive potential divider
 A single capacitor unit or stack of units can be used for
the measurement
 In capacitor voltage divider two capacitances C1 and C2
are used in series, and the measuring system is
connected across the lower arm capacitor
 Pure capacitive voltage dividers cannot be used for
measuring impulses due to generation of oscillations
created by with pure LC circuit
 L being stray inductance of lead and C the capacitance of
the divider
 Neglecting the capacitance of the cable (approx. 50pF/m)
the effective capacitance of C1 and C2 in series is C1C2/
(C1+C2), and since the charge is the same,
 VC2 = C1/(C1+C2) V

1000 kV divider
© ABB Ltd - 77
Capacitive potential divider
 Advantage
 Very good high frequency response for small capacitance and small
dimensional divider
 Disadvantage
 Pure capacitive dividers are sensitive to input voltage with short rise
 It forms series resonance circuit with lead inductance in the low voltage
© ABB Ltd - 78
Mixed divider circuit
 Combination of resistor and capacitor are used to
eliminate the effect of distributed stray capacitances.
The distributed capacitors compensate for the current
drawn by stray capacitances
 It can be classified into two types
 Parallel Resistive-capacitive voltage divider
 Damped capacitive voltage dividers

1 MV
© ABB Ltd - 79

3 MV 3.5 MV
Parallel Resistive-capacitive voltage divider
 To reduce the nonlinear frequency dependant characteristics
resistive divider capacitance is connected in parallel with resistor
 This is achieved by selecting equal time constants in both high
voltage and low voltage arms
 Advantages
 At high frequencies it acts like a capacitive divider and at low frequency
like resistive divider.
 Loading effect can be reduced by step by step
© ABB Ltd - 80
Damped capacitive voltage dividers
 Combination of very low resistors and pure
capacitance are connected in series
 This used to reduce the voltage oscillations
and reflections due to traveling wave
 It is possible to design more than 6.5 MV
voltage measurements
 Disadvantage
 Pure capacitive dividers are sensitive to input
voltage with short rise time.
 It forms series resonance circuit with lead
inductance in the low voltage arms

6.5 MV outdoor type

© ABB Ltd - 81
Requirements of divider as per IEC 60-2
 Measuring system should measure Peak impulse voltage with the overall
uncertainty of 3%
 Uncertainty of front chopped impulse measurement should be ≤ ± 5%
 Uncertainty of tail chopped impulse measurement should be ≤ ± 3%
 Time parameters should be measured within 10 % accuracy
 To reproduce oscillations partial response time should be < 15 ns
 Rise time and response time are important so that measuring circuit will transfer
the same voltage to be measured
 Eliminating the stray capacitance in the secondary of the divider is important
© ABB Ltd - 82
Selection of Dividers
 Selection of divider is based on
 Maximum value of each voltage type to be measured
 Required or specified transfer behavior of the voltage measuring
configuration consisting of high voltage lead/divider, measuring
cable/measuring unit
 Adaptability of low voltage arm to measuring instruments and
measuring cable
 Capacitive load of test circuit
 Application of divider : -indoor, -outdoor, -stationary, -mobile and
-suspended installation at ceiling or wall
© ABB Ltd - 83
Methods of measurements
Method of DC AC Impulse
Mean peak rms. peak waveform peak waveform

Sphere gap X X X
Peak voltmeter X
Electrostatic voltmeter X

Voltage transformer X X X
Resistor in series with
Resistive divider X X X X X X X

Capacitive divider X X X X X

Mixed divider X X X X X

© ABB Ltd - 84
Accuracy requirements
 Alternating voltage
 Total uncertainty of peak or mean value measurement should be < 3 %
 Harmonics < 10 %
 Direct voltage
 Total uncertainty of mean value measurement should be < 3 %
 Lesser than 10 % of actual ripple or 1% error of the mean value
whichever is more
© ABB Ltd - 85
Accuracy requirements
 Lightning and switching impulse voltage
 Uncertainty of Peak of full impulse or chopped impulse on the tail < 3 %
 Impulse chopped on the front when the chopping time Tc , Tc > 2 µ s,
uncertainty should be ± 3 %
 when the chopping time Tc, 0.5 µ s ≤ Tc ≤ 2 µ s, uncertainty
should be less than ± 5 %
 Time parameter less than ± 10 %
 If the frequency of oscillation is less than 0.5 MHz and duration of
overshoot is 1µ s mean curve should be drawn to see the magnitude.
Overshoot is nearer to peak of less than 5 % of peak value
© ABB Ltd - 86

 Definitions and general standards requirements

 Generation of high voltages
 Measurement of high voltages
 Test procedures
 Uncertainty
© ABB Ltd - 87
Test with alternating voltage
 Withstand voltage tests
 The voltage is applied starting at a value sufficiently low to prevent effects of
over-voltages due to switching transients
 It should be raised sufficiently slowly to permit accurate reading of the
measuring instrument, but not so slowly as to cause unnecessarily prolonged
stress on the test object at the test voltage
 The rate of rise should be 2% per second above 75% of the estimated final test
 The test voltage should be maintained for the specified time and then reduced
 It should not be suddenly interrupted as this may generate switching transients
that could cause damage or erratic test results
 The requirements of the test are satisfied if no disruptive discharge occurs on
the test object
 Deviations from this recommendation may be specified by the appropriate
apparatus standard
© ABB Ltd - 88
Test with alternating voltage
 Disruptive discharge voltage tests
 The voltage should be raised in the manner described in withstand
voltage tests until a disruptive discharge occurs on the test object
 The value of the test voltage reached at the instant of the disruptive
discharge shall be recorded
 Assured disruptive discharge voltage tests
 The voltage should be raised in the manner described in withstand
voltage tests until a disruptive discharge occurs on the test object
 The value of the test voltage reached just prior to the disruptive
discharge should be recorded
 The requirements of the test are generally satisfied if this voltage is not
higher than the assured disruptive discharge voltage on each one of a
specified number of voltage applications
© ABB Ltd - 89
Tests with impulse voltages
 There are four methods are specified by IEC 60060-1
 Procedure A
 This procedure is applicable to the non-self restoring insulation
 3 impulses of specified shape and polarity at the rated withstand voltage level are
applied to the test object
 If there is no indication of discharges observed, test object passes

 Procedure B
 15 impulses of the specified shape and polarity at the withstand level are applied
to the test object
 Test object passes if not more than two disruptive discharge occurs in the self
restoring part of the insulation and no indication of failure in the non-restoring
© ABB Ltd - 90
Tests with impulse voltages
 Procedure C
 3 specified shape and polarity at the withstand voltage level is applied
to the test object
 If no disruptive discharge occurs test object passed the test
 If more than one disruptive discharge occurs, test object failed the
 If one disruptive discharge occurs in the self restoring part of the
insulation, then 9 additional impulses are applied. If no discharge
occurs test object has passed the test
© ABB Ltd - 91
Tests with impulse voltages
 Procedure D – Statistical method
 For self restoring insulation the 10% impulse disruptive discharge voltage U10 is
evaluated by using statistical test procedures
 Direct evaluation of U10 or U50 and indirect evaluation of U10 can be done.
 In direct method number of test voltage are applied to find 10% disruptive
discharge voltage
 In indirect method
 U10 = U50( 1 - 1.3z ) z= 0.03 in general
 U50 can be evaluated by
 multiple level method
 up-and-down method
 Test object is passed if U10 is not less than the specified impulse withstand
© ABB Ltd - 92
Combined Voltage Tests
 Simulate conditions where one terminal of the open switch is
energized at the specified power frequency voltage and the other
terminal may be subject to either a lightning or switching
 The test voltages are characterized by their amplitude, waveshape,
polarity, and any time delay between the application of the two
© ABB Ltd - 93
Combined Voltage Tests
 There is possibility of a disruptive
discharge during the test
 suitable protective devices (decoupling
resistors, inductors, capacitors,
orprotective gaps) protect the test
 Definition of the applied waveshape is
left to the appropriate product standard
 Measuring device is based on the
requirements for the fastest and slowest
waveshapes to be observed
 In all cases, voltages are measured as
referred to ground
© ABB Ltd - 94

 Definitions and general standards requirements

 Generation of high voltages
 Measurement of high voltages
 Test procedures
 Uncertainty
© ABB Ltd - 95
Concept of Uncertainty
 Error
 The concept of error is now old and no longer used.
 Error is deviation from true value. While calculating error we assume
that the “true value” is known. However true value is never known.
 Uncertainty
 This concept says that any quantity is known to exist within a definite
interval (nominal value and a range around that) with a given degree of
 Thus in this concept any quantity is described to lie within an interval
and the level of confidence associated with it.
© ABB Ltd - 96
 Uncertainty (of measurement)
parameter, associated with the result of a measurement, that
characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be
attributed to the measurand [IEV 311-01-02, VIM 3.9]
© ABB Ltd - 97
Components of uncertainty
 Systematic components
 Uncertainty arising out of attributable factors which are known
 They are estimated by knowledge of effects of such factors on the
 They represent the “accuracy” of the system
 Random components
 These components are ones which cannot be attributed to any known factors
 These are evaluated by statistical measurements
 They represent the “precision” of the system
© ABB Ltd - 98
Old and new ways
 Old way
 The measurement is represented by the indicated single value say 10
 If a 0.5 class instrument has been used for this measurement we
assume that the true value lies within 10± 0.5%.
 However the meter is not the only source of error in measurement.
 There are other sources like, personnel, ambient conditions which
affect meter performance and various unknown (random) factors
© ABB Ltd - 99
Old and new ways
 New way
 The concept of uncertainty accounts for all these.
 The meter when calibrated is characterized with total uncertainty of calibration
accounting all factors which affected calibration.
 Further, when measurement is made the total uncertainty of the measurement is
evaluated considering all factors that affect the measurement (including the
uncertainty of the calibration)
 A typical report of measurement with uncertainty figure is

10 V ± 0.5 V with 95% confidence level.

Here 0.5 V is the total uncertainty in estimating the voltage value. And
there is 95% confidence that the measurement lies within the range 9.5 to 10.5 V
© ABB Ltd - 100