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Feb 11, 2015

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Basic Soil Mechanics

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Basic Soil Mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 101

WEEK FOUR SIX

Download all notes materials of ECG303 at;

i-Learn Portal of UiTM hairol anuar haron

Learning outcome

At the end of the lecture, student should be able to understand:

Define the concept of total and effective stresses, pore

pressure and excess pore pressure (CO1,PO1)

Explain the concept of friction model and soil shear

strength. Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear strength

parameters of soils (CO1,PO1)

Illustrate the shear strength parameters of soils shear box

and triaxial test (CO1,PO1)

Develop the stress-strain relationships and evaluate the failure

envelope stress path using p-q diagram (CO2,PO3)

2

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

2.1 Definition of Strength, Shear Strength and the

Friction Model

2.2 Concept of Total Stress () and Effective Stress

()

2.3 Shear Failure

2.4 Determination of SHEAR STRENGTH Properties

of Soils

2.5 Comparison between DIRECT SHEAR BOX TEST

and TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST

2.6 Type of Triaxial Test

3

Overview

Overview

Why soils fail to perform its function??

It is because of soil erosion?

Degradation of soil materials?

Loss in strength?

Reminder from God al-Mighty?

5

Overview

Only materials with strength can have slopes because shear stresses

are required to maintain a slope structure

The shear stresses (), prevent collapse and help to support the

geotechnical structure (foundations, retaining walls, earth slopes and

road bases)

Failure will occur when the shear stress exceeds the limiting shear

stress (strength)

Strength and the Friction Model

Strength

is the measure of the maximum stress state that can be

induced in a material without it failing

can be stated as compressive stress @ tensile stress

Shear Strength

is the maximum value of shear stress that may be

induced within its mass before the soil yields

Shear Strength of Soil

Shear strength between a soil mass is due to the

development of frictional resistance between

adjacent particles, and analyses are based

primarily on the frictional model

7

Shear Strength and the

Friction Model

The force transmitted between two

bodies in static contact can be

resolved into two components:

-Normal component, N

-Shear component, T

-both are perpendicular to

each other

When

shear

slipping

movement take place

along this surface the

ratio

T/N

will

have

reached a limiting value

termed the coefficient of

friction ()

T

limit

=N

= N tan

Where is defined as

Shear Strength and the

Friction Model

at the true points of contact the particles become

locked together

For sliding to occur, its is necessary for the material to

yield locally at the point of contact

The true contact area between the grains

9

may be very

and Effective Stress ()

Consider

an

element of a

saturated

soil subjected

to a normal

stress (), as

in the figure.

Stress () is called Total Stress and for

equilibrium (Newtons third law) the stresses

in the soil must be equal and opposite to

10

and Effective Stress ()

Resistance to , is provided by a combination

of the stresses from the solid called effective

stress () and from pore water in the pores,

called pore pressure (u).

Thus; = + u @ = u

This equation is called the principle of

effective stress, first recognized by Terzaghi

(1883-1963)

11

and Effective Stress ()

12

and Effective Stress ()

13

and Effective Stress ()

14

Failure Surface The soil grains slide over

each other along the failure surface, no

crushing of individual grains

At failure, shear stress () along the failure

surface reaches the shear strength (f)

15

The strength envelopes is a graphical

representation of a particular limiting condition

of shear stress ()/normal stress () ratio

The failure envelope is known as the MohrCoulomb failure envelope

The failure envelope is a curved line, but for

most soil mechanics problems, it is sufficient

to approximate the shear stress on the failure

plane as a linear function of the normal stress

The linear function is known as Coulombs Law.

16

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take

without failure, under normal stress of

Shear

strength

consist of two

component :

cohesive and

frictional

C and are

measures of

shear strength.

HIGHER the

values,

HIGHER

17

Failure Envelope (cohesion,c)

(a) Cohesionless Soil (c = 0) (b) Pure cohesive soil ( = 0) (c) Cohesive-frictional soil

c & c for normally consolidated clays can be approximated at

0

c & c for overconsolidated clays are greater than 0

18

(angle of friction,)

Typical values of internal angle of friction, are given

in table below

Soil type

(deg)

Loose

27-30

Medium

30-35

Dense

35-38

Loose

30-35

Medium

35-40

Dense

40-45

34-48

Silts

26-35

19

Circle and Failure Envelope

Mohr Circle of stress provides a

convenient method of analyzing two or

three-dimensional stress states

As stated by Mohr-Coulomb failure

criterion, failure from shear will occur

when the shear stress on a plane

reaches a value given by the coulomb

law (f)

20

and Failure Envelope

and x, where y > x. So this

have cause shear

Inclination of failure

plane in soil with

major principal plane

21

and Failure Envelope

22

and Failure Envelope

23

Circle in Terms of Total

Stress () and Effective

Stress ()

24

Envelopes in Terms of

Total Stress () and

Effective Stress ()

25

Stress using Mohrs Circle

envelope

'3 = minor principal stress

The failure plane ef makes an

angle with the major principal

plane

To determine the angle and the

relationship between major and

minor principal stress

fgh is the failure envelope

define by the coulomb law

relationship

It can be shown that bad =

2 = 90 + , or

= 45 + /2

26

Stress using Mohrs Circle

27

Stress using Mohrs Circle

1 3 tan ( 45 / 2) 2c tan( 45 / 2)

2

3 1 tan ( 45 / 2) 2c tan( 45 / 2)

2

28

STRENGTH Properties of Soils

Test which can be carried out in the

laboratory

SHEAR BOX TEST

TRIAXIAL TEST

Unconsolidated Undrained Test , UU

Consolidated Undrained Test, CU

Consolidated Drained Test, CD

29

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

The test is also known as

direct/simple shear test because

the normal shear stress on the

failure plane is measured directly.

30

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Direct or Simple Shear

Parameters used for analysis:

Shear Stress

Shear Strain (displacement)

Normal Stress

Volumetric (normal) Strain

Void Ratio

31

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

32

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Sample Preparation

33

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

34

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

35

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

36

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

moves.

Run the test by applying a vertical load 37

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Shear slip occurs or is envisaged

(predicted) along a definite slip

surface

dv = vertical displacement

dh = horizontal displacement

38

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Result of Shear Box Test

39

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Result of Shear Box Test

A strength envelope is a graphical representation of a particular limiting

condition of the shear stress/normal stress ratio

Points below the envelope represent the stress ratios before failures

Points at on the envelope represent the stress ratios at failures

Points above the envelop cannot exist

At peak strength, the soil exhibits overconsolidated state or dense

state where an initial expansion is necessary to shear the soil

At ultimate strength, the soil exhibit normally consolidated state where

the soil contracts to a dense state as the shear stress increases as

the displacement increases

40

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

41

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Advantages

Shear and normal stresses measured directly.

Normal stress constant throughout the test.

The test is simple and fast for granular soils

Volume changes are easily measured.

Using a reversible shear box large displacement can be

achieved, thus enabling measurement of residual strength.

As the basic principle is easy to understand it can be

extended to gravelly soil, which would be were expensive to

test by other methods

42

STRENGTH Shear Box Test

Disadvantages

It is difficult to control the drainage of water from the

soil

The distribution of shear stress over the plane of failure

is assumed to be uniform, but in fact it is not

Not possible to control drainage from the sample or to

measure the pore pressure within the sample.

Therefore, only total stress measurements can be made

The normal stress cannot easily be varied during tests

43

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

Triaxial is the most reliable methods available for

determining shear strength parameters

Soil specimen about 36mm in diameter and 76mm long

is generally used

Specimen is encased by a thin rubber membrane and

placed inside a plastic cylindrical chamber that usually

filled with water

The specimen is subjected to a confining pressure by

compression of the fluid in the chamber

To cause shear failure, one must apply axial stress

through a vertical loading ramp

44

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

Parameters used

for analysis

Deviator Stress

Shear Strain

Normal Stress

Volumetric Strain

Specific Volume

45

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

stress only. No shear stress present on a principal plane.

Principal stress is the normal stress acting on a principal plane.

1 and 3 are known as the major and minor principal stresses

46

respectively.

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

1@total@major=c@minor + d @ 1=3+d

deviator = Axial load/Area of Speciment

c @ 3

47

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

Failure occurs on the plane where stress system is most

critical.

48

STRENGTH Triaxial Test

Mohr Circles

3 and the corresponding values of 1 at failure found in each

case.

This enables a set (at least 3) of Mohrs circles to be drawn.

49

Box Test and Triaxial Shear Test

50

51

52

A gentle reminder

Granular @ Cohesionless soils have

no cohesion, c=0 & c=0

For Unconsolidated Undrained test, in

terms of total stresses, u=0

For Normally Consolidated clays, c=0 &

c=0

53

Equipment for the

triaxial test.

Sample preparation

54

55

56

Unconsolidated-undrained test,

This test is performed with the drain valve closed for all phases of the test.

Axial loading is commenced immediately after the chamber pressure 3 is

stabilized.

Consolidated-undrained test,

In this test, drainage or consolidation is allowed to take place during the

application of the confining pressure 3.

Loading does not commence until the sample ceases to drain (or consolidate).

The axial load is then applied to the specimen, with no attempt made to

control the formation of excess pore pressure.

For this test, the drain valve is closed during axial loading, and excess pore

pressures can be measured.

Consolidated-drained test

In this test, the drain valve is opened and is left open for the duration of the

test, with complete sample drainage prior to application of the vertical load.

The load is applied at such a slow strain rate that particle readjustments in the

specimen do not induce any excess pore pressure.

Since there is no excess pore pressure total stresses will equal effective

stresses.

Also the volume change of the sample during shear can be measured.

57

Test

With this method, the shear strength is measured

with respect to total stress

The soil specimen (supposed saturated) is not

allowed to consolidate, maintains its original

structure and water content, so that its resistance

only depends on the level of geostatic stress in the

field

Test are usually carried out on three specimens of

the same sample subjected to different confining

pressure

Provided

that the soil is fully saturated, the

effective stress at failure is the same for each test

The Mohr envelope plotted with respect to total

stress, is horizontal and the shear strength is

constant and equal to C (undrained shear strength)

58

Test

In UU test, drainage from the soil specimen is not permitted

during the application of

The test specimen is sheared to failure by the application of

deviator stress

Pore Pressure develops during shear

Because drainage is not allowed, this test can be performed

very quickly for short term stability and quick loading

The total stress parameters, cu and u are found with this

test.

This test is called quick triaxial test.

59

Test

Usually conducted on clays specimens

and depends on a very important

strength concept for cohesive soils if the

soil is fully saturated

The added axial stress at failure is

practically the same regardless of the

chamber confining pressure

So that, the failure envelope for the total

stress Mohrs circles becomes horizontal

and hence

= c = cu

f

60

Test Failure Envelope

61

Test

With this test method the shear strength

is measured in terms of effective stress

At least three specimens are allowed to

consolidate (to change its structure and

water content) at different level of

confining pressure before failure

Due to the fact that shear strength

increase, raising the effective stresses,

the Coulombs model can be applied in

terms of effective stress

During the failure stage the specimen is

not allowed to drain and pore pressure is

measured, so that the effective stress is

calculated as the difference between the

total stress and the pore

pressure

62

Test

Total Stress

= cu + n tanu

pore pressure

develops

Effective Stress

during shear

faster than

= c + n tan

CD (preferred

way to find c

Pore pressure

and

u = 1 - 1 or 3 3

63

Test Failure Envelope

64

Failure Envelope for CLAY SOILS

65

Total stress failure envelope from CU test in overconsolidated

clay

Example 1

A CU test on a normally consolidated

clay yielded the following results:

3 = 100 kPa

Deviator stress = 210 kPa

Pore pressure, (ud)f = 70 kPa

Calculate the consolidated undrained friction angle

and the consolidated drained friction angle

66

Example 1

Answer

3 = 100 kPa

1 = 3 + (d)f = 100 + 210 = 310 kPa.FROM SLIDE

NO. 47

For normally consolidated clay with c=0;

FROM SLIDE

NO. 18 & 53

1= 3 tan2(45 + /2) .FROM SLIDE NO. 28

310= 100 tan2(45 + /2)

= 31

67

Example 1

Again,

3 = 3 - (ud)f = 100-70 = 30 kPa

1 = 1 - (ud)f = 310-70 = 240 kPaFROM SLIDE NO. 63

For normally consolidated clay with c=0;

.FROM SLIDE NO. 18

& 53

1= 3 tan2(45 + /2)

240= 30 tan2(45 + /2)

= 51

68

Test

as the shear strength can be related

to the applied level of stress

to consolidate at different level of

confining pressure

slowly to prevent the increase of pore

pressure inside the specimen, that is

allowed to drain

the same

stresses at failure and the parameter

C and are 69

determined from the

Mohr envelope

Test

The sample is placed between porous discs and

inserted in the triaxial apparatus.

The cell pressure is applied and the apparatus left

until the induced pore water pressure has

dissipated, usually after 24hrs.

The deviator stress 1 - 3 is then applied at such

a slow rate that u does not develop.

It usually takes between 2 days and 2 weeks to

carry out a single drained triaxial test. (This test is

called slow triaxial test)

70

in NORMAL Consolidated CLAY

71

in OVER Consolidated CLAY

72

Example 2

For normally consolidated clay, the results of a

drained triaxial test are as follows:

Chamber confining pressure,3 = 16 lb/in2

Deviator stress at failure,1-3 = 25 lb/in2

a) Find the angle of friction

b) Determine the angle, that the failure plane

makes with the major principal plane

73

Answer

74

75

Example 3

The equation of the effective stress

failure envelope for normally

consolidated clayey soil is f=

tan

A drained triaxial test was conducted

with the same soil at a chamber

confining pressure of 80kN/m2.

Calculate the deviator stress at

failure.

76

Answer

For normally consolidated clay, c=0,

thus

1 = 3 tan2(45 + /2)

=25

1 = 80 tan2(45 + 25/2) = 197kN/m2

So, (d)f = 1-3 = 197-80

=117kN/m2

77

Example 5

The following data were obtained from an undrained

triaxial test on a series of saturated soil samples

Soil sample

150

250

350

50

100

150

150

300

400

the angle of internal friction,

i)With respect to total stresses

ii) With respect to effective stresses

78

Answer

Cell pressure

150

250

350

Pore pressure

50

100

150

Deviator stress

150

300

400

1 = 3 + d

300

550

750

3' = 3 u

100

150

200

1' = 1 - u

250

450

600

cu = 25

u = 18

ii)

c = 20

= 26

79

Diagram

At the end of the lecture, student

should be able to understand:

Stress-strain relationships and

derivation of failure envelope stress

path using p-q diagram

Diagram

Results of triaxial tests can be represented by diagram

called stress paths

Stress path is a graphical representation of the locus of

stresses on a body

It is a line that connects a series of points, each of which

represents a successive stress state experienced by a soil

specimen during the progress of a test

There are several ways in which stress path can be drawn

and plots q against p (where p and q are the

coordinates of the top of the Mohrs circle) is one of

them

Diagram

Diagram

Diagram

subjected to an isotropically consolidated-drained

triaxial test (fig 11.28)

The relationships for p and q are as follows:

At the beginning of the application of deviator stress, 1=

3= 3, so

fig 11.28)

At some other time during deviator stress application, 1=

3 + d= 3 + d ; 3= 3

The Mohrs circle marked A in fig 11.28 corresponds to this

state of stress on the soil specimen

Diagram

If these values of p and q were plotted in fig

11.28, they would be represented by point D at

the top of the Mohrs circle

If the values of p and q at various stages of the

deviator stress application are plotted and these

points are joined, a straight line like ID will result

The straight line ID is referred to as the stress

path in a q-p plot for a consolidated-drained

triaxial test

Note that the line ID makes an angle of 45o with

the horizontal

Point D represents the failure condition of the soil

specimen in the test

Diagram

Line OF is the failure envelope for the soil

A modified failure envelope can now be

defined by line OF

This modified line is commonly called the

Kf line and can be expresses as

envelopes makes with the horizontal

Diagram

The relationship between angles and can be

determined

as follows:

=tan =sin

thus

or

Thus

Diagram

Figure below shows a q-p plot for a

normally consolidated clay specimen

subjected

to

an

isotropically

consolidated-undrained

triaxial

test

Diagram

At the beginning of the application of

deviator stress, 1= 3= 3. hence p =

3 and q=0

This relationship is represented by point I

At some other stage of the deviator stress

application, 1= 3 + d ud and 3= 3

ud , so

Diagram

The preceding values of p and q will plot as

point U in fig 11.30 points such as U

represent values of p and q as the test

progresses.

The effective stress path for a consolidatedundrained test can be given by the curve IUU

Lambe (1964) proposed a technique to

evaluate

the

elastic

and

consolidation

settlements of foundations on clay soils by

using the stress paths determined in this

manner

Diagram

Summary of the procedure for plotting stress paths

1. Determine the loading conditions drained or undrained

or both

2. Calculate the initial loading values, p and q

3. Set up graph of p as the abscissa and q as the

ordinate. Plot the initial values (p, q)

4. Determine the increase in stress, d

5. Calculate the increase in stress invariants

6. Calculate the current stress invariants

7. Plot the current stress invariants (p, q)

8. Connect the points identifying effective stresses and do

the same for total stresses

9. Repeat items 4 to 8 for the next loading condition

Example 6

Example 7

Example 8

Example 9

tutorial questions.

Practice makes better.

End of Week 7 & End of Topic 2

Week 8 : Flow of Water Through Soil.

Wasslam & Thank You.

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