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Younes

Sina

Chapter 2

Motion Along a Straight


Line

The motion of a particle along a


straight line at aconstant
accelerationis called the
"Uniformly Accelerated Motion."

a=
constant

Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Velocity is defined as the change in displacement


per unit of time.

t=t
0

t=t

Exampl
e

V=0
km/h

t= 29
s /

V=260
km/h

A value of 9 (km/h)/s means the velocity


changes by 9.0 km/h during each second of
the motion

V=0
km/s
V=0 m/s

V= 260
km/s
V= 72
m/s

An acceleration of 2.5 m/s2 is read as 2.5 meters per


second per second (or 2.5 meters per second squared)
and means that the velocity changes by 2.5 m/s during
each second of the motion.

ative Acceleration and Decreasing Velocity

A drag racer crosses the finish line, and the


driver deploys a parachute and applies the
brakes to slow down (above Figure). The driver
begins slowing down when t0 =9.0 s and the
cars velocity is v0= 28 m/s. When t= 12.0 s,
the velocity has been reduced to v= 13 m/s.

Example:
A car travels a distance of
350 miles in 5.0 hours. Find
its average speed.

V=x/t=350 mi/5.0hr=70.0
mi/hr

ple :A car's speed changes from 15m/s to 25m


g a straight road while moving in one way.
the magnitude of the acceleration of the car
g 5 seconds.

A=(vf-vi/tf-ti)=(25m/s-15 m/s)/5.0
s=2.0 m/s2

vf vi
a
tf ti

25m / s 15m / s
a
2 .0 m / s 2
5 .0 s

Equation of Motion of Uniformly Accelerated Motion:

x=(1/2)
2
at +vit

where x and t are variables, and a and


vi, the constant

ple :A car traveling along a straight road at 8.0


rates to a speed of 15.0m/s in 5.0s. Determin
acceleration,
distance it travels during this period,
equation of motion,
e interval of validity of this equation, and
e distance already traveled att =2.0 s.

v= 8.0
m/s

x
v= 15.0
m/s

Calculation of acceleration using final


and initial velocities and time:

a= (vf-vi)/t
Any object that moves along a straight line and
at constant acceleration, has an equation of
motion in the form:

x= (1/2)a
t2+vit
Calculation of traveled distance using
acceleration, initial velocity and time:

Part (a):

a= (15.0 m/s - 8.0 m/s) / 5.0s = 1.4m/s 2.


Part (b):

x=(1/2)(1.4m/s2) (5.0s)2+ (8.0m/s)(5.0s) =


58m (rounded to 2 sig. figs.)
The equation of motion of this car can be found by substituting the
constants in the equation.

The constants are:vi= 8.0m/s anda= 1.4m/s2.


The equation of motion becomes:

Part (c)x(t) =(1/2)(1.4)t2+ 8.0torx(t)


Part
(d)2
is valid for0 t 5.0s
=
0.7t
+ This
8.0tequation

only.

(The
statement of the problem gives us information for a
5.0s
period only).
2
Part (e) x(2.0)= 0.7 (2.0) + 8.0 (2.0) =

18.8m 19m.

Example: A cyclist traveling at 30.0m/s


along a straight road
comes uniformly to stop in 5.00s. Determine
the stopping
acceleration, the stopping distance, and the
equation of motion.
t=5.00 s

v= 30.0
m/s

v= 0 m/s

Solution:
a= (vf- vi) / t
a= ( 0 - 30.0m/s) / 5.00s =-6.00
m/s2.
x= (1/2)a t2+vit
x = (1/2)(-6.00m/s2)(5.00s)2 +
(30.0m/s)(5.00s)
x= +75m.
x= (1/2) (-6.00m/s2)t2 +
(30.0m/s)t
x(t) =-3.00t2 + 30.0t.
(a relation betweenxandt).

along a steep
and straight ramp isx= 3.40t2+ 2.10t
wherexis in meters and tin seconds.
Determine
(a)her distance from the starting point at the
end of
1.0s, 2.0s, 3.0s, 4.0s, and 5.0s. periods.
(b) Determine the distances she travels during
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th seconds.
(c)Are the answers in Part (b) equal? If not
why?
What should be the pace of motion for such
distances to be equal?

t= 0

1.0 s

2.0 s

3.0 s

x= 3.40t2+ 2.10t

d1isthedistancetraveledinthe1stsecond.
d2isthedistancetraveledinthe2ndsecond,
andsoon.

x(0)=3.40(0)2+2.10(0)=0.
x(1)=3.40(1)2+2.10(1)=5.50m.
x(2)=3.40(2)2+2.10(2)=17.8m.

d1=x(1)-x(0)=05.5m-00.0m=5.5m.
d2=x(2)-x(1)=17.8m-05.5m=12.3m.

x(3)=3.40(3)2+2.10(3)=36.9m.

d3=x(3)-x(2)=36.9m-17.8m=19.1m.

x(4)=3.40(4)2+2.10(4)=62.8m.

d4=x(4)-x(3)=62.8m-36.9m=25.9m.

x(5)=3.4(5)2+2.1(5)=95.5m.

d5=x(5)-x(4)=95.5m-62.8m=32.7m.

can be seen from Part (b), the distances trave


quent seconds become greater and greater.
s this telling us?
ecause the motion is an accelerated one.
elerated motion, unequal distances are travele
time intervals.

x= (1/2)a
t2+vit

An Equation With No Apparent


Time Element

a = (vf-vi) / t t=(vfvi) /a
2
2 t
x =(1/2)at
+v
(vf vi ) i
vf vi

x (1 / 2)a.

vi.

(vf vi ) 2vi(vf vi )
x
2a
2

2ax= vf22 2
2 (explicitly
vf2-v
=2ax
2vfvi+v
+2v
v
-2v
i
i
i f
i
independent of time).

: During take off, an airplane travels 960m along a straight runw


peed of 65m/s before its tires leave the ground. If the motion is
y accelerated, determine
cceleration,
lapsed time
quation of motion
dway speed.

a=
constant

V=0
m/s

midway

x=960m

V= 65
m/s

(a) vf2- vi2= 2ax;


(65m/s)2- (0m/s)2= 2a(960m)
4225 = 1920a
a= 2.2 m/s2
(b) a = (vf-vi) / t
solving for ( t ): t = (vf-vi) / a
t = (65m/s - 0m/s) / ( 2.2m/s2) =
30.sec
(c)x(t) = (1/2)( 2.2m/s2)t2 + (0)t
x(t) = 1.1t2
(d)vf2- vi2= 2ax
vf2- (0m/s)2= 2( 2.2 m/s2)
[(960/2)m]
vf2= 2113
v = 46 m/s.

Freely Falling of
Objects:

(1)g= (vfvi)/t
(2) y= (1/2)g t2
+vit
(3)vf2-vi2=2g
y

Example:A rock is released from a height of


19.6m.Determine
(a) the time it spends in air
(b) its speed just before striking the ground.
vi= 0
m/s

19.6m

t=?

vf=
?

(+y)
(1)g= (vfvi)/t
(2) y= (1/2)g
t2 +vit
(3)vf2-vi2=2
gy

Since

the rock is not thrown and is only


released from rest, the initial speed,vi=0.
If the (+y) axis is taken to be downward,
then
g =+ 9.8m/s2, and the equation of motion,
y = (1/2) gt2+vit
becomes:y =4.9t2.
Substituting the given 19.6m for y, we
get:
19.6 = 4.9t2
4 =t2; t = 2.0s. (The positive root is acceptable).
To find the velocity at which it hits the
ground, we may use
vf2-vi2=2gy
vf2-02=2(9.8)(19.6)

vf= 0
m/s

vi= 315
m/s

Example: A rifle fired


straight upward at the
ground level and the bullet
leaves the barrel at an initial
speed of 315 m/s. Determine
(a)the highest it reaches
(b)the time to reach the
highest point
(c)the return time to the
ground, and its speed just
before striking the ground.
Neglect air resistance.

(+y)

Example: A motorcycle ride consists of two segments, as


shown in the following Figure. During segment 1, the
motorcycle starts from rest, has an acceleration of 2.6 m/s2,
and has a displacement of 120 m. Immediately after
segment 1, the motorcycle enters segment 2 and begins
slowing down with an acceleration of -1.5 m/s2 until its
Answer:
velocity is 12 m/s. What is the displacement
of the x2=160 m
motorcycle during segment 2?

a=-1.5 m/s2

v= 12
m/s

vf2-vi2=2ax
a=2.6 m/s2
vi=0
m/s x=120 m

vf2-vi2=2ax

vf1= ?
m/s

Example: Using the time and position intervals


indicated in the drawing, obtain the velocities
for each segment of the trip.

Homework :
problems 1 through 5
chapter 2