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# CHAPTER TWO

## SOIL STRENGTH BEHAVIOUR

WEEK FOUR SIX
i-Learn Portal of UiTM hairol anuar haron

Learning outcome
At the end of the lecture, student should be able to understand:
Define the concept of total and effective stresses, pore
pressure and excess pore pressure (CO1,PO1)
Explain the concept of friction model and soil shear
strength. Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear strength
parameters of soils (CO1,PO1)
Illustrate the shear strength parameters of soils shear box
and triaxial test (CO1,PO1)
Develop the stress-strain relationships and evaluate the failure
envelope stress path using p-q diagram (CO2,PO3)
2

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

## 2.0 Introduction and Overview

2.1 Definition of Strength, Shear Strength and the
Friction Model
2.2 Concept of Total Stress () and Effective Stress
()
2.3 Shear Failure
2.4 Determination of SHEAR STRENGTH Properties
of Soils
2.5 Comparison between DIRECT SHEAR BOX TEST
and TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST
2.6 Type of Triaxial Test
3

Overview

## 2.0 Introduction and

Overview
Why soils fail to perform its function??
It is because of soil erosion?
Loss in strength?
Reminder from God al-Mighty?
5

## 2.0 Introduction and

Overview

Only materials with strength can have slopes because shear stresses
are required to maintain a slope structure
The shear stresses (), prevent collapse and help to support the
geotechnical structure (foundations, retaining walls, earth slopes and
Failure will occur when the shear stress exceeds the limiting shear
stress (strength)

## 2.1 Definition of Strength, Shear

Strength and the Friction Model
Strength
is the measure of the maximum stress state that can be
induced in a material without it failing
can be stated as compressive stress @ tensile stress
Shear Strength
is the maximum value of shear stress that may be
induced within its mass before the soil yields
Shear Strength of Soil
Shear strength between a soil mass is due to the
development of frictional resistance between
adjacent particles, and analyses are based
primarily on the frictional model
7

## 2.1 Definition of Strength,

Shear Strength and the
Friction Model
The force transmitted between two
bodies in static contact can be
resolved into two components:
-Normal component, N
-Shear component, T
-both are perpendicular to
each other

When
shear
slipping
movement take place
along this surface the
ratio
T/N
will
have
reached a limiting value
termed the coefficient of
friction ()
T

limit

=N

= N tan

Where is defined as

## 2.1 Definition of Strength,

Shear Strength and the
Friction Model

## A suggested mechanism of frictional resistance is that

at the true points of contact the particles become
locked together
For sliding to occur, its is necessary for the material to
yield locally at the point of contact
The true contact area between the grains
9
may be very

## 2.2 Concept of Total Stress ()

and Effective Stress ()
Consider
an
element of a
saturated
soil subjected
to a normal
stress (), as
in the figure.
Stress () is called Total Stress and for
equilibrium (Newtons third law) the stresses
in the soil must be equal and opposite to

10

## 2.2 Concept of Total Stress ()

and Effective Stress ()
Resistance to , is provided by a combination
of the stresses from the solid called effective
stress () and from pore water in the pores,
called pore pressure (u).
Thus; = + u @ = u
This equation is called the principle of
effective stress, first recognized by Terzaghi
(1883-1963)
11

## 2.2 Concept of Total Stress ()

and Effective Stress ()

12

## 2.2 Concept of Total Stress ()

and Effective Stress ()

13

## 2.2 Concept of Total Stress ()

and Effective Stress ()

14

## 2.3 Shear Failure

Failure Surface The soil grains slide over
each other along the failure surface, no
crushing of individual grains
At failure, shear stress () along the failure
surface reaches the shear strength (f)

15

## 2.3.1 Shear Failure MohrCoulomb Failure Criterion

The strength envelopes is a graphical
representation of a particular limiting condition
of shear stress ()/normal stress () ratio
The failure envelope is known as the MohrCoulomb failure envelope
The failure envelope is a curved line, but for
most soil mechanics problems, it is sufficient
to approximate the shear stress on the failure
plane as a linear function of the normal stress
The linear function is known as Coulombs Law.
16

## 2.3.2 Shear Failure MohrCoulomb Failure Envelope

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take
without failure, under normal stress of
Shear
strength
consist of two
component :
cohesive and
frictional
C and are
measures of
shear strength.
HIGHER the
values,
HIGHER
17

## 2.3.2 Shear Failure Mohr-Coulomb

Failure Envelope (cohesion,c)

(a) Cohesionless Soil (c = 0) (b) Pure cohesive soil ( = 0) (c) Cohesive-frictional soil

## c & c for sand and inorganic silt is 0

c & c for normally consolidated clays can be approximated at
0
c & c for overconsolidated clays are greater than 0
18

## 2.3.2 Shear Failure MohrCoulomb Failure Envelope

(angle of friction,)
Typical values of internal angle of friction, are given
in table below
Soil type

(deg)

Loose

27-30

Medium

30-35

Dense

35-38

Loose

30-35

Medium

35-40

Dense

40-45

34-48

Silts

26-35

19

## 2.3.3 Shear Failure Mohr

Circle and Failure Envelope
Mohr Circle of stress provides a
convenient method of analyzing two or
three-dimensional stress states
As stated by Mohr-Coulomb failure
criterion, failure from shear will occur
when the shear stress on a plane
reaches a value given by the coulomb
law (f)
20

## 2.3.3 Shear Failure Mohr Circle

and Failure Envelope

## Normal stress induced are y

and x, where y > x. So this
have cause shear

Inclination of failure
plane in soil with
major principal plane
21

## 2.3.3 Shear Failure Mohr Circle

and Failure Envelope

22

## 2.3.3 Shear Failure Mohr Circle

and Failure Envelope

23

## 2.3.4 Shear Failure Mohr

Circle in Terms of Total
Stress () and Effective
Stress ()

24

## 2.3.4 Shear Failure

Envelopes in Terms of
Total Stress () and
Effective Stress ()

25

## 2.3.5 Shear Failure Analysis of

Stress using Mohrs Circle

envelope

## '1 = major principal stress

'3 = minor principal stress
The failure plane ef makes an
angle with the major principal
plane
To determine the angle and the
relationship between major and
minor principal stress
fgh is the failure envelope
define by the coulomb law
relationship
It can be shown that bad =
2 = 90 + , or
= 45 + /2
26

## 2.3.5 Shear Failure Analysis of

Stress using Mohrs Circle

27

## 2.3.5 Shear Failure Analysis of

Stress using Mohrs Circle

1 3 tan ( 45 / 2) 2c tan( 45 / 2)
2

3 1 tan ( 45 / 2) 2c tan( 45 / 2)
2

28

## 2.4 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Properties of Soils
Test which can be carried out in the
laboratory
SHEAR BOX TEST
TRIAXIAL TEST
Unconsolidated Undrained Test , UU
Consolidated Undrained Test, CU
Consolidated Drained Test, CD

29

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
The test is also known as
direct/simple shear test because
the normal shear stress on the
failure plane is measured directly.

30

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
Direct or Simple Shear
Parameters used for analysis:
Shear Stress
Shear Strain (displacement)
Normal Stress
Volumetric (normal) Strain
Void Ratio
31

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

32

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Sample Preparation

33

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

34

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

35

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

36

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

## Clamp the shear box, so that only the lower half

moves.
Run the test by applying a vertical load 37

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
Shear slip occurs or is envisaged
(predicted) along a definite slip
surface

dv = vertical displacement
dh = horizontal displacement

38

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
Result of Shear Box Test

39

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
Result of Shear Box Test
A strength envelope is a graphical representation of a particular limiting
condition of the shear stress/normal stress ratio
Points below the envelope represent the stress ratios before failures
Points at on the envelope represent the stress ratios at failures
Points above the envelop cannot exist
At peak strength, the soil exhibits overconsolidated state or dense
state where an initial expansion is necessary to shear the soil
At ultimate strength, the soil exhibit normally consolidated state where
the soil contracts to a dense state as the shear stress increases as
the displacement increases
40

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

41

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
Shear and normal stresses measured directly.
Normal stress constant throughout the test.
The test is simple and fast for granular soils
Volume changes are easily measured.
Using a reversible shear box large displacement can be
achieved, thus enabling measurement of residual strength.
As the basic principle is easy to understand it can be
extended to gravelly soil, which would be were expensive to
test by other methods
42

## 2.4.1 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Shear Box Test
It is difficult to control the drainage of water from the
soil
The distribution of shear stress over the plane of failure
is assumed to be uniform, but in fact it is not
Not possible to control drainage from the sample or to
measure the pore pressure within the sample.
Therefore, only total stress measurements can be made
The normal stress cannot easily be varied during tests
43

## 2.4.2 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Triaxial Test
Triaxial is the most reliable methods available for
determining shear strength parameters
Soil specimen about 36mm in diameter and 76mm long
is generally used
Specimen is encased by a thin rubber membrane and
placed inside a plastic cylindrical chamber that usually
filled with water
The specimen is subjected to a confining pressure by
compression of the fluid in the chamber
To cause shear failure, one must apply axial stress
44

## 2.4.2 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Triaxial Test
Parameters used
for analysis
Deviator Stress
Shear Strain
Normal Stress
Volumetric Strain
Specific Volume
45

## 2.4.2 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

## Principle Plane is the plane that is acted upon by a normal

stress only. No shear stress present on a principal plane.
Principal stress is the normal stress acting on a principal plane.
1 and 3 are known as the major and minor principal stresses
46
respectively.

## 2.4.2 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Triaxial Test
1@total@major=c@minor + d @ 1=3+d
deviator = Axial load/Area of Speciment

c @ 3
47

## 2.4.2 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

## In triaxial test, failure plane is not predetermined.

Failure occurs on the plane where stress system is most
critical.
48

## 2.4.2 Determination of SHEAR

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

Mohr Circles

## The test is repeated for several different values of cell pressure

3 and the corresponding values of 1 at failure found in each
case.
This enables a set (at least 3) of Mohrs circles to be drawn.
49

## 2.5 Comparison between Direct Shear

Box Test and Triaxial Shear Test

50

51

52

## 2.6 Type of Triaxial Tests

A gentle reminder
Granular @ Cohesionless soils have
no cohesion, c=0 & c=0
For Unconsolidated Undrained test, in
terms of total stresses, u=0
For Normally Consolidated clays, c=0 &
c=0

53

## 2.6 Type of Triaxial Tests

Equipment for the
triaxial test.

Sample preparation

54

55

56

## 2.6 Type of Triaxial Tests

Unconsolidated-undrained test,
This test is performed with the drain valve closed for all phases of the test.
stabilized.
Consolidated-undrained test,
In this test, drainage or consolidation is allowed to take place during the
application of the confining pressure 3.
Loading does not commence until the sample ceases to drain (or consolidate).
The axial load is then applied to the specimen, with no attempt made to
control the formation of excess pore pressure.
For this test, the drain valve is closed during axial loading, and excess pore
pressures can be measured.
Consolidated-drained test
In this test, the drain valve is opened and is left open for the duration of the
test, with complete sample drainage prior to application of the vertical load.
The load is applied at such a slow strain rate that particle readjustments in the
specimen do not induce any excess pore pressure.
Since there is no excess pore pressure total stresses will equal effective
stresses.
Also the volume change of the sample during shear can be measured.
57

## 2.6.1 Type of Triaxial Tests - UU

Test
With this method, the shear strength is measured
with respect to total stress
The soil specimen (supposed saturated) is not
allowed to consolidate, maintains its original
structure and water content, so that its resistance
only depends on the level of geostatic stress in the
field
Test are usually carried out on three specimens of
the same sample subjected to different confining
pressure
Provided
that the soil is fully saturated, the
effective stress at failure is the same for each test
The Mohr envelope plotted with respect to total
stress, is horizontal and the shear strength is
constant and equal to C (undrained shear strength)
58

## 2.6.1 Type of Triaxial Tests - UU

Test
In UU test, drainage from the soil specimen is not permitted
during the application of
The test specimen is sheared to failure by the application of
deviator stress
Pore Pressure develops during shear
Because drainage is not allowed, this test can be performed
The total stress parameters, cu and u are found with this
test.
This test is called quick triaxial test.
59

## 2.6.1 Type of Triaxial Tests - UU

Test
Usually conducted on clays specimens
and depends on a very important
strength concept for cohesive soils if the
soil is fully saturated
The added axial stress at failure is
practically the same regardless of the
chamber confining pressure
So that, the failure envelope for the total
stress Mohrs circles becomes horizontal
and hence
= c = cu
f

60

## 2.6.1 Type of Triaxial Tests - UU

Test Failure Envelope

61

## 2.6.2 Type of Triaxial Tests - CU

Test
With this test method the shear strength
is measured in terms of effective stress
At least three specimens are allowed to
consolidate (to change its structure and
water content) at different level of
confining pressure before failure
Due to the fact that shear strength
increase, raising the effective stresses,
the Coulombs model can be applied in
terms of effective stress
During the failure stage the specimen is
not allowed to drain and pore pressure is
measured, so that the effective stress is
calculated as the difference between the
total stress and the pore
pressure
62

Test
Total Stress
= cu + n tanu

pore pressure
develops
Effective Stress
during shear
faster than
= c + n tan
CD (preferred
way to find c
Pore pressure
and
u = 1 - 1 or 3 3
63

## 2.6.2 Type of Triaxial Tests - CU

Test Failure Envelope

64

## 2.6.2 Type of Triaxial Tests - CU Test

Failure Envelope for CLAY SOILS

65
Total stress failure envelope from CU test in overconsolidated
clay

Example 1
A CU test on a normally consolidated
clay yielded the following results:
3 = 100 kPa
Deviator stress = 210 kPa
Pore pressure, (ud)f = 70 kPa
Calculate the consolidated undrained friction angle
and the consolidated drained friction angle
66

Example 1
3 = 100 kPa
1 = 3 + (d)f = 100 + 210 = 310 kPa.FROM SLIDE
NO. 47
For normally consolidated clay with c=0;
FROM SLIDE
NO. 18 & 53
1= 3 tan2(45 + /2) .FROM SLIDE NO. 28
310= 100 tan2(45 + /2)
= 31
67

Example 1
Again,
3 = 3 - (ud)f = 100-70 = 30 kPa
1 = 1 - (ud)f = 310-70 = 240 kPaFROM SLIDE NO. 63
For normally consolidated clay with c=0;
.FROM SLIDE NO. 18
& 53
1= 3 tan2(45 + /2)
240= 30 tan2(45 + /2)
= 51
68

Test

## This test method is similar to CU test

as the shear strength can be related
to the applied level of stress

## At least three specimens are allowed

to consolidate at different level of
confining pressure

## The failure stage is carried out very

slowly to prevent the increase of pore
pressure inside the specimen, that is
allowed to drain

the same

## Mohr circles are drawn for effective

stresses at failure and the parameter
C and are 69
determined from the
Mohr envelope

## 2.6.3 Type of Triaxial Tests - CD

Test
The sample is placed between porous discs and
inserted in the triaxial apparatus.
The cell pressure is applied and the apparatus left
until the induced pore water pressure has
dissipated, usually after 24hrs.
The deviator stress 1 - 3 is then applied at such
a slow rate that u does not develop.
It usually takes between 2 days and 2 weeks to
carry out a single drained triaxial test. (This test is
called slow triaxial test)
70

## 2.6.3 Type of Triaxial Tests - CD Test

in NORMAL Consolidated CLAY

71

## 2.6.3 Type of Triaxial Tests - CD Test

in OVER Consolidated CLAY

72

Example 2
For normally consolidated clay, the results of a
drained triaxial test are as follows:
Chamber confining pressure,3 = 16 lb/in2
Deviator stress at failure,1-3 = 25 lb/in2
a) Find the angle of friction
b) Determine the angle, that the failure plane
makes with the major principal plane

73

74

75

Example 3
The equation of the effective stress
failure envelope for normally
consolidated clayey soil is f=
tan
A drained triaxial test was conducted
with the same soil at a chamber
confining pressure of 80kN/m2.
Calculate the deviator stress at
failure.
76

For normally consolidated clay, c=0,
thus
1 = 3 tan2(45 + /2)
=25
1 = 80 tan2(45 + 25/2) = 197kN/m2
So, (d)f = 1-3 = 197-80
=117kN/m2
77

Example 5
The following data were obtained from an undrained
triaxial test on a series of saturated soil samples
Soil sample

150

250

350

50

100

150

150

300

400

## Determine the values of the apparent cohesion, c and

the angle of internal friction,
i)With respect to total stresses
ii) With respect to effective stresses

78

Cell pressure

150

250

350

Pore pressure

50

100

150

Deviator stress

150

300

400

1 = 3 + d

300

550

750

3' = 3 u

100

150

200

1' = 1 - u

250

450

600

cu = 25
u = 18
ii)

c = 20
= 26
79

Diagram

## Learning outcome (W7)

At the end of the lecture, student
should be able to understand:
Stress-strain relationships and
derivation of failure envelope stress
path using p-q diagram

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
Results of triaxial tests can be represented by diagram
called stress paths
Stress path is a graphical representation of the locus of
stresses on a body
It is a line that connects a series of points, each of which
represents a successive stress state experienced by a soil
specimen during the progress of a test
There are several ways in which stress path can be drawn
and plots q against p (where p and q are the
coordinates of the top of the Mohrs circle) is one of
them

Diagram

Diagram

Diagram

## Consider a normally consolidated clay specimen

subjected to an isotropically consolidated-drained
triaxial test (fig 11.28)
The relationships for p and q are as follows:
At the beginning of the application of deviator stress, 1=
3= 3, so

## For this condition p and q will plot as a point (that is I in

fig 11.28)
At some other time during deviator stress application, 1=
3 + d= 3 + d ; 3= 3
The Mohrs circle marked A in fig 11.28 corresponds to this
state of stress on the soil specimen

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
If these values of p and q were plotted in fig
11.28, they would be represented by point D at
the top of the Mohrs circle
If the values of p and q at various stages of the
deviator stress application are plotted and these
points are joined, a straight line like ID will result
The straight line ID is referred to as the stress
path in a q-p plot for a consolidated-drained
triaxial test
Note that the line ID makes an angle of 45o with
the horizontal
Point D represents the failure condition of the soil
specimen in the test

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
Line OF is the failure envelope for the soil
A modified failure envelope can now be
defined by line OF
This modified line is commonly called the
Kf line and can be expresses as

## Where = the angle that the modified failure

envelopes makes with the horizontal

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
The relationship between angles and can be
determined

as follows:

=tan =sin
thus

or

Thus

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
Figure below shows a q-p plot for a
normally consolidated clay specimen
subjected
to
an
isotropically
consolidated-undrained
triaxial
test

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
At the beginning of the application of
deviator stress, 1= 3= 3. hence p =
3 and q=0
This relationship is represented by point I
At some other stage of the deviator stress
application, 1= 3 + d ud and 3= 3
ud , so

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
The preceding values of p and q will plot as
point U in fig 11.30 points such as U
represent values of p and q as the test
progresses.
The effective stress path for a consolidatedundrained test can be given by the curve IUU
Lambe (1964) proposed a technique to
evaluate
the
elastic
and
consolidation
settlements of foundations on clay soils by
using the stress paths determined in this
manner

## 2.7 Stress Path using p-q

Diagram
Summary of the procedure for plotting stress paths
or both
3. Set up graph of p as the abscissa and q as the
ordinate. Plot the initial values (p, q)
4. Determine the increase in stress, d
5. Calculate the increase in stress invariants
6. Calculate the current stress invariants
7. Plot the current stress invariants (p, q)
8. Connect the points identifying effective stresses and do
the same for total stresses

Example 6

Example 7

Example 8

Example 9

## Do make a lot of practice on the

tutorial questions.
Practice makes better.
End of Week 7 & End of Topic 2
Week 8 : Flow of Water Through Soil.
Wasslam & Thank You.