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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

INTRODUCTION

International

relations (IR) (occasionally


referred to as international studies (IS), is the
study of relationships between countries.
Including the roles of states, inter-governmental
organizations (IGOs), international
nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and
multinational corporations (MNCs).

It

is both an academic and public policy field,


and can be either positive or normative as it both
seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign
policy of particular states.
It is often considered a branch of political science

Initially, international

relations as a distinct field


of study was almost entirely British-centered.
IR only emerged as a formal academic discipline
in 1918 with the founding of the first chair
(professorship) in IR - the Woodrow Wilson Chair
at Aberystwyth, University of Wales (now
Aberystwyth University), from an endowment
given by David Davies, became the first academic
position dedicated to IR.

This

was rapidly followed by establishment of IR at


US universities and Geneva, Switzerland.
In the early 1920s, the London School of Economics'
department of International Relations was founded at
the behest of Nobel Peace Prize winner Philip NoelBaker, and was the first institute to offer a wide range
of degrees in the field.

What

is explicitly recognized as international


relations theory was not developed until after World
War I. IR theory, however, has a long tradition of
drawing on the work of other social sciences.
Many cite Sun Tzus The Art of War (6th century
BC), Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War
(5th century BC), Chanakya's Arthashastra (4th
century BC), as the inspiration for realist theory,
with Hobbes' Leviathan and Machiavelli's The
Prince providing further elaboration.

Similarly, liberalism

draws upon the work of Kant


and Rousseau, with the work of the former often
being cited as the first elaboration of democratic
peace theory.
Francisco de Vitoria, Hugo Grotius and John Locke
offered the first accounts of universal entitlement to
certain rights on the basis of common humanity.

No

nation is an island. Because domestic policies are


constantly affected by developments outside, nations
are compelled to (rather than sit on the
fence or out-rightly isolate themselves) enter into
dialogue with target or initiating entities or form
alliance(s) for the purpose of enhancing their
status quo, or increasing their power or prestige and
survival in the international system.

Because

international relations is in transition following


emerging realities in the international system, it has
become complex and even
more difficult arriving at a more universally acceptable
definition of the subject. But this is not peculiar to
international relations as there are
more intense disagreements over the definition of
political sciences itself. Nevertheless scholars have
persisted in their attempt to define
international relations.

Trevor

Taylor (1979) defines International


Relations as
"a discipline, which tries to explain political activities
across state boundaries".

According

to Ola, Joseph (1999),

"International relations are the study of all forms of interactions


that exist between members of separate entities or nations within
the international system".

Seymon

Brown (1988) thus defines international


relations as
"the investigating and study of patterns of action and
reactions among sovereign states as represented by
their governing elites.

Some

scholars see power as the key to International


politics. Thus, they define International relations as the
subject that deals with those relations among nations,
which involve power status.
As Stanley Hoffman writes
the discipline of international relations is concerned with the
factors and the activities which affect the external policies and
power of the basic units into which the world is divided.

Thus, international relations is concerned with all the


exchange transactions, contacts, flow of information and
the resulting behavioral responses between and among
separate organized societies. International relations
could encompass many different activities social,
economic, religious and so forth in so far as they have
implications for international political
relations.

In

the words of Karl Wolfgang Deutsch (1968),

An introduction to the study of international relations


in our time is an introduction to the art and science of
the survival of mankind. If civilization is killed in the
nearest future, it will not be killed by famine or plague,
but by foreign policy and international relations.

like the world


community
Nature ofRelations,
International
Relations

International

itself are in transition.


In a rapidly changing and increasingly complex
world, it encompasses much more than relations
among nation states and international
organization and groups.
It includes a variety of transitional
relationships at various levels, above and below the
level of the nation states.

International

relations are a multidisciplinary field


gathering together the international aspects of
politics, economics, geography, history, law,
sociology, psychology , philosophy and cultural
studies.
It is a meta-discipline.

Scope of International Relations

It is known by now that international relations encompass a


myriad of discipline.
The core concepts of international relations are International
Organization, International Law, Foreign Policy,
International Conflict, International Economic Relations and
Military Thought and Strategy. International/Regional
Security, Strategic Studies, International Political
Economy, Conflict/War and Peace Studies, Globalization,
International Regimes.

Moreover

it covers , state sovereignty, ecological


sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic
development, terrorism, organized crime, human security,
foreign interventionism and human rights.
These have been grounded in various schools of thought (or
traditions)
notably Realism and Idealism.

The Short
Twentieth Century

The Origins of World War One

Europe's long term instability can be traced back to the creation of a


unified Germany in the 1870s which disrupted the balance of power.
The European powers clashed over imperial issues in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as Germany sought colonies
and markets.
A number of European dynasties were in a state of collapse, leaving
open the question of what territorial and constitutional arrangements
would replace these empires when they finally disintigrated.
At the same time, nationalism was growing, particularly in the Balkans
and Central Europe, with nationalist movements asserting their claims
to statehood in the decaying ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires.
A combination of imperial, nationalist, and economic tension
ultimately resulted in the First World War.

Peace-Making, 1919: the Versailles


Settlements

The First World War disrupted this development, with a


profound negative impact on the international economic
system, which was initially masked by the vibrancy of the
US economy in the 1920s.
In 1929, the Wall Street stock-market crash induced a
world depression, illustrating the degree to which national
economics were affected by international economic
forces.
Depressions in many countries around the world resulted
in extremist political movements gaining strength, many
of which were of an extreme right-wing nature.

The Global Economic Slump,


1929- 1933

Since the industrial Revolution, Global capitalist economy had been


developing, with an expanding level of world trade.
The First World War disrupted this development, with a profound
negative impact on the international economic system, which was
initially masked by the vibrancy of the US economy in the 1920s.
In 1929, the Wall Street stock-market crash induced a world
depression, illustrating the degree to which national economics were
affected by international economic forces.
Depressions in many countries around the world resulted in extremist
political movements gaining strength, many of which were of an
extreme right- wing nature.

The Origins of World War Two in Asia


and the Pacific

From 1868 onwards, Japan underwent a rapid period of industrialization and


modernization, with profound social, economic, and political consequences.
To find new markets, raw materials, and land for Japans growing population,
Japan began to expand into northern China, whilst China was in a protracted
state of civil war.
Japan, although it fought against Germany during World War 1, emerged
from that war similarly dissatisfied with the post-war settlement.
Between 1931 and 1933, Japan consolidated its hold over Manchuria,
establishing a puppet state, Manchuguo: the League of Nations response to
the most blatant act of aggression it had thus far faced was minimal.
By 1937, Japan was at war with China, which caused worsening relations
with the US- ultimately leading to Japans attack on Pearl Harbor.

The path to war in Europe

The origins of the Second World War have been the subject of particular
historio-graphical controversy. Historians still dispute how far Hitler actually
planned the war; whether he foresaw the extent of the war that began in 1939;
and how ambitious Nazi territorial expansionism actually was (European
hegemony or world domination?).
Fascism and Nazism, as practiced in Italy and Germany, led to a complete
reordering of those societies, eliminating any notion of a private sphere. In
foreign policy terms, ambitious territorial plants were mapped which went far
beyond the revision of aspects of the Treaty of Versailles.
Confronted with numerous international crises in China, Abyssinia, and
Europe policy makers in Britain and France adopted a policy of appeasing
Hitler.
Once Germany occupied Prague in March 1939, appeasement was
abandoned, and Britain and France declared war on Germany once it invaded
Poland in September 1939.

AFTER MATH
A denazification

program in Germany led to the


prosecution of Nazi war criminals and removal of
Nazis from power.
Germany lost quarter of its pre war territory.
In effort to maintain peace the Allies formed the
UN.
The Alliance between the western Allies and
USSR began to worsen.

1945 to 1990
End of Empire

Different Europeans powers had different attitudes to decolonization after


1945: some, such as the British, decided to leave while others wished to
preserve their Empires, in part (the French) or whole (the Portuguese).
European powers adopted different attitudes to different regions / countries,
e.g. British withdrawal from Asia came much more quickly after 1945 than
from Africa.
The process of decolonization was relatively peaceful in many cases; it led to
revolutionary wars in others (Algeria, Malaya and Angola), depending on the
attitudes of the colonial power and the nationalist movements.
The struggle for independence / national liberation became embroiled in cold
war conflicts when the superpowers and / or their allies became involved, e.g.
Vietnam.
Whether decolonization was judged successful depends, in part, on whose
perspective you adopt that of the European power or the independence
movements.

AFTER THE WORLD WAR TWO


The

two super powers were now predominant


America wanted a world based on free markets and
liberalization.
The soviets wanted, if not the spread of communism
world wide, as America feared, then at least a security
zone of satellite states in eastern Europe.
The war dramatically undercut the power and prestige
of the European imperial powers in their colonies.

End of Empire
The

collapse of imperialism in the twentieth


century was a fundemental change in world
politics.
Imperialism was a symsol of power, afetr 1945
it was veiwed with hostility.
Various political, economic and military factors
influenced decolonization.
Different european powers had different
attitude to decolonisation.

The

British decided to leave while French (in


part) and the Portuguese (whole) wished to
preserve their empires.
The process of decolonization was was relatively
peaceful. It lead to revolutionary wars in Algeria,
Malaya and Angola. Depending on the attitudes of
the colonial power and the nationalist movements.

The Cold War

1945-1953: Onset of the cold war


There

is a disagreement about when the cold war


started, why and who was responsible.
The cold war began in Europe with the failure to
implement the agreements reached at Potsdam and
Yalta.
Distict phases can be seen in East-West relations
during which tension and the risk of direct
confrontation grew and receded.
Some civil and regional wars were intensified and
prolonged by super power involvemnet.

Others

may have been prevented or shortened.


The end of cold war has not resulted in the
abolition of nuclear weapons.
1969-1979: the period known as dtente
represented an attempt by both superpowers to
mange their relations with each other within a
framework of negotiations and agreements.

Key Points

There remains a debate about the use of the bomb in 1945, and the
effect that this had on the cold war.
Nuclear weapons have been an important factor in the cold war. How
far the arms race has had a momentum of its own is a matter of
debate.
Agreements on limiting and controlling the growth of nuclear arsenals
have played an important role in soviet- American (and East West
relations.
States with nuclear weapons have agreed on the desirability of
preventing the spread of nuclear weapons to other states.
Various international crises have occurred in which there has been the
risk of nuclear war. Judging how close we came to nuclear war at
these times remains a matter of debate.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
THEORY

Theories

are explanation for how and why certain


events and developments occur.
All theories have certain presumptions and logic
or should have.
Attempts to explain reality.
Helps to understand cause and effect.
Some attempt to predict and control.

THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS.
REALISM:

States. Neorealism: State System.


LIBERALISM: States/ non-state actors.(global
interaction)
RATIONALISM :occupy middle ground between
realism and liberalism.
MARXISM: Economic classes.

THEORIES.
CONSTRUCTIVISM:

System of shared Ideas,


Norms, Values have a powerful influence on
social and political action.
FEMINISM: Gender
GREEN THEORY: International Environmental
cooperation.

REALISM
Dominant

theory throughout history of academic

IR.
Even longer history outside academia.
Classical Political Theorists: Thucydides,
Machiavelli, Hobbes.
Neo realists: Kenneth Waltz.
Grounded in skepticism about the capacity of
human reason to deliver moral progress.

Hans

Morgenthau: Politics among nations :The


struggle for power and peace(1948)
Edward. H. Carr: The Twenty Years Crisis (19191939).
Kenneth Waltz: Man, State and War. (1959), Theory
of International Politics.(1979)

PRINCIPALS OF REALISM
A State

centric approach.
Sovereignty, the existence of an independent with
political community with juridical authority over
its territory.
Survival = Security Maximization.

The

international system exists in a state of


constant antagonism.
There is no actor above states capable of regulating
their interactions; states must arrive at relations
with other states on their own, rather than it being
dictated to them by some higher controlling entity
(see international anarchy).
In pursuit of national security, states strive to attain
as many resources as possible

States

are unitary actors each moving towards


their own national interest. There is a general
distrust of long-term cooperation or alliance.
The overriding national interest of each state is its
survival.
Relations between states are determined by their
levels of power derived primarily from their
military and economic capabilities.

The

interjection of morality and values into


international relations causes reckless
commitments, diplomatic rigidity, and the
escalation of conflict.
Sovereign states are the principal actors in the
international system and special attention is
afforded to large powers as they have the most
influence on the international stage.

International institutions, non-governmental


organizations, multinational corporations,
individuals and other sub-state or trans-state
actors are viewed as having little independent
influence.

Thucydides- 460-406 bc
Realists

concept traced back to thucydides.


Anarchy: world without overarching authority- the
strong do what they can, the weak suffer what they
must.
Alliances are shifting and based on
contemporary security interests.
Primacy of material force Athen defeats melos
because its stronger.

Deterrence-

sufficient power required to deter.


Balance of Power- Athens and Sparta balance
against Persian power but then compete against
each other; Melos attempt to ally with Sparta to
counter Athenian power.
Amorality: justice, kinship, honor are dangerous
concepts lead to greater destruction.

Security

Dilemma- states enhance their


capabilities in order to increase security.

The Security Dilemma


Because

attack is always possible, states build


defensive capabilities.
Most defensive capabilities also enhance offensive
capabilities.
Rivals can mistake defense for offensive threats.
Rivals respond by building up their own defenses.
States then feel threatened by rivals.
Can escalate to war.

Nicolo Machiavelli
Major

Work: The Prince, 1513


Written as diplomat advising ruler:

Seize all the territory you can


Maintain friendly relations with minor powers but
keep greater powers down
Self-help is preferable to alliances
Traditional morality can be abandoned for the state

Hans Morgenthau
Major

Work: Politics Among Nations, 1949


Objective laws in political science
All actors seek to maximize their own power
Effective, unemotional policy requires evaluating
policy by its effect on power, not other moral
standards

Neo-realism
Major

Work: Kenneth Waltz, Theory of


International Politics, 1979
Anarchy means that any state could be attacked at
any time.
Therefore, security (the survival of the state) is
always at risk.
Therefore, states must be concerned with power.

Self-help is best
Alliances to form a balance of power are second-best

Common

pressures produce like units.

Specialization is dangerous.
States learn to copy successful states (imitation) or are
eliminated from the system (evolution).

Therefore,

domestic politics are irrelevant.

Key Concepts of Liberalism


Collective

security
Democratic peace and democracy promotion
Integration and interdependence
Rule of law, human rights
Normative element in theory
Pluralism of actors
World government

Liberalism
Kant
Idealism
Neo-liberal

Institutionalism
The democratic peace

Immanuel Kant
Major

Work: Perpetual Peace, 1795


Reason is key
Peace requires:

All states to be representative democracies


International law (not world government)
Free movement of people and free trade

Idealism
Response

to World War I, a failure of balance of


power politics
Decreasing incentives for war

increasing costs of war


New

technologies (mustard gas & machine guns)


Increasing economic interdependence

mobilizing public opinion

Resolution

through international institutions

League of Nations

Neo-liberal Institutionalism
States create international organizations to further
their own interests.
Despite lack of coercive capabilities, international
institutions can

Reduce transaction costs.


Create multi-dimensional issue spaces to facilitate
bargains.
Monitor compliance.
Encourage repeated interactions.
Create norms (standards of behavior).

The Democratic Peace


Liberal

democracies have never fought a war


among themselves.
Democracies do fight as many wars as autocracies
overall, but democracies only fight autocracies,
not each other.

Autocracies sometimes fight other autocracies, even


among similar autocratic systems.

Closest

thing to a law in the study of IR.

Why the Democratic Peace?


Information

Democracies public debates reveal their true


intentions, thus avoiding the security dilemma.

Institutions

Elected leaders will lose office if they lose wars, so


they are more careful about initiation.

Peace, Trade, and IOs

Some evidence (not quite as strong as democratic


peace) suggests that

pairs of states that trade with each other more are less likely to
go to war with each other, because the trade they would lose
out on makes war too costly.
states that have more common IO memberships are less likely
to go to war with each other, because they have non-violent
means to resolve their conflicts.

Realists argue that this is backwards.

States dont become dependent on trade with states they might


fight with.
States only join IOs with states that they already trust.

Critiques of Neo-liberalism
Democratic

peace is coincidence, not causation.

Common Cold War interests, not democratic


institutions, explain peace.

Overly

optimistic (All good things go together.)


States care about relative gains, not absolute
gains.
Imposes a value system while pretending
neutrality.

STATES AND SOVEREIGNITY

NATION- STATE
Nation-State The primary unit of political organization.
Dates from 1648 and the Treaty of Westphalia.
The major European countries agreed to respect the
principle of territorial integrity.
Napoleon also contributed to emergence of the modern
nation-state, by appealing to nationalism pride in being
French to get men to volunteer for his army.

Historic systems:
Historic

systems City-states (such as Athens,


Sparta & Rome)
Empires:
Disintegrating by end of 19th century
Many disappeared after WWI (e.g., the AustroHungarian & the Ottoman).

TREATY OF WESTPHALIA
Key principles of the Peace of Westphalia is important
in modern IR theory, and is often defined as the
beginning of the international system with which the
discipline deals.
World politics was organized on the basis of this
system.
Westphalian system was a states system, a frame work
for governance.

It

provided a general way to formulate,


implement, monitor and enforce social rules.
At the core of its mode of governance stood the
principles of statehood and sovereignty.

Nation-state defined:
State: A sovereign government within an
established territory.
Nation: A community of people who identify
with one another because they share important
attributes: language, history, religion, race,
culture, common political values.

Sovereignty
The

supreme governing power of a state. A powerful force


in international relations. Even the smallest nations claim
to have sovereignty.
It has two components:
1. Power over internal affairs with freedom from external
interference.
2. Political and legal recognition by other nations.

A Sovereign state
The

Westphalian State was sovereign.


It exercised Comprehensive control; jurisdiction
over all affairs.
Supreme control; recognizing no superior
authority.
Unqualified control; territory treated as
sacrosanct.
Exclusive control; no joint sovereignity.

The End of sovereignty:


Globalization

has presented a fundamental


challenge to the Westphalian states-system and its
central principle of state sovereignty.
The post-sovereign State may well behave
differently from its Westphalian predecessor.
Owing to Globalization, the Westphalian system
is already past history.

The

State apparatus survives, in some respect it is


larger, stronger and more intrusive in social life
than before.
However, the core Westphalian norm of
sovereignty is no longer operative.
State regulatory capacities, both juridically and
practically, have ceased to meet the criteria of
sovereignty as it was traditionally conceived.

HOW?
Economically:
1.
2.
3.

Power of TNCs
Liberalization of world capital markets
The lifting of trade barriers.


1.
2.

Politically:
International bodies and law. (United
Nations , European union)
Global protest movements

Culturally:
Cultural

influences from all over the world.


Trans-national media- Public Opinion.

Technological Advancement:
Fields

of information technology,
Transportation, have vastly increased and accelerated
the movement of people
Telecommunications,,
Information, commodities and capital.
Satellite remote sensing.

Persistence of State
Despite

the many concerns about the loss of


sovereignty, the State remains the key actor in the
domestic as well as international arenas.
The post sovereign State advances both national
and global cause.
The expansion of global interest seem to be
reducing incentives to embark on territorial
conquest.

PERSISTENCE OF STATE.
TNCs

dont have total control over national


economies.
States still have primary control over taxes and
welfare spending
International bodies like UN made up of and are
dependent on, Nation States.
States developing increasing control of borders
and migration.

Nation

states will continue to exert a strong


influence and have a continuing role in a
globalised world.

State can only Guarantee:


Respect

of human rights and justice through


independent courts.
Promote together with other actors;
1. The national welfare; protect the general interest.
2. Its role is also fundamental in operating the
intricate web of multi-lateral arrangements and
inter-governmental regimes

Post-Sovereign Governance
If

world politics is no longer based on the core


principle of sovereign statehood, how is
governance being conducted in the contemporary
globalizing world?

Substate global governance


Suprastate global governance
Marketized Global Governance
Global Social Movements

Substate Global Governance


Shift

in governance downwards to provincial and


municipal govts.
Direct transborder links between sub state authorities.
Who take a substantial number of policy initiatives
that bypass the central govts.
They have their own diplomatic missions abroad
that operate relatively independently from their
relative embassies. E.g various provinces of Canada,
China, US Federal States.

At

municipal level, considerable transborder cooperation between local authorities on matters


such as:
Pollution control
Crime prevention
Disarmament
Development cooperation.

Supra state Global governance


The

European Union.
The United Nations
The WTO
The IMF

Marketized global governance


Market

institutions have played an important role


of global governance often stepping in where
public-sector agencies have left gaps.
The construction and implementation of rules by
private-sector bodies has gone especially far in
respect of global financial markets.
Standard procedures and codes of conduct with
regard to global securities emerge from industry
bodies like International Federation of Stock
Exchange.

World

Economic Forum, which was responsible for


the creation of the WTO.
WEF unites some 900 major companies under the
motto of entrepreneurship in the global public
interest
Commercial Banks like IMF in managing the
recurrent financial crisis of debt-ridden countries in
the South since 1982.

Scores
1.
2.

of corporate endowments have also


become active in global policy making. E.g:
Ford foundation: influential in the field of
development..
Soros foundation: Major promoter of Liberal
Democracy.

Global Civil Society


These

civic groups address trans world problems .


They hold a global orientation while operating at
grass root levels.
They can exert considerable influence in
cotemporary governance.
The contribute to policy innovation in areas such
as:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ecological sustainability.
Human rights protection.
Disaster relief.
Welfare provision.
Community improvement.

Many

civic associations played important roles


both in advising the official institutions and help
in implementing policies.
Whereby civil society groups channel their efforts
to reshape national and local govt policies
through supra state regulatory agencies.

POWER

POWER
The

concept of power in international relations


can be described as the degree of resources,
capabilities, and influence in international affairs
It is often divided up into the concepts of hard
power and soft power
Hard power relating primarily to coercive power,
such as the use of force.

Soft power commonly covering economics,


diplomacy and cultural influence. However, there
is no clear dividing line between the two forms of
power.

In

the modern geopolitical landscape, a number of


terms are used to describe various types of powers,
which include the following:
Superpower: In 1944, Fox defined superpower as
"great power plus great mobility of power" and
identified 3 states, the British Empire, the Soviet
Union and the United States.The United States is
currently considered a superpower with China, India
and the European Union being potential superpowers.
.

Great

power: In historical mentions, the term


great power refers to any nations that have strong
political, cultural and economic influence over
nations around it and across the world. China,
France, Germany, Japan, Russia, the United
Kingdom and the United States are often
considered to be current great powers

Regional

power: Used to describe a nation that


exercises influence and power within a region.
Being a regional power is not mutually exclusive
with any of the other categories of power. Many
countries are often described as regional powers,
among those are India, South Africa, Israel, South
Korea, Brazil, Indonesia and Turkey.

Middle

power: A subjective description of secondtier influential states that could not be described as
great powers
Energy superpower describes a country that has
immense influence or even direct control over
much of the world's energy supplies. Saudi Arabia
and Russia, possibly Canada and Australia are
generally acknowledged as the world's current
energy superpowers.

The

term cultural/entertainment superpower


describes a country in which has immense
influence or even direct control over much of the
world's entertainment or has an immense large
cultural influence on much of the world.

Hard versus soft power


Hard

power refers to coercive tactics: the threat or


use of armed forces, economic pressure or
sanctions, assassination, or other forms of
intimidation.
Hard power is generally associated to the stronger
of nations, as the ability to change the domestic
affairs of other nations through military threats.
Realists and neo realists are advocates of the use of
such power for the balancing of the international
system

SOFT POWER
Instruments

of soft power include debates on


cultural values, dialogues on ideology, the attempt
to influence through good example, and the
appeal to commonly accepted human values.
Means of exercising soft power include
diplomacy, dissemination of information,
analysis, propaganda, and cultural programming
to achieve political ends.

ROBERT DAHL
He

defined Power as the ability to shift the


probability of outcomes
He views power as a relationship between political
actors, such as:
1. Individuals
2. Groups
3. Political parties
4. Governments
5. International organization

According

to Dahl, A has the power to the extent


that he can get B to do something that B would not
do otherwise.
One way to is to calculate, using the proceedings of
political bodies such as UN or the U.S senate, the
number of times that a political actor votes with the
majority.
If you are associated with majorities, you are
influential in bringing these majorities about.

Karl Deutsch
He

views Power as a form of currency that allows


its Holders to satisfy important values and attain
objectives.
The economic power of an individual , company
or nation-state depends not merely on the cash
available but also on the amount available.
In politics, a nations power is just not military
and economic.

But

also in terms of its capacity to supplement its


power base by means of techniques such as
alliances, treaties, leases of territory to foreign
nations.
Deutsch suggests three specific dimensions of
power.
1. Domain
2. Range
3. Scope

DOMAIN OF POWER
Internal

domain
External domain
Internal domain coincides with the territory and
population within the boundaries of a country
Internal domain is easy to determine except in the
in case of nation states that are experiencing
uprisings, guerrilla warfare or territorial disputes..

We can

measure internal domain according to the


area and population over which the central
government exercises its power.
Deutsch also suggests a third usable measure of
internal domain the Gross National Product.

External Domain
External

domain is a much more elusive concept.


It includes those territories and populations
outside a nation-state that belong to its sphere of
influence.
It is difficult to device accurate and meaningful
quantitative measures with which we can rank
nation-states in terms of their ability to exercise
power outside of their territorial limits.

We can

measure penetration in terms of


indicators:
1. Military presence
2. Foreign Aid given
3. Cultural diffusion.
We could rank nation states in terms of their
demonstrated ability to penetrate other states.

RANGE( intensity) OF POWER


Deutsch

defines range as:


The difference between the highest reward
(indulgence) and the worst punishment
(deprivation) which a power-holder can bestow
upon some person in his domain.

INTERNAL INTENSITY OF POWER


Within

states, the government can exercise power


over the subjects by both benign and malignant
means.
Tyrants usually prefer to rely on threats and
punishments as means of securing public order.
Constrained by size of security forces.
Popularly elected governments rely on positive
incentives and rewards. Constrained by budgets.

EXTERNAL INTENSITY OF POWER


Colonialism

could be considered the external


analogue of tyranny.
Security-defence expenditures of govts would be
an indicator of the punishment oriented intensity
of national power.
A mutually beneficial alliance for the economic
integration of a state is analogous to a benign
government.

The

governments expenses for social welfare anf


foreign aid would be a reliable and valid
indicators of reward oriented range/intensity of
power.

SCOPE OF POWER
It

is defined as the set or collection of all the


particular kinds of classes of behavior, relations
and affairs that are effectively subjected to
governmental power.
This includes all the types of activities a govt
seeks to regulate, internal as well as external.

INTERNAL SCOPE OF POWER


With

technological and urban growth , the


internal scope of power has increased steadily.
During laissez-faire, the governments were
restricted to a few a main functions, they
collected taxes, kept internal order and fought
wars.
But over time , the role has expanded and their
functions have increased.

Role of Government
In

regulatory areas such as internal and external


trade.
Communications
Transportation
Education
Medical services
Labour and industrial management
Scientific research

Scope

of power is narrower in democratic and


competetive systems of govt.
Democratic govts allow for more private initiative
and enterprise in economic, social and cultural
spheres than totalitarian systems.

EXTERNAL SCOPE OF POWER


It

has increased over time. Today one country can


maintain control over another without firing a shot.
Countries are dependent on one another for things
like:
Vital Technologies.
Energy materials: oil, uranium, natural gas,
investment capital, managerial personnel, unskilled
labor.
Military equipment.

POWER PROFILE OF
NATION STATES.

THE POWER PROFILES OF


NATION STATE.
The

specific power of nation-state A over nationstate B is the function of the human and material
capabilities of A. as well as As ability and
willingness to employ those capabilities in order
to control the behavior of B.

TANGIBLE ELEMENTS OF POWER


POPULATION.
It

can be considered a tangible element in the sense


that it can readily counted.
To a certain extent its true but we should not assume
a direct relationship between population and power.
Although China is more populous than both the
United States and Soviet union but is still
considered less powerful than these states.

A population

that is healthy, well fed, unified,


evenly spaced, well informed and loyal to its
authorities is likely to be more powerful than
A population that is badly nourished, diseased,
overcrowded, illiterate, disunited and disloyal.

TERRITORY
We can

assume that larger-sized nations-states are


more powerful than small-sized ones.
However, the mere measurement of an area in
square km is not necessarily adequate measure of
power. (Israel v/s Canada, Australia, Sudan)

Territorys Dimension of
Intangibility
Territorial
1.
2.
3.

characteristics such as
Natural boundaries.
Climate strategic or peripheral location.(Britain,
Japan)
Number of neighbors.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND


INDUSTRIAL CAPACITY.
It

is clear that the possession of resources such as


coal, iron, uranium, oil, rubber etc.
However, in evaluating the importance of natural
resources', we must view them in relation to the
ability of nation-states to process them
industrially and distribute the products
economically.

If

a state with adequate natural resources does not


have the technology, industry and market to
process and dispose of those resources adequately.
It is reduced to a status of a weak raw-material
exporting country.
Conversely, a country with developed technology
but without natural resources is greatly dependent
on the import of raw materials from foreign
markets.(Japan and Itlay)

AGRICULTURAL CAPACITY
States that can feed themselves especially over a
course of war will be relatively more powerful
than states that are not self-sufficient.

MILITARY STRENGTH AND


MOBILITY
Power

is backed by military force.


Military strength can be measured in terms of
funds expended for defense and security
purposes.
Mobility stands for the ability of nation-state to
deploy its armed might in locations outside its
territory.

The

traditional indicator of mobility is a nationstates ability to transport and effectively support


military operations on land, sea and air.

INTANGIBLE ELEMENTS OF
POWER
Leadership

and Personality
Bureaucratic- Organizational Efficiency.
Type of Government.
Societal Cohesiveness.
Reputation.
Foreign Support and Dependency.
Accidents.

NATIONAL INTEREST
The

concept of national interest remains of central


importance in an attempt to describe, explain,
predict or prescribe international behavior.
The national interest, often referred to by the
French expression raison detat (English: reason
of the State).
Pursuit of the national interest is the foundation of
the realist school

National Interest. Art or Science


There

is a major division between who feel that


NI can be arrived at objectively and scientifically
and those who define NI as subjective and
consider it as an art.
The father of the first school of thought, viewed
as elitist, is Plato.
The father of the second school of thought,
viewed as democratic, is Aristotle.

PLATOS SCHOOL OF THOUGHT


Wise

and well-informed decisions can be made by a


few carefully selected individuals who have been
expressly trained to think in terms of collective
good.
These few individuals, who possess awesome and
unchecked power will not be corrupted by power.
Once socially optimal decisions have been made,
they can be implemented effectively by loyal, well
trained and obedient bureaucracies.

Platos ideas

have been used as the inspiration for


dictatorial forms of govts.
Authoritarian or single-party dictatorships assume
that they emphasize the substance and wisdom of
policies rather than procedural niceties such as
public debate, consultation, participation and
criticism.

The

defenders of authoritarianism believe that one


person with strength, wisdom, knowledge and
above all, power can make good decisions.
Whereas extremely complex and rule-bound
communitarian systems produce a lot of rhetoric
but very little substantial action.

ARISTOTLE SCHOOL OF
THOUGHT.
The

collective interest cannot be arrived at


abstractly and scientifically. It involves individual
and group preferences, which are normally
subjective and pluralistic. Therefore, there are no
universally acceptable standards for selecting
useful, effective, wise or prudent policies.
The collective interest can be equated with the free
will of the majority,fairlyand freely arrived at on an
issue-by-issue basis.

Public

interest decisions, once made and


implemented, are not sacred. They are subject to
review, revision or reversal on the basis of public
dialogue
Historically, the Aristotelian approach seems to
have fared better than platonic one, for it has been
difficult to find decisions that have been made
with scientific precision and rationality.

IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY


National

interest might best be seen as a synthesis of


the objective and the subjective approaches.
Nation states regardless of their type of polity, the
iron law of oligarchy is operative.
Governmental decisions are made only by a few men
and women.
These decisions are designed to act in the national
interest as this concept is perceived by the decision
makers or they are justified by being related to it.

NATIONAL INTEREST DEPENDS


ON THESE VARIABLES:
Qualities,

personality and ideals of decision

makers.
The types and philosophies of governmental
structures and processes
The customs and cultural styles of different
societies.
The geopolitical location.

Capabilities

of various countries.
Types of challenges and pressures that each
country faces from neighboring countries, great
powers and international organizations.

MORGENTHAU ON NATIONAL
INTEREST.
A well

known proponent of the realist view of


international relations.
He believed that diplomatic strategy should be
motivated by national interest than by utopian and
dangerous moralistic, legalistic and ideological
criteria.
He equates national interest with the pursuit of
state power.

This

power-control relationship can be achieved


by both coercive as well as cooperative technique.
He uses the concepts of power and national
interest as the ends and means of international
relations.
His critics, mostly from scientific school of
thought have demanded more precise operational
definitions of power and national interest.

However,

he firmly supports his position that


great abstractions like power and national interest
should not be quantified.
He believes that that political action is not
precise, finite and clearly observable, therefore,
political concepts reflect the hazy reality of
politics, so they must be vague and imprecise.

The

meaning inherent in the concept of national


interest is Survival.
In his view the minimum requirement of nation
states is to protect their physical, political, and
cultural identity against encroachments by other
nation states.
From these general objectives, Morgenthau argues,
statesmen, can derive specific cooperative and
conflictive policies.

Such as:
Competitive armaments
Balance of power
Foreign aid alliances
Subversion
Economic and propaganda warfare.

NATIONAL INTEREST: AN
ELUSIVE CONCEPT?
QUESTION: How do we differentiate national interest
from group, class, elite-establishment or foreign
inspired interest?
ANSWER: National interest is a compromise of
conflicting political interests; its not an ideal, arrived at
scientifically and abstractly but a product of constant
internal political competition. The govt, through
various agencies, is ultimately responsible for defining
and implementing national interest-oriented policies.

QUESTION: What should be the scope and range of


a countrys national interests?
ANSWER: Morgenthau responds that a countrys
national interest should be proportionate to its
capabilities.

QUESTION: How should a countrys national


interests be related to the other countries?
ANSWER: A good diplomat is a rational and prudent
one. He is conscious of his nations national
interest as well as of other nations, it has to be
compatible.
Morgenthau assumes varying levels of conflict,
which can be minimized by prudent adjustment of
conflicting interests by diplomatic action.

QUESTION: How should national interest be related


to the requirements of collective security or
selective security?
ANSWER: Morgenthau is skeptical towards
statesmen who justify their policies on the basis of
collective security rather than plain national
interest. He would be opposed to US intervention
in the name of democracy or collective security or
USSR in the name of world communism.

In

regard to the relationship between national


interests and regional or alliance interests,
Morgenthau argues once more the precedence of
national interests over regional interests. Useful
alliances are best supported by foundations of
reciprocal advantage and mutual security of
participating nation-states rather than by
ideological or moralistic frameworks.

REALIST SCHOOL OF THOUGHT:


Decisions

concerning national interest should


always be made on the basis of concrete and
demonstrable national advantage within the limits
of prudence rather than on the basis of abstract
and impersonal criteria of morality, law and
ideology.

Fragmentation of National Interest:


Despite

its utility, Morgenthaus discussion of


national interest has some flaws.
By separating moralistic and legalistic behavior
from realistic and prudent behavior.
He creates an impression that they are mutually
exclusive.
But policies that appear to be moralistic and
legally restrained may prove in the long run to be
the most prudent foreign policies.

States

with consistently selfish and opportunistic


outlooks tend to gradually develop bad reputations
which return to haunt them in subsequent situations.
Statesmen justify important foreign policy on
moralistic, legalistic or realistic grounds.
Foreign policy is often generated through great
internal political and bureaucratic debates

An

abundance of conflicting criteria compete for


priority in the minds of decision makers as they
shape foreign policies.
Official statements made for the purpose of
propaganda and public consumption cloud the
picture and prevent the analyst from identifying
the real motives of the state action.

Criteria for
the Definition
of National
Interest.

OPERATIONAL- PHILOSPHY
CRITERIA:
Depending

on time, location, your orientation


towards the world around you, and in particular
the actions of your predecessors, you may choose
one of the two major styles of operation:
FIRST:
Act in a bold and sweeping fashion.
Introduce major new practices, policies and
institutions and discontinue others.

The

synoptic orientation assumes that he can have


enough information about an important issue to
develop a major policy with some confidence that
its consequences can be predicted or controlled.
Decisions from a synoptic viewpoint would be:
1. Declaring war
2. Capitulating to a foreign ultimatum
3. Instituting a social security system
4. Abolishing taxation

Entering or leaving a regional defense


organization, such as, NATO.
6) Nationalizing private property and resources.
7) Redistributing land holdings.
SECOND:
Act in a cautious, probing and experimental
fashion, following the trial and error approach.
5)

The

decision makers with the incremental


orientation assumes the political and economic
problems are too complex for any statesman to
study them thoroughly and to proceed with bold
initiatives without worrying about their
consequences.
He prefers to make marginal decisions, watching for
effect that decision has upon the environment and
constantly taking corrective action in order to
maintain equilibrium.

Thus,

the incrementalist usually seeks to perfect


existing legislation, policies, institutions and
practices.
Increasing and decreasing social security,
programs of economic and military aid to foreign
countries. Escalating or deescalating an ongoing
conflict.

IDEOLOGICAL CRITERIA
Most

governments employ various types of


formal and informal ideologies. The day-to-day
decisions of policy makers must be somewhat
consistent with these doctrines.
If a countrys ideology is Marxist-Leninist, your
foreign policy should appear friendly to
communist govts and leftist movements in
capitalist countries.

If

your ideology is liberal democratic, you should


encourage free enterprise, support democratic
govts and movements and oppose totalitarian
ones.

MORAL AND LEGAL CRITERIA


Acting

morally is equated with acting honestly


and making your public decisions accordingly.
Thus, moral behavior in IR especially involves
keeping your promises(treaties), being true to
your friends, living and letting others live and
generally standing up for the principles which are
widely accepted in your culture.

Acting

legally means abiding by the rules of


international law to the extent that such rules are
identified and accepted.
Although it appears easy in the abstract to urge
decision makers to do good and avoid evil but its
quite difficult to decide what the moral and legal
action in a specific situation is.

PRAGMATIC CRITERIA:
As

a pragmatist, your orientation is low-key, matterof-fact, unemotional and professional.


You look at life in a dispassionate fashion, and are
not concerned with questions of good and evil,
ideological compatibility, or other general principles
of action.
Your approach is to solve each problem.
Utility rather than sentimentality is criterion of
action.

You

obey laws and moral precepts if doing so


helps you to improve your image.
Sometimes, you have to lie and even cheat in
order to protect your countrys interest and to
solve problems confronting the government.

PROFESSIONAL-ADVANCEMENT
CRITERIA
Your

actions must be manipulated and adjusted in


consideration to your professional survival and
growth.
The trick to success is to play the game not to
rock the boat. go along to get along effect.
Statesmen have to conform either to popular
pressures or to powerful elites whose support is
essential for their political survival.

PARTISAN CRITERIA
Here

you tend to equate the survival and the


success of your political party with that of your
country.
Will you support policies that are beneficial for
your country at the cost of your party losing
position of power.

BUREAUCRATIC- INTEREST
CRITERIA
Here

you tend to equate the interest of your


organization with the national interest.
Given limited budgets , the normal outcome of
this bureaucratic infighting is that each agency
tends to exaggerate its specific spending in the
name of national interest rather than bureaucratic
interest.

ETHNIC/ RACIAL CRITERIA


If

you belong to the an ethnic or racial minority,


you may tend to exaggerate the importance of
projects that might benefit the group.
if you belong to a majority ethnic group, you may
tend to overestimate the needs of that group and
be insensitive to the needs of the minority.

CLASS- STATUS CRITERIA


If

you belong to the upper-middle class, you may


tend to support policies that benefit the class with
which you identify yourself.
If you belong to the lower classes, you are torn
between the loyalty to the class you belong to and
your opportunity to become an important uppermiddle class bureaucrat.

FOREIGN-DEPENDENCY
CRITERIA
These

criteria apply to countries whose govts find


themselves highly dependent on one or more
foreign protectors in order to remain in office.
Decision makers , find that the needs, guidelines
and dictates of the foreign protectors interfere
with your assessments of what is in your
countrys national interest.

CONCLUSION
Looking

at the long array of conflicting


guidelines, it should be clear that the national
interest is not purely scientific or mathematical
formulation that result in optimal advantages for a
country.
National interest decisions appear to be products
of conflicting wills, ambitions, motivations, needs
and demands.

THE UNITED NATIONS

Introduction of UN
The UN was formed on October 24, 1945 when
representatives of 51 countries signed the UN chapter.
Main objectives: Maintain peace and security in the
world and help in solving international problems.
The Un is an organization of 193 countries of the world.
The official languages of the UN are Arabic, Chinese,
English. French, Russian and Spanish.

The

UN's most prominent position is SecretaryGeneral which has been held by Ban Ki-moon of
South Korea since 2007.
The United Nations Headquarters resides in
international territory in New York City, with
further main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and
Vienna.
The organization is financed from assessed and
voluntary contributions from its member states.

Principal organs of the UN :


General Assembly :
General Assembly It is like a world parliament. It consists
of representatives of all member nations.
It can discuss any matter such as peace and security,
admission of new members and money matters.
The General Assembly meets once a year for a period of
three months.

The

General Assembly is the main deliberative


assembly of the United Nations.
Composed of all United Nations member states, the
assembly meets in regular yearly sessions under a
president elected from among the member states.
Over a two-week period at the start of each session,
all members have the opportunity to address the
assembly.

When

the General Assembly votes on important


questions, a two-thirds majority of those present
and voting is required.
Examples of important questions include:
recommendations on peace and security; election of
members to organs; admission, suspension, and
expulsion of members; and, budgetary matters.
All other questions are decided by majority vote.
Each member country has one vote.

Security Council :
Security Council It is responsible for the peace and
security.
The council has 15 members: out of which five are
permanent and ten are non - permanent. The
permanent members as China, France, Russia, United
Kingdom and United States have the VETO power.

10

non-permanent members, currently Azerbaijan,


India, South Africa, Colombia, Morocco, Togo,
Germany, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Portugal.
The ten temporary seats are held for two-year
terms with member states voted in by the General
Assembly on a regional basis. The presidency of
the Security Council is rotated alphabetically each
month.

Economic and Social Council


Economic and Social Council It has 54 members elected
by the General Assembly.
It deals with the economic issues like trade, transport,
industrialization and social issues etc. It promotes
respect for human rights and freedom for all.
This council meet only if the need arises and after
fulfilling of needs it suspends.

International Court of Justice :


It is the main judicial organ of the UN.
The court consists of 15 judges elected by
General Assembly and Security Council for the
period of nine years.
The seat of the court is at Hague, in Netherlands

Secretariat :
It

carries out the day to day work of the organization.


The Secretary General is the head of the Secretariat. He
is appointed by the General Assembly for a term of five
years.
There are no specific criteria for the post, but over the
years, it has become accepted that the post shall be held
for one or two terms of five years, that the post shall be
appointed on the basis of geographical rotation,

the

Secretary-General shall not originate from one


of the five permanent Security Council member
states.

Specialized agencies of the UN :


FAO
UNESCO
WHO
UNICEF
ILO
IMF

Food and Agriculture Organisation


FAO

was formed on October 16, 1945.


Its headquarter is at Rome.
It was set up to fight against poverty, malnutrition
and hunger from the world. It helps nations to
improve methods of farming, overcome waste land
and soil erosion etc.

UNESCO : United Nations


Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization :
It

was established in 1946.


Its headquarter is at Paris. It aims to achieve
education for all the people of the world, preserve
cultural heritage, provide scientific training to
backward countries etc.

UNICEF : United Nations


Childrens Fund :
UNICEF

: United Nations Childrens Fund It was


established in 1946.
It is headquartered at New York, USA.
It works in the field of health , nutrition and
education.

Achievements of United Nations


Preserving

and promoting Peace and harmony in

the world.
Settle disputes, like Kashmir, Indonesia, Iran and
Iraq etc.
Successful in reducing poverty, illiteracy,
diseases.

The

Role of the United Nations Ensure all Member States of


the United Nations, the right to equal participation in
international affairs.
Reduces death, disease and disability among people affected
by crisis, emergencies and disasters; supports recovery and
development.
The rights and interests of the developing countries should be
safeguarded.

Protects

the reproductive health of communities


in crisis and provides census and data collection
capabilities.
On the ground in almost every developing
country - coordinates rehabilitation and
reconstruction efforts at the national level.

Issues and Controversies


No

real power, non-binding


No army
National sovereignty
Imbalance of power
Inefficiency
Underfunding
Ethics

Millenium Dvpt Goals


Adopted

2000 Achieved 2015?

Preamble to the United Nations


Charter
To save

succeeding generations from the scourge


of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought
untold sorrow to mankind, and
To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in
the dignity and worth of the human person, in the
equal rights of men and women and of nations
large and small, and

To establish

conditions under which justice and


respect for the obligations arising from treaties
and other sources of international law can be
maintained, and
To promote social progress and better standards
of life in larger freedom,

The Failure of the United Nations


It

is not unreasonable to look to the United


Nations for understanding and problem
resolution.
Presumably, we expect it to be an unbiased and
peace loving organization. Yet at closer
examination one begins to realize the fact that the
United Nations has been a total failure in terms of
world peace.

Rarely

has the UN brought enough countries together


to form an alliance to intervene meaningfully in the
affairs of an oppressive and brutal country
With the exception of the World Health Organization
little good has come from the peace making mission
of the U.N.
The UN go to what it does best. With its world
standing already established, the UN should focus on
research, education and health, the missions it does
best.

UNICEF's own report


Increasingly, wars are fought in precisely those
countries that can least afford them. Of more than
150 major conflicts since the Second World War,
130 have been fought in the developing world.
The per capita gross national product (GNP) of
war-torn countries in 1994 included: Afghanistan
(US$280), Angola ($700), Cambodia ($200),
Georgia ($580), Liberia ($450), Mozambique
($80), Somalia ($120), Sri Lanka ($640), the
Sudan ($480).

Since the 1950s, more wars have started than


have stopped. By the end of 1995, wars had been
running in Afghanistan for 17 years, Angola, 30;
Liberia, 6; Somalia, 7; Sri Lanka, 11; Sudan, 12.

The

global case-load of refugees and displaced


persons is growing at alarming speed. The number
of refugees from armed conflicts worldwide
increased from 2.4 million in 1974 to more than
27.4 million today, the report notes, with another
30 million people displaced within their own
countries. Children and women make up an
estimated 80 per cent of displaced populations.

Although

there has not been a world war since the


founding of the UN there have been quite a number
of wars since its founding.
The first being the Korean war. The next war that
size will not be fought like any other war ever has.
The U.S. tried it in Iraq twice and though it won a
conventional war there it quickly evolved into the
war of the future: terrorism.

the

second mission statement; "...to reaffirm faith


in fundamental human rights..." this has not been
affected by the UN in the least.
Yes, the UN affirms human rights but abuse of
human rights are as prevalent as ever. This is not
because of lack of effort. However, the track
record is less than spectacular. A good example
was the "Food For Oil" scam perpetrated on the
world.

The

third point, "to establish conditions under


which justice and respect for the obligations
arising from treaties and other source of
international law can be maintained." which with
exceptions, has also been a miserable failure.
Most countries ignore this when convenient and
embrace it when convenient. The result being a
gigantic gap in credibility. In short, the UN in this
regard is largely ignored.

The

UN has never accomplished its goal of


abolishing war. It hasn't even come close. It should
abandon this. Instead it should have an open forum
available to all countries and with equal weight.
Passing meaningless resolutions against Israel,
China, Russia, most of Africa and the U.S. with
political agendas attached, serve no purpose except
to expose all the UN's weaknesses, faults and soft
political underbelly.

Instead

of focusing so much on the political


aspects of the UN which should be given a back
seat, pour the money into world education and
health, something the UN does very well when
well funded.
Tying humanitarian actions to political sanctions
only breeds spite and brutality from oppressive
countries.

The

UN was designed to prevent the occurrence


of another global war.
Making the United Nations a more viable
organization, more non-political and more
relevant for the 21st century is essential for its
survival and relevance in a modern world.
Otherwise it should be relegated to the bone yard
where its present course is now headed.

DIPLOMACY

DIPLOMACY IN WORLD POLITICS


Diplomacy

in world politics refers to a


communication process between international
actors that seeks trough negotiation to resolve
conflict short of war. This process has been
refined, institutionalized and professionalized
over many centuries.

Diplomacy and Foreign policy


Diplomacy

in foreign policy refers to the use of


diplomacy as policy instrument possibly in
association with other instruments such as
military force to enable an international actor to
achieve its policy objectives.

If

world politics is characterized simply by the


tension between conflict and cooperation. If
cooflict and cooperation are placed at two ends of
spectrum, diplomacy can be located at the
cooperation end representing forms of interaction
that focus on the resolution of conflict by
dialogue and negotiation

Bilateral

Diplomacy: between two nations or


interests. Mutual benefit or relations are the only
ones which are considered important. It is in some
measure the basis for other more complex
relationships.

Multilateral Diplomacy
This

was a more resent development with its


origins dating near or after the end of the First
World War. Its various types are;
War diplomacy- A form of diplomacy adopted
when there is no alternative to war.
Preventive diplomacy- This is an extremely delicate
process as it requires the most trust and confidence
between antagonists. It also requires extreme
patience and an independence from coercion.

Preventive

diplomacy- This is an extremely


delicate process as it requires the most trust and
confidence between antagonists. It also requires
extreme patience and an independence from
coercion.
Developmental diplomacy- This is more an
economic form of diplomacy which seeks a
promotion of economic interests

Multi

track diplomacy- A more pragmatic and


modern approach which encompasses all the other
diplomacy types and focuses on the issue at hand
from the rival's point of you.
Public Diplomacy- One which encompasses
government public relations.

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY
The

mission of public diplomacy is to support the


achievement of U.S. foreign policy goals and
objectives, advance national interests, and
enhance national security by informing and
influencing foreign publics and by expanding and
strengthening the relationship between the people
and government of the State and citizens of the
rest of the world.

THE U.S
The

Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and


Public Affairs leads America's public diplomacy
outreach, which includes communications with
international audiences, cultural programming,
academic grants, educational exchanges, international
visitor programs.

U.S. Government efforts to confront ideological


support for terrorism. The Under Secretary
oversees the bureaus of Educational and Cultural
Affairs, Public Affairs, and International
Information Programs, and participates in foreign
policy development

TERRORISM

CONCEPTUALISING TERRORISM
Definitions

of terrorism are fundamentally


political: one persons terrorist is one persons
freedom fighter.
Focus on actions or intended outcomes: how much
you are willing to apply your definitions of
terrorism regardless of how you feel for towards
certain political actors or their agendas.
Hence no agreed upon definition but most
definitions include:

The

use of violence, fear, coercion


For political purpose or criminal.
Planned, calculated, unpredictable but not random
violence.
More controversial elements:
The targeting of innocents and civilians
The use of political violence by non state actors.

TERRORISM AS A POLITICAL ACT


One

( often internally controversial) tactic is an


arsenal of strategies of political movements.
Targets are not generally the victims but other
actors: generally the governments, public, decision
makers and constituencies.
Audiences
External: opponents that are coerced into certain
actions- non actions.
Internal: potential recruits and supporters.

Aim

to change the political climate by making a


policy or set of policies more costly; coercion of
opponents without directly engaging them.
About Power: Instrumental use of terrorism,
acquisition of power in order to effect political
change.
Relies on media coverage and symbolism
High value of symbolic targets
Ability to generate a response depends on how open

Weapon

of the weak:
Weaker actor can coerce the stronger one.
Asymmetric warfare exploiting critical
Vulnerabilities of otherwise stronger opponent.

The Strategic Rationality of


Suicide Terrorism
Suicide

terrorism occurs in coordinated clusters


and with announcements of political aims
Suicide terrorism may be effective with modern
democracies
Relies on media coverage public opinion and
normative pressure
Suicide terrorism on the increase over past 20
years due to its effectiveness

Evidence

that groups are moderately more


successful in achieving their political aims
after use of suicide terrorism
Suicide terrorism signals a groups level of
commitment to its cause

Historical Perspectives on
Terrorism
French

Revolution
Reign of Terror (1793-4) policy to
systematically root out counter-revolutionaries
by Robespierres government
Virtue without which terror is evil terror
without which virtue is helpless.
Terror is nothing but justice prompt severe
and inflexible it is therefore an emanation of
virtue.

State

terrorism continues to exist in parallel to


use of terrorism by non-state actors
Nazi Fascist and Stalinist regimes in Germany
Italy and Russia
Targeting of innocent civilians by states in war
(Coventry Hiroshima/Nagasaki Dresden
Srebrenica)

State-sponsored

death squads disappearances


human rights abuse and terrorization of civilian
populations (El Salvador, Sudan, East Timor)
Grey area state sponsorship of terrorism
Libya (IRA)
USSR Cuba (various liberation groups)
US (various anti-communist groups e.g. UNITA)

Historical Perspectives on
Terrorism
Before

World War I
Anarchist movement in Europe and US in late
19th
century/early 20th century
propaganda by deed and strategy to publicize
cause

policy

of tyrannicide/assassinating leaders
1880s/1890s Armenian and Macedonian national
movements use terrorism against Ottoman rule
1914 Young Bosnians assassinate Archduke Franz
Ferdinand in Sarajevo setting in motion chain of
events that led to WWI

AFTER WWII
Anti-colonial

and national liberation movements


Algeria-France
Cyprus-UK
Israel-UK
PLO
Contemporary nationalist separatist and autonomy
movements

Northern

Ireland/IRA
Sri Lanka/Tamil Tigers
Kurdistan/PKK
Basque Country/ETA

Types of Terrorism
Ideological
Leftist

inspiration from communism


(Baader-Meinhof Gang Red Brigades Weathermen)
Rightist inspiration from fascism (Neo-Nazi
groups Ku Klux Klan Aryan Nations)
Ethno nationalist
Inspiration from anti-colonial/self-determination
movements (Tamil Tigers PLO IRA)

Religious/fundamentalist
Inspiration

from politicized religion


(Islamism/al-Qaeda Christian identity/Anti-aborti
on Movement Jewish Defense League)
Single-issue
Animal rights (Animal Liberation Front Win
Animal Rights WAR)
Environmentalist (Earth Liberation Front Earth
First!)

Trends in Terrorism
Now

al-Qaeda as Movement of Movements


Late-1990s Monolithic Structure of al-Qaeda
Centrally controlled organization
Strategic assaults executed by inner core of
jihadist activists
Nebulous segmented and polycentric organization
Tactically oriented strikes done by affiliated
cells (individuals) and when opportunity arises

Trends in Terrorism
al-Qaeda
Continuing

interest in hard targets but increased


focus on soft civilian-centric venues
Ongoing emphasis on economic attacks
Continued reliance on suicide strikes
Desire to use CBRN weapons but little ability to
execute large-scale conventional attacks
Anti-Globalisation Movement-inspired anarchism

Radicalization

of fringe elements toward


terrorist designs attacks on symbolic government
targets and political leaders
Right-wing/xenophobic militias
Convergence with leftist strands of
anti-globalisation movement own racist
anti-Semitic doctrines attacks on symbolic
government targets political leaders ethnic
communities

Eco-terrorism
Increasingly

anti-capitalist/anti-globalist
focus attacks on symbolic private sector targets
and personnel

Policy Responses
Military

and Policing Responses


Defensive Actions Homeland Security West Bank
Security Fence
Offensive Actions target leadership or state
sponsors of terrorism
Regulatory Responses

Capacity

building in states and international


cooperation (terrorist financing grey economy
networks regulating charities improving and
harmonizing travel documents etc.)
Political Responses
Change in policy (moral hazard problem)
Public diplomacy war of ideas
Isolating radicals and mobilizing moderates

Political

channels for dissent and interest


articulation
Safeguard democracy at home
Homeland security
Avoid unnecessary trade-offs
Confront terrorists and their support
infrastructures
Intelligence on leadership and operatives

Target

operatives leadership and communication


infrastructure that links them
Disrupt financial and material support networks
Address root causes of terrorism
Development
Democracy promotion
Engagement