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ELECTROMAGNETISMO

Atomo

BREVE HISTORIA
Uno de sus hitos iniciales puede situarse hacia el ao 600 a. C., cuando el
filsofo griego Tales de Mileto observ que frotando una varilla de mbar
con una piel o con lana, se obtenan pequeas cargas (efecto triboelctrico)
que atraan pequeos objetos, y frotando mucho tiempo poda causar la
aparicin de una chispa. Cerca de la antigua ciudad griega de Magnesia se
encontraban las denominadas piedras de Magnesia, que incluan
magnetita. Los antiguos griegos observaron que los trozos de este material
se atraan entre s, y tambin a pequeos objetos de hierro. Las palabras
magneto (equivalente en espaol a imn) y magnetismo derivan de ese
topnimo. La electricidad evolucion histricamente desde la simple
percepcin del fenmeno, a su tratamiento cientfico, que no se hara
sistemtico hasta el siglo XVIII. El telgrafo elctrico (Samuel Morse,
1833, precedido por Gauss y Weber, 1822) puede considerarse como la
primera gran aplicacin en el campo de las telecomunicaciones, pero no
ser en la primera revolucin industrial, sino a partir del cuarto final del
siglo XIX cuando las aplicaciones econmicas de la electricidad la
convertirn en una de las fuerzas motrices de la segunda revolucin
industrial.

La energa elctrica es esencial para la sociedad de la informacin de la


tercera revolucin industrial que se viene produciendo desde la segunda
mitad del siglo XX (transistor, televisin, computacin, robtica,
internet...).
1600 ( William Gilbert: adopt el trmino de electricidad mediante
experimentos
de
frotacin
de
distintos
materiales.
Siglo XVIII ( Stephen Gray: detallo las caractersticas necesarias para la
conductividad elctrica.
1733 ( Charles Franois de Cisternay du Fay: creo lo conceptos de cargas
positivas y cargas negativas.
Siglo XIX ( Hans Christian Oersted: planteo la hiptesis de que los
fenmenos
magnticos
y
elctricos
estuviesen
relacionados.
Ampere: demostr la relacin de Oersted entre 1822 y 1826.
1827 ( Ohm: formul la de Ohm, en la que relacionaba tensin, corriente y
resistencia.

Michael Faraday: descubri la induccin electromagntica y el concepto


de lneas de campo, lo que le permiti, en 1821, crear el primer motor
elctrico. Tambin consigui demostrar que la carga elctrica en un
conductor se acumula en la superficie exterior de ste,
independientemente de lo que haya en su interior. (foto)
1841( Hermann Von Helmholtz: demostr que la electricidad era una
energa y que como tal, cumpla la ley de conservacin.
1864 ( James Clerk Maxwell: establece las llamadas Ecuaciones de
Maxwell que demostraron y detallaron la relacin matemtica entre
campos elctricos y magnticos, los cuales, segn demostr, tenan la
misma naturaleza que la luz: naturaleza de onda; a las cuales se denomin
ondas electromagnticas.
1881 ( Edison: Thomas Alva Edison invent la bombilla y tras otros dos
aos descubri el efecto termoinico o efecto Edison.
1888 ( Nikola Tesla: crea el primer generador de corriente alterna y
posteriormente
un
motor
que
funcionaba
con
ella.

(a) A negatively charged


rubber rod suspended by a
thread is attracted
to a positively charged glass
rod.
(b) A negatively charged
rubber rod is repelled by

Carga elctrica
La carga elctrica es la propiedad de la materia que
sealamos como causa de la interaccin electromagntica.
Se dice que un cuerpo est cargado positivamente
cuando tiene un defecto de electrones. Se dice que un
cuerpo est cargado negativamente cuando tiene un
exceso de electrones.
Por tanto tambin podemos definir la carga elctrica como
el exceso o defecto de electrones que posee un cuerpo
respecto al estado neutro.
La unidad de carga en el sistema internacional es el
Coulomb (C). Se usan tambin el microcoulomb (1 C =
10-6C), el nanocoulomb (1nC = 10-9C) o el picocoulomb
(1pC = 10-12C).

Induccin de Carga Sobre un Aislante

When materials behave in this way, they are said to be


electrified, or to have become electrically charged.

In a series of simple experiments, it was found that there are


two kinds of electric charges, which were given the names
positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin
(1706
1790).

On the basis of these observations, we conclude that


charges of the same sign repel one another and charges with
opposite signs attract one another.

Another important aspect of electricity that arises from


experimental observations is that electric charge is always
conserved in an isolated system

Electrical conductors are materials in which some of the


electrons are free electrons1 that are not bound to atoms and
can move relatively freely through the material; electrical
insulators are materials in which all electrons are bound to
atoms and cannot move freely through the material.

Semiconductors are a third class of materials, and their


electrical properties are somewhere between those of
insulators and those of conductors

Conductores: hierro, plata, oro, aluminio, bronce, cobre


Aislantes: vidrio, plstico, cermica, madera seca, caucho
Semiconductores: silicio, germanio

From Coulombs experiments, we can generalize the following properties


of
the electric force between two stationary charged particles. The electric
force.

is inversely proportional to the square of the separation r between


the particles and directed along the line joining them

is proportional to the product of the charges q and q on the two


particles

is attractive if the charges are of opposite sign and repulsive if the


charges have the same sign

is a conservative force.

Two point charges separated by a


distance r
exert a force on each other that is
given by Coulombs law. The force
exerted by
on
is equal in magnitude
and opposite in direction to the force
exerted by
on
Then:
(a) When the charges are of the
same sign, the force is repulsive.
(b) When the charges are of
opposite signs, the force is
attractive

the electric field vector


at a point in space
is defined as the electric force
acting on
a positive test charge q placed at that point
divided by the test charge:

E is the field produced by some charge or


charge distribution separate from the test
charge, it is not the field produced by the test
charge itself.
The presence of the test charge is not
necessary for the field to exist. The test charge
serves as a detector of the electric field.

qo

A test
charge at point P is a distance r
from a point charge q.
(a)If q is positive, then the force on the test
charge is directed away from q.
(a) For the positive source charge, the
electric
field at P points radially outward from q.
(c) If q is negative, then the force on the test
charge is directed toward q.
(d) For the negative source charge, the
electric field at P points radially inward
toward q.

We have defined the electric field mathematically through

The electric field vector E is tangent to the electric field line at


each point. The line has a direction, indicated by an arrowhead,
that is the same as that of the electric field vector.

The number of lines per unit area through a surface


perpendicular to the lines is proportional to the magnitude of
the electric field in that region. Thus, the field lines are close
together where the electric field is strong and far apart where
the field is weak.

The magnitude of the field is greater on surface A


than on surface B.

The electric field lines for a point charge. (a) For a positive point charge, the
lines are directed radially outward. (b) For a negative point charge, the lines are
directed radially inward. Note that the figures show only those field lines that lie
in the plane of the page. (c) The dark areas are small pieces of thread
suspended in oil, which align with the electric field produced by a small charged
conductor at the center

The lines must begin on a positive charge and


terminate on a negative charge.
In the case of an excess of one type of charge, some
lines will begin or end infinitely far away.

The number of lines drawn leaving a positive charge


or approaching a negative charge, is proportional to
the magnitude of the charge.

No two field lines can cross.

El flujo elctrico es la medida del


nmero de lneas de campo que
atraviesan cierta superficie.

If E is uniform in both magnitude and


direction:
The line density is proportional to the
magnitude of the electric field. Therefore,
the total number of lines penetrating the
surface is proportional to the product EA.

Note that the number of lines that cross this area A is equal to
the number that cross the area A, which is a projection of area
A onto a plane oriented perpendicular to the field.
We
conclude that the flux through A is
=
E.
Maximum value EA when the surface Ais perpendicular to the
field (=0); the flux is zero when the surface is parallel to
the field (=90)

Consider a general surface divided up into a large


number of small elements, each of area

where we have used the definition of the scalar product:

Using the symbol


to represent an integral over a closed
surface, we can write the net flux
through a closed
surface as

El flujo puede ser positivo (+), negativo (-)


o cero (0).

Establece la relacin entre el flujo elctrico a travs de una


superficie cerrada (Gaussiana) y la carga neta encerrada en
su interior
dA
E

r
q

We find that the net flux


through the gaussian
surface is

kq
E 2
r
pero, A 4r 2
q

qint
c E dA

La Ley de Gauss establece que el flujo elctrico


neto atravs de cualquier superficie Gaussiana
cerrada es igual a la carga neta que se encuentra
dentro de ella, dividida por

Conditions:

The value of the electric field can be argued by


symmetry to be constant over the surface.

The dot product in Equation, can be expressed as a


simple algebraic product E . dA because E and dA are
parallel.

The dot product in Equation is zero because E and d A


are perpendicular

The field can be argued to be zero over the surface.

E=0

(r < a)

Continued

++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++

----------------------------

Separacin:2m; sigma=4nc/m
Calcule E en x=1,8m y x=5m.
R1/: 2*226N/c R2/: 0

No hay movimiento neto de la carga dentro del conductor


1. El campo elctrico es cero en cualquier punto en el interior
del conductor

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

2. Cualquier exceso de carga en un conductor aislado, debe residir


enteramente sobre su superficie
Superficie Gaussiana
Conductor Aislado

3. El campo Elctrico precisamente fuera del conductor es


perpendicular a la superficie del mismo y tiene magnitud de
++ + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ + ++
Eje. 24-7

dW = Fds = qEds

The potential difference


between two points A
and B in an electric field is defined as the change in
potential energy of the system when a test charge is moved
between the points A and B, divided by the test charge

Diferencia de Potencial

The work done by an external agent


in moving a charge q through an
electric field at constant velocity is:
The electric potential at any point in an electric field is:
[V]=J/C

Desplazamiento de una partcula cargada,


desde A hasta B, en presencia de un campo
elctrico uniforme E

We can calculate the change in the potential energy of the


chargefield system from Equations

We conclude that a system consisting of a positive charge


and an electric field loses electric potential energy when the
charge moves in the direction of the field. A system
consisting of a negative charge and an electric field gains
electric potential energy when the charge moves in the
direction of the field.
Now consider the more general case, in this case, equation
is:

E s = E s cos = E d,
con s cos = d

The change in potential energy of the


chargefield system is

Conclusin:
VB-VA = VC-VA,

luego VB = VC .

Todos los puntos en un plano perpendicular al


campo elctrico
uniforme, estn al mismo
potencial. El nombre de superficie equipotencial
se da a cualquier superficie que contiene una
distribucin continua de puntos que tienen el
mismo Potencial.

To find the electric potential at a point


located a distance r from the charge,
we
begin with the general expression for
potential difference:

The quantity
expressed as

can be

where
is a unit vector
directed
from the charge toward the
point.

rrds = ds cos
dr = ds cos

Consideremos el potencial VA = 0 para un r


muy grande (A en el infinito), V 1/rA .
Then the electric potential created by a point
charge at any distance r from the charge is

qi
V k
ri

U q2V1
q1q2
k
r12
Es la energa potencial del sistema de
dos partculas
separadas por una
distancia r12
Es tambin el trabajo necesario o
requerido para traer la carga q2 ,
desde el infinito, hasta una distancia
V1
r12 de q1
q2
r12

q1

The electric potential dV at some


point P due to the charge element dq
is

where r is the distance from the


charge element to point P. To obtain
the total potential at point P, we
integrate Equation

Anillo cargado uniformemente

ESFERA AISLANTE CARGADA UNIFORMEMENTE

Condensador de Placas Paralelas

EJEMPLOS

Un condensador de placas paralelas cuadradas, con aire entre


las placas y separadas 1mm, tiene una capacitancia de 1,77pF.
Cul ser el valor de los lados de las placas

COMBINACION EN PARALELO

COMBINACION EN SERIE

Ejemplo.
A parallel-plate capacitor is charged with a battery to a charge Qo, as
shown in Figureb(a). The battery is then removed, and a slab of
material that has a dielectric constant k is inserted between the
plates, as shown in Figure (b). Find the energy stored in the capacitor
before and after the dielectric is inserted.

The current is the rate at which charge flows through this


surface. If !Q is the
amount of charge that passes through this area in a time
interval t, the average
current Iav is equal to the charge that passes through A per
unit time

If the rate
time, then
define the
differential

at which charge flows varies in


the current varies in time; we
instantaneous current I as the
limit of average current

The SI unit of current is the ampere (A):

Vol x A vd t A

A current density J and an electric field E


are established in a conductor whenever
a potential difference is maintained
across the conductor. In some materials,
the current density is proportional to the
electric field:

Therefore, we can express the magnitude of the current


density in the wire as

Because

The quantity
is called the resistance of the
conductor. We can define the resistance as the ratio of
the potential difference across a conductor to the
current in the conductor:

The inverse of conductivity

metales

Potencia entregada a la resistencia.


Energa disipada por la resistencia

Direct Current Circuits

Electromotive Force
The emf

of a battery is the maximum possible voltage that the battery

can provide between its terminals.


Now imagine moving through the battery
from a to b and measuring the electric
potential at various locations. As we pass
from the negative terminal to the positive
terminal, the potential increases by an
amount . However, as we move through
the resistance r, the potential decreases by
an amount Ir, where I is the current in the
circuit. Thus, the terminal voltage of the
battery V Vb Va

Los circuitos que se analizarn sern aquellos que se encuentran en


estado estacionario, o sea que en ellos las corrientes son constantes
en magnitud y direccin.
Una corriente que es constante en direccin es llamada corriente
directa (DC).

The resistor represents a load on the battery because the battery must supply energy to
operate the device. The potential difference across the load resistance is
Combining this expression with Equation

This equation shows that the current in this simple circuit


depends on both the load resistance R external to the battery
and the internal resistance r. If R is much greater than r, as it
is in many real-world circuits, we can neglect r. If we multiply
Equation
by the current I, we obtain

Because power
,
I
The total power output
of the battery is delivered to the
2
external load resistance
I R in the amount
and to the
internal resistance in the amount

EJEMPLO

Resistors in Series and


Parallel

For a series combination of two resistors, the currents are the


same in both resistors because the amount of charge that
passes through R1 must also pass through R2 in the same time
interval.
The potential difference applied across the series combination
of resistors will divide between the resistors:

The potential difference across the battery is also applied to


the equivalent resistance:

This relationship indicates that the equivalent resistance of a


series connection of resistors is the numerical sum of the
individual

resistances

individual resistance.

and

is

always

greater

than

any

Resistors in Parallel

eq

Where Req is an equivalent single resistance


which will have the same effect on the circuit as
the two resistors in parallel; From this result

or

Kirchhoffs Rules

Junction rule. The sum of the currents entering any junction


in a circuit must equal the sum of the currents leaving that
junction

Loop rule. The sum of the potential differences across all


elements around any closed circuit loop must be zero

Kirchhoffs first rule is a statement of conservation of electric charge.


If we apply this rule to the junction shown in figure we obtain:

Kirchhoffs second rule follows from the law of


conservation of energy. When the charge returns to the
starting point, the chargecircuit system must have the
same total energy as it had before the charge was moved.

Considerations

RC Circuits: Charging a
Capacitor

The value of the maximum charge on the plates depends on the


voltage of the battery. Once the maximum charge is reached, the
current in the circuit is zero because the potential difference
across the capacitor matches that supplied by the battery.

where q/C is the potential difference across the capacitor and IR is


the potential difference across the resistor. For the capacitor,
notice that we are traveling in the direction from the positive plate
to the negative plate; this represents a decrease in potential.

we find that the initial current


and is equal to

in the circuit is a maximum


Corriente
mxima

At this time, the potential difference from the battery


terminals appears entirely across the resistor. Later, when the
capacitor is charged to its maximum value Q, charges cease to
flow, the current in the circuit is zero, and the potential
difference from the battery terminals appears entirely across
the capacitor
Carga
mxima

This current is equal to the time rate of change of the charge


on thecapacitor plates:

To find an expression for q, we solve this separable


differential equation. We first combine the terms on the
right-hand side:

Now we multiply by dt and divide by q

Integrating this expression, using the fact that


at

to obtain

we
obtain

From the definition of the natural logarithm, we can write this


expression as

where e is the base of the natural logarithm and we have


made the substitution from equation
.
We can find an expression for the charging current by
differentiating equation, with respect to time
:

Recibe el nombre de constante de tiempo. Tiene unidades de tiempo.

Discharging a
Capacitor

Now consider the circuit shown in Figure which consists of a


capacitor carrying an initial charge Q , a resistor, and a switch.
When the switch is open,
.
If the switch is closed at
the capacitor begins to discharge
through the resistor. At some time t during the discharge, the
current in the circuit is I and the charge on the capacitor is q. Thus,
we eliminate
from equation to obtain the appropriate loop
equation for the circuit

When we substitute
becomes

into this expression, it

Integrating this expression, using the fact that

Differentiating this expression with respect to time gives the


instantaneous current as a function of time:

EXAMPLE

When the particles velocity vector makes any


angle
with the magnetic field, the magnetic
force acts in a direction perpendicular to both v and
B; that is,
is perpendicular to the plane formed by
v and B .

The magnetic force exerted on a positive charge


is in the direction opposite the direction of the
magnetic force exerted on a negative charge moving
in the same direction.
The magnitude of the magnetic force exerted on
the moving particle is proportional to sin
where
is the angle the particles velocity vector makes
with the direction of B.
We can summarize these
observations by writing the magnetic force in the
form

Magnitude of the magnetic force on a charged


particle moving in a magnetic field

is the smaller angle between v and B. From this


expression, we see that FB is zero when v is parallel
or antiparallel to B ( =0 or 180) and maximum
when v is perpendicular to B
.

Important differences: electric and magnetic forces:


The electric force acts along the direction of the
electric field, whereas the magnetic force acts
perpendicular to the magnetic field.
The electric force acts on a charged particle
regardless of whether the particle is moving,
whereas the magnetic force acts on a charged
only when the particle is in motion.
particle
The electric force does work in displacing a charged
particle, whereas the magnetic force associated with a
steady magnetic field does no work when a particle is
displaced because the force is perpendicular to the
displacement.
We see that the SI unit of magnetic field is the Newton per
coulomb-meter per second, which is called the tesla (T):

EXAMPLE:

An electron in a television picture tube moves


toward the front of the tube with a speed of 8.0 x
10(exp6) m/s along the x axis (Fig. 29.5).
Surrounding the neck of the tube are coils of wire
that create a magnetic field of magnitude 0.025 T,
directed at an angle of 60 to the x axis and lying
in the xy plane. Calculate the magnetic force on
and acceleration of the electron. Find a vector
expression for the magnetic force on the electron

For ease in visualization, part of the horseshoe


magnet in part (a) is removed to show the end
face of the south pole in parts (b), (c), and (d) the
magnetic field is directed into the page and covers
the region within the shaded squares. When the
current in the wire is zero, the wire remains
vertical, as shown in Figure (b) However, when the
wire carries a current directed upward, as shown
in Figure (c), the wire deflects to the left. If we
reverse the current, as shown in Figure (d), the

FB
B
A

+q

vd

The magnetic force exerted on a charge q moving with


a drift velocity
is
To find the total force acting on the wire, we multiply
the force exerted on one charge by the number of
charges in the segment. Because the volume of the
segment is
the number of charges in the segment
is,
where n is the number of charges per unit
volume.

We can write this expression in a more


convenient form by noting that, from Equation
the current in the wire is

where L is a vector that points in the direction


of the current I and has a magnitude equal to
the length L of the segment. Note that this
expression applies only to a straight segment of
wire in a uniform magnetic field.

The
magnetic
force
exerted
on
a
small
segment of vector length
ds in the presence of a
field B (uniform) is
where dFB is directed out of the page for the
directions of B and ds. That is, we can define the
magnetic field B in terms of a measurable force
exerted on a current element, where the force is a
maximum when B is perpendicular to the element
and zero when B is parallel to the element. To
calculate the total force FB acting on the wire, we
integrate Equation

A curved wire carries a current I and is


located in a uniform magnetic field B. Because the
field is uniform, we can take B outside the integral
in Equation
Case 1.

ds represents the vector sum of all the length


elements from a to b. From the law of vector
addition, the sum equals the vector L, directed
from a to b. Therefore, reduces to
B
b

I
L
a

* From this we conclude that the magnetic force


on a curved current-carrying wire in a uniform
magnetic field is equal to that on a straight wire
connecting the end points and carrying the same
current

Case 2 . An arbitrarily shaped closed loop carrying a current I is


placed in a uniform magnetic field. We can again express the magnetic force acting on the loop in the form of Equation but this time
we must take the vector sum of the length elements ds over the
entire loop:

FB 0
From this we conclude that the
magnetic force on an arbitrary
closed loop carrying a current,
placed in a extern uniform
magnetic field, is equal to zero.

B
ds

A = ab. We can express the


maximum torque as

A convenient expression for the torque exerted on a loop


placed in a uniform magnetic field B is

Torque on a current loop in a magnetic field

, magnetic dipole moment of a current loop;


[A.m2]

Ejemplo

Direccin de A y en consecuencia de

Energia Potencial de un Sistema de un Dipolo


Magntico en un Campo Magntico

The particle moves in a circle because the magnetic


force FB is perpendicular to v and B

The angular speed of the particle

The period of the motion (the time interval the particle


requires to complete one revolution) is equal to the
circumference of the circle divided by the linear speed
of the particle:

Ejemplo

Selector de Velocidades

The Mass Spectrometer

A mass spectrometer separates ions according to their massto-charge ratio. In one version of this device, known as the
Bainbridge mass spectrometer, a beam of ions first passes
through a velocity selector and then enters a second
uniform magnetic field B0 that has the same direction as
the magnetic field in the selector that has the same
direction as the magnetic field in the selector

From Equation

Using Equation

we can express the ratio

we find
that

A cyclotron is a device that can accelerate charged particles


to very high
speeds. The energetic particles produced are used to bombard
atomic nuclei
and thereby produce
researchers.

nuclear

reactions

of

interest

to

Cuando un conductor que lleva una corriente se coloca en presencia


de un campo magntico, se genera un voltaje VH en la direccin
perpendicular tanto a la corriente como al campo magntico.
Los electrones van a la izquierda y experimentan fuerza hacia arriba.
Los protones van a la derecha y experimentan fuerza hacia arriba.

VH

IBd
nqA

Ley de Biot-Savart.
Si un alambre conduce una corriente constante I, el campo magntico
dB en un punto P debido a un elemento ds (el cual tiene la direccin de
la corriente) tiene las siguientes propiedades:

0 Ids r
dB
4 r 2
Ley de Biot-Savart.

0 4 10 7 T m A
Permeabilidad del espacio libre.

0 I ds r
B
4 r 2

Campo total creado en algn


punto por una corriente
finita.

Ejemplo

Esto es en caso de que el conductor


sea infinitamente largo

Ejemplo

Tarea

Recuerde:

Fuerza que experimenta un conductor


que lleva una corriente I, en presencia
de un campo magntico externo.

Campo magntico generado por un


conductor que lleva una corriente I, en
Punto externo a una distancia a de el.

Fuerza sobre el alambre 1 de longitud l.

Magnitud de la fuerza F1.


Reemplazando en F1.

Fuerza por unidad de longitud entre dos alambres


conductores paralelos.

Ejemplo

Ejemplo

Ejemplo

Solenoide ideal. Campo


externo cero, e interno
uniforme

EXPERIMENTO DE FARADAY

Ejemplo

use R=2

final

ejercicios

Tenemos de la
circunferencia

0 Ids r
dB
4 r 2