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Minerals

NH State Mineral: Beryl NH State Gem: Smokey Quartz

Physical Properties
Quartz

Crystal Shape

Hexagonal

Luster

Nonmetallic (Vitreous)

Color

Clear to Milky

Streak

No Streak

Hardness

H=7

Cleavage

No Cleavage

Fracture

Conchoidal

Specific Gravity

S.P. = 2.65

Crystal Shape
Crystal form(or shape) is the outward expression
of a minerals orderly internal arrangement of
atoms.

The cubic shape of halite (salt) crystals results from


the regular arrangement of sodium and chlorine
atoms forming the crystal.

Luster
Luster is the way light is reflected from the surface of the
mineral. It is the way a mineral shines or doesnt shine.
Minerals can have metallic or non-metallic luster.

Hematite occurs in both metallic and non-metallic varieties.

Color

Color, the wavelength of light reflected from the minerals surface, is


not always an effective property for identifying minerals.

Sulfur is always yellow


Quartz occurs in many colors as seen
so its color is always a
distinguishing property. in the pictures above, so you must use
other properties to identify it.

Streak

Streak is color of the mineral in powder form. It is


tested by rubbing a metallic mineral across a piece
of unglazed porcelain called a streak plate.
Hematite (Fe2O3) has
a reddish-brown
streak whether the
sample is metallic or
non-metallic in
appearance.

Hardness
Hardness is a minerals ability to resist abrasion or scratching. One
mineral (or common object) of known hardness is scratched against
another mineral, the harder mineral will leave a scratch in the softer
mineral. The Mohs Hardness Scale arranges common minerals by
relative hardness.

Cleavage

Cleavage is when a mineral breaks into flat surfaces


along planes of weak bonding in the crystal structure.

Fluorite (CaF2), an
octahedral crystal,
breaks along four
cleavage planes.

Fracture
Fracture is the way a mineral breaks when it
doesnt break along cleavage planes.

Quartz has conchoidal


fracture.

Asbestos has splintery


or fibrous fracture.

Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity is the weight of a mineral compared to the
weight of an equal volume of water.

Potassium Feldspar (KAl2Si3O8)


has a specific gravity of 2.65 and
Galena (PbS) has a a specific
gravity of 7.6.

Native Elements
Native elements are minerals composed of only one element.

Sulfur (S)

Silver (Ag)

Diamond (C) Graphite (C) Gold(Au)

Copper (Cu)

Platinum (Pt)

Ten Most Abundant Elements in the Earths Crust


O Oxygen
Si Silicon
Al Aluminum
Fe Iron

Muscovite
K2Al4[Si6Al2O20](OH,F)4

Ca Calcium

Potassium
Feldspar
(KAl2Si3O8)

Na Sodium
K

Potassium

Augite

Mg Magnesium

Limonite

Ti Titanium

FeO(H2O)2 Al,Ti)2{(Si,Al)2O6}

Hydrogen

(Ca,Na,Mg,Fe+2,Fe+3,

Silicate Minerals

Silicate minerals are composed of Silicon (Si 4+) and


Oxygen (O2-) plus some positively charged metal ions.

Quartz (SiO2)

Potassium Feldspar
(KAl2Si3O8)

Silica Tetrahedron

The Silica Tetrahedron is the basic building-block of


silicate minerals. It is composed of one silicon ion
(Si4+) surrounded by four oxygen ions (O 2-). Silica
Tetrahedrons link up in various patterns and bond with
metal ions to form specific silicate minerals.

Olivine ([Fe,Mg]2SiO4)
In Olivine, all the Fe2+ ions (green) above can be
replaced by Mg2+ ions (red) in any proportion
without changing the structure of the mineral in
any significant way.

Augite
(Ca,Na,Mg,Fe+2,Mn,Fe+3,Al,Ti)2{(Si,Al)2O6}

Hornblende
(Na,K)0-1Ca2(Mg,Fe+2,Fe+3,Al)5[Si6-7Al2-1O22](OH,F)2

Biotite
K2(Mg,Fe+2)6-4(Fe+3,Al,Ti)02[Si 6-5,Al 2-3 O20] (OH,F)4

Muscovite
K2Al4[Si6Al2O20](OH,F)4

Potassium Feldspar (KAlSi3O8)


http://www.cropsoil.uga.edu/soilsand
hydrology/images/Feldspar.jpg

Carbonate Minerals
Carbonate minerals are composed of positively
charged metal ions joined with carbonate (CO 32-) ions.

Calcite CaCO3
Dolomite (Mg,Ca)CO3

Oxide Minerals

Oxide minerals are composed of positively charged


metal ions joined with oxygen (O2-) ions.

Magnetite Fe2O3

Limonite
FeO(H2O)2

Corundum Al2O3

Sulfide Minerals
Sulfide minerals are composed of positively charged
metal ions joined with sulfide (S2-) ions.

Pyrite FeS2
Galena PbS
Sphalerite ZnS
Chalcopyrite (Cu,Fe)S2

Phosphate Minerals

Phosphate minerals are composed of positively


charged metal ions joined with phosphate (PO 43-) ions.

Turquois
CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8.4H2O

Apatite
Ca5F(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl)

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