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Industrial Pollution Control

Course description

Definitions
Process survey
Industrial categorization
Waste survey
Pollution profile
Data collection
Management of industrial systems
Standards for industries, legal aspects
Waste management, pretreatment
Industrial case studies
Team works and presentations

Fundamental textbook(s) and


other course material
1. Freeman, H.M. , Industrial Pollution
prevention handbook , New York :
McGraw-Hill, c1995.
2. Eckenfelder, W.W., Industrial
Water Pollution Control, McGrawHill, 1966.
3. Talnl, ., unpublished course notes
and documents in:
http://www.ins.itu.edu.tr/cevre/per
sonel/talinli/dersler.htm

Course objectives and


relationship to ABET program
outcomes
The objective of this course is to make
pollution profiles of the industries,
categorization, control methodologies and
technologies, system design, ethic
concepts and solving of the engineering
problems on industrial systems

Topics covered each week


Week 1: Introduction, aim, scope, establishing study groups
for team

works
Week 2: Definitions of industrial pollution and industrial
systems
Week 3: Categorization and sources of industrial waste
Week 4: Industrial categorization
Week 5: Industrial pollution control approaches
Week 6: Environmental management systems for industries
Week 7: System design approaches
Week 8: Organized industrial estates
Week 9: Industrial case studies
Week 10: Case study presentations
Week 11: Case study presentations
Week 12: Case study presentations
Week 13: Case study presentations
Week 14: Case study presentations

Definitions of industrial
pollution and industrial
systems
Production: All processes to obtain certain
product by a/any raw material
Process: All reactions having certain kinetics
and taking place in certain conditions
Process working conditions are continuous,
batch and semi-batch
Wastes are non-products or undesirable
outputs which can not be evaluated for any
purpose.

Definitions of industrial pollution


and industrial systems
(continued)
Continuous process: Raw material is
fed as continuous and product is
taken simultaneously.
Batch process: Raw material is fed at
zero time and product is taken at the
end of the process time (e.g. fill and
draw).
Semi-batch process: When raw
material is continuously fed, product
is taken at certain periods (batch).

Definitions of industrial pollution


and industrial systems
(continued)
Schedule of the enterprises (shifts):
Work time or production can be daily,
weekly and seasonal.
It is known shift.
3 shifts can be usually arranged at 8
a.m.-16 p.m., 16 p.m.-24 p.m., and 24
p.m.-8 a.m.

Global view to industry

Figure1 Input and output in an industria


l system and Figure 2. Management conce
t based in an industry

STEPS INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING A POLLUTION PROFILE MONITORING PROGRAM


AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
SELECT
ANALYTICAL
METHODS

SELECTION OF IN
HOUSE STAFF
MANAGEMENT
AWARENESS

PROCESS
ANALYSES

WASTE
SURVEY

CONTACT OUTSIDE
ASSISTANCE

SELECT
PARAMETERS TO
BE MONITORED

DESIRED
PROPOSAL

CONTRACT

ENV.
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM

CHECKING

TREATMENT
SYSTEM DESIGN

REVIEW &MODIFY
PROGRAM

CONTINUAL
OPERATION

POLLUTION PROFILE
AND
STANDARDISATION

EXPERIMENTAL
TREATABILITIES
ANALYSIS

EXECUTE
PROGRAM

Inputs and Outputs in Environmental Systems


ACTIVITY

Raw Material

industry, agriculture,
urbanization, mining etc.

Energy

Product, Service
By Product

Reuse

Non-product
output

Recovery

Waste

Hazardous Solid
Waste
Waste

Air Radioactive Wastewater Noise


Emission Waste

Hospital
Waste

Management Concept on Industrial


Process Basis

Source
Source Management

PROCESS

Emission
Emission Management

Product
Product Management

Industrial Management Organization


for Total Management Concept
Raw Material
Additives

Energy
Water
Air
Land

Effects to Inputs

The network of
processes
containing
labor, man
power and
other sources

Outputs

Product
By Product
Non-product
-Wastes
-Emissions
-Consumption of
Sources
-Risks
-Impacts etc.

Environmental
Effects
Threats
-Direct
-Indirect
-During
Usage
-After
Usage
-Other

Mass and energy balance


For each process, mass and energy
balance are made to reach waste
characterization and species and
amounts of the pollutants.
It is important that which pollutants
should be analyzed and selected as
analytical methods.

Mass and energy balance


(continued)
For example, in milk and milk product
industry, if A process (pasteurization
unit) does not use CN material as
input, this pollutant should not be
characterized in waste analysis.
Mass and energy balance supplies
the integration of the process and
waste survey.

Mass and energy balance


(continued)
In other words, nobody can do waste
survey unless doing mass and energy
balance related any process.
For example, air pollutants can not be
characterized without knowing the
type of energy and incineration
process.

Commonly used dimensions

Volume
Concentration
Load
Are used as main units in pollution
profile
Volume is used especially for
wastewater based on time or product
such as m3/h, m3/day, m3/product

Commonly used dimensions


(continued)
Product dimension which are
produced in certain periods such as
m3/m2 textile, m3/m metal, m3/ton
cows, m3/kwh, m3/oil equ. energy,
m3/m3 beer etc.
Question: For dimensions above,
which parameters are based.
Product, raw material, energy?

Pollution Load
Based on time
Based on production
Load means mass unit of a specific
pollutant per time unit or product
characteristic.
For instance, it expresses the loaded
specific pollutant to environment.

Pollution Load (continued)


Based on time: Lt=Q*C, V/t*m/v,
m3/day*kg/L
Based on production: m3/day*g/L beer
Commonly used units for organic
matter of wastewaters in
Environmental Engineering
kg BOD5/h, kg COD/day, kg phenols/day

Pollution Load (continued)

Industrial pollution sources and loads


Weaved textile dying kg BOD5/m fabric
Slaughterhouse
Metal finishing
Beer or beverages

kg SS/ton carcass
kg Cd/m 2 metal
kg BOD5/m3 beer

Pulp and paper


Oil refinery

kg COD/ton pulp
kg TKN/kWh

Concentration
Concentration is the numerical value of
mass per unit volume
Pollution load is amount of discharged
pollutant per unit time from industry
Question: When organized industrial estate
(leather) discharges to river 10 000 m3/day
treated wastewater including 2 mg/l Cr,
another industry discharges to same river
50 m3/day raw wastewater including 5 mg/l
Cr. Compare two industries as pollution
load. Which industry should be controlled
according to this profile?

Population equivalency of
pollution load
This is a parameter calculating population
number which is equivalent to pollution
load.
Water usage per person= 200 l/person-day,
domestic wastewater BOD5= 250 mg/l
Pollution load per person= 50 g BOD5/day
Question: Industry A discharges 100 kg
BOD5/day to a lake. Calculate the population
equivalency for this load.
Solution: 100 000 g BOD/day/ (50 g/personday
population equivalency) = 2000 person

Waste Classification
Definition: Industrial waste classification
is made in based on 8 types of waste.
These are;
Wastewater
Air emission
Solid waste
Hazardous waste
Medical or hospital waste
Radioactive waste
Noise pollution
Sludge & Slurry

Wastewater Classification
Waste in form of liquid(but water) is known as
waste water in industry and it is taken out.
Wastewater generated by processes and other units
Condensation water
Cleaning and washing tool ,equipment and building
water
Off water of steam generator , boiler condensation
water softening process and its regeneration waters
originated by supplementary processes
Domestic, social facilities, such as shower, toilet,
cafeteria and laundry
Field drainage and rain water

Wastewater Classification
(continued)
Classification of Industrial
Wastewater based on pollution:
Process wastewater
Associated processes wastewater
Domestic wastewater

Hazardous Waste
Definitions:
These wastes are defined as any material that are
no longer desired and has no current or perceived
value at a given place. Among variety of waste ,
hazardous waste is a hazardous substance that has
been discarded or otherwise designated as a waste
material , or one that may become hazardous by
interaction with other substances.
Generally, hazardous waste is defined as any waste
which has hazard potential and hazardous effects to
human health and environment. They required
different management system from other
conventional and traditional waste.

Hazardous Waste
(continued)

A solid waste was defined by Congress as :


Any garbage, refuse sludge from a waste treatment plant ,
water supply treatment plant, air pollution control
facilities and other discarded materials, including solid,
liquid, semi solid or contained gaseous material resulting
from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural
operations and from community activities.
A hazardous waste was defined by Congress as :
Solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which
because of its quantity, concentration, or physical,
chemical, or infectious characteristics maycause, or significantly contribute to an increase in serious
irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or
pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human
health or the environment when improperly treated,
stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

Hazardous Waste
(continued)
From this definitional beginning, Congress
directed EPA in RCRA Section 3001 to follow a
two-step process leading to the identification of
hazardous wastes. First, EPA was directed to
establish criteria to be used to identify the
characteristics of hazardous waste and to
actually list hazardous wastes. Factors that EPA
had to consider in establishing the criteria
included:
toxicity, persistence, and degradability in
nature;
potential for accumulation in tissue, AND
other related factors such as flammability,
corrosiveness, and other hazardous
characteristics.

Hazardous Waste
(continued)
Their effects in two ways;
- short-term effects (acute)
- long-term effects (chronic)
These are considered in four
criteria;
- toxicity
- corrosiveness
- flammability
- reactivity

Management of Hazardous
Waste

definition of hazardous waste


determination of hazardous waste
listing hazardous waste
T/S/D Treatment technologies /
Storage/ Disposal
Biological treatment
Physical- chemical treatment
Incineration

Management of Hazardous
Waste (continued)

In addition;
deep well injection
spent mining filling
dumping to oceans
dumping to space by rockets, etc.
controlling the hazardous waste sites

Definition of Hazardous
Waste
Wastes which have environmental acute or
chronic hazard potential can be flammable,
reactive, corrosive and toxic with their
compositions, including material amount,
physical forms, dispersion and diffusion in
environment, usage styles going to
environment by human activities, therefore;
differing from conventional treatment and
disposal methods and requiring
management systems that includes
environmental systems (ecosystem) politic,
social and economic concepts and
identifying by specification and listing.
(furthermore reading: Zararl Atklarn
Tanm ve Ynetimi Projesi . Talnl, 1995)

Air Emissions
Assessment of the air pollutants in two
ways;
Emissions (in chimney)
Emissions (in process area, open and
closed)
Emission sources in industries;
Incineration of the fuels to provide the
energy for processes, offices and closed
area. These emissions are evaluated in
chimney according to thermodynamic
conditions, boilers specifications and
capacity.

Air Emissions (continued)


Emissions in open and closed area may be
sourced by volatile materials used in
process in gaseous form or dust and smog.
They can be collected by vacuum or
aspiration through chimney to
atmosphere. They are known as controlled
emissions in media however some gaseous
pollutants may be still stay in the process
atmosphere or in he labor or human lung.
Indoor air quality should be evaluated
according to occupational safety health.

Air Emissions (continued)


Some particulate air pollutants are also
uncontrolled emissions. For example, storage
of the refractor materials in open area, dust
occurs and is transferred to atmosphere.
Materials such as clinkers and refractors are
stored in open area and transferred to
atmosphere by wind.
Chimney emissions: Incineration gases,
volatile gases to chimney by asp., particulate
materials to chimney.
Medium emissions: Uncontrolled air
pollutants and hazardous gases by
inhalation.

Pollution based industrial


categorization

The categorization approach is based on;


Production type
Materials used in production
Occupational branches
Pollution
SIC (standard industrial classification)
index-main headings
Aim of the classification based on
pollution is to determine the
homogenous groups of industries with
similar pollution profiles, on which
control methods will depend on.

Main and sub-categorization

Main factors for sub-categorization;


Production process and technology
Raw materials
Product
Water usage
Plant capacity
Plant age and efficiency
Personnel groups (shifts)
Pollution profiles (waste characteristics)
Treatment technologies
Investment costs

Question

Write an appropriate main factor for each


subcategory given below;
Main head: Textile industry
Spring wool cleaning
Wool fabric finishing
Broad-woven fabric finishing
Knit-woven finishing
Carpet fabric finishing
Stock ad fiber fabric finishing
Process modified for reduced water usage
Non-woven fabric finishing
Felt fabric finishing
Silk finishing

Question (continued)

Main head: Metal finishing


Ordinary metals
Precious metals
Complex metals
Hexavalent chromium plating
Cyanide used processes
Oily wastewater
Wastewater including solvents

Question (continued)

Main head: Milk and milk production industries


Milk reception
Milk preparation and cream production
Yoghurt and ayran production
Butter
Cheese
Ice-cream
Concentrated milk
Milk powder production
Concentrated cheese water
Cheese water drying

Question (continued)

Main head: Pharmaceutical industry


Fermentation processes
Chemical synthesis
Formulation
Biological extraction and anti-biotics

Conceptual design of
wastewater treatment
system
The scope of this chapter is to make
interpretations for the treatability test
results and to build the optimum
treatment system variations by building
relationships between the parameters
that are acquired from the waste water
characterization which will be the basis
for conceptual design in treatment of
industrial waste water and pollution
profile with the basic performance of
the treatment system units .

Conceptual design of
wastewater treatment
system (continued)
In the frame of this goal:

The concept of
total management application
industries is taken as basis,
Wastewater pollutant parameters are examined,

approach in

The basic units used in wastewater treatment system and the


cooperative units are
examined and the basic functions and
performances are evaluated

The relationships between the collective and individual parameters


are stated,

In order to calculate the treatment plant performance in the basis


of parameters with integration in the whole system and between
the unit performance and the parameter that is supposed to be
removed, a matrix and a method are developed
By this way, it is hoped that without the treatability tests that are
necessary for the appropriate and right system especially in
wastewater treatment system design, a concept design and
variations will be built for environmental engineering.

TOTAL MANAGMENT
APPLICATION IN INDUSTRIES
Reasons for implemented a waste monitoring
program include:
1. To assure the regulatory agencies that the industry is
in compliance with the effluent quality requirements
in the discharge permit;
2. To ensure cognizance of product and material losses
to the sewer;
3. To maintain sufficient control of plant operations so
that violation of permit specifications are minimized;
and
4. To develop the necessary data needed to ensure
proper operation of the wastewater treatment
facilities

Process and Waste Survey


In conducting a monitoring program,
existing knowledge of the waste flow is
usually insufficient to provide the basis
for establishing comprehensive study.
The process and waste survey will
provide material balance of the flow of
pollutants through a system.

Process and Waste Survey


(continued)
1.
2.

3.
4.

The requirements of a useful flow diagram are


summarized below:
Detailed
information
concerning
each
production
process
The type of operations should be identified as
continuous, batch, or intermittent, with
frequency of waste releases given for the latter
two.
Raw materials, products and wastes should be
listed on the flow diagram.
The waste characteristics, such as flow,
temperature and pH, should also be included.

Process and Waste Survey


(continued)
Important factors to be considered in
selecting the sampling stations are:
1. The flow of the waste stream should be
known or easily estimated or measured.
2. The sampling station should be easily
accessible with adequate safeguards.
3. The wastewater should be well mixed.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The basis for any plant pollution abatement program
or anticipated design criteria depends on
information obtained by sampling.
Thus, all subsequent decisions may be based on
incorrect information if this step is not accurate;
implemented.
If a few basic principles are observed, and if those
persons responsible for sampling are forewarned,
reliable results can be obtained without expensive
and costly re sampling.

A good sampling program should:


Ensure that the sample taken is truly representative
of the waste stream;
Use proper sampling techniques; and
Protect the samples until they are analyzed waste

Biochemical Oxygen
Demand
The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is
an estimate of the amount of oxygen
required to stabilize biodegradable organic
materials in a sample of wastewater by
heterogeneous microbial population.

Chemical Oxygen Demand


The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a
measure of the oxygen equivalent of the
organic fraction in the sample which is
susceptible to permanganate or
dichromate oxidation in an acid solution.

Chemical Oxygen Demand


(continued)
Generally, one would expect the ultimate BOD of a
wastewater to approach the COD There are many factors
which would negate this statement, however, especially
when determining the BOD and COD for complex industrial
wastes. These factors include:
1.
2.

3.
4.

Many
organic
compounds,
which
are
dichromate
oxidizable, are not biochemically oxidizable.
Certain inorganic substances, such as sulfides, sulfites,
thiosulfates, nitrites, and ferrous iron are oxidized by
dichromate, creating an inorganic COD, which is
misleading when estimating the organic content of a
wastewater.
The BOD results may be affected by lack of seed
acclimation, giving erroneously low readings. The COD
results are independent of this variable.
Certain organic compounds (e.g. straight chain, saturated
aliphatic acids and alcohols) are not efficiently oxidized by
Cr2072-. A silver sulfate catalyst is added to ensure efficient
oxidation of these compounds.

Total Organic Carbon


The organic carbon determination is free of the
many variables, which plague the COD and BOD
analyses, with more reliable and reproducible
data being the net result.
The total organic carbon concentration in a
wastewater is a measure of organic content.
While TOC measurements give no indication of
the oxidation state of the carbon, correlations can
often be made between TOC and occasionally
BOD values for individual wastes.

Total Organic Carbon


(continued)
In summary, it can be stated that
COD/TOC and BOD/TOC are both
valid measures of the organic
character and both can be correlated
to COD values in many applications.

Commonly used treatment units in


wastewater treatment systems

Neutralization Tank
Coagulation& Flocculation
DAF
Activated Carbon Adsorption
Ion Exchange
Chemical Oxidation
Granular Filtration
Activated Sludge
Anaerobic Treatment
Reverse Osmosis

Neutralization
Many wastewaters contain acidic or
alkaline substances which must be
neutralized prior to being discharged
into receiving bodies of water or
conveyed to subsequent unit
treatment processes.
Neutralization, or adjustment of pH,
may be used in the later case not only
to protect downstream processes, but
also to optimize their effectiveness.

Coagulation and
Precipitation
Coagulation has been defined as the
addition of a chemical to a colloidal
dispersion which results in particle
destabilization by the reduction in forces
which tend to keep particles apart.
Coagulation involves the reduction of
surface charges and the formation of
complex hydrous oxides.
The process involves forming either
flocculant suspensions of compounds which
entrap desired pollutants and carry them
out of solution or the formation of insoluble
precipitates of the pollutants themselves.

Coagulation and
Precipitation (continued)
Examples of former include organic
suspended materials and examples
of the latter include precipitates of
phosphorus and heavy metals.
After coagulation to destabilize the
particles and flocculation to generate
large particles, the materials can
subsequently be separated from the
wastewater by sedimentation,
flotation, or filtration.

Dissolved Air Flotation


Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has been used for
many years in the treatment of wastewaters for
separation of suspended solids, oils, greases,
fibers, and other low density solids from the
carrier liquid as well as for the thickening of
activated sludge and flocculated chemical
sludges.
The flotation process is accomplished by
introducing pressurized wastewaters to
atmospheric pressure and releasing the dissolved
gas in excess of saturation. This reduces the
specific gravity of SS or oily material by the
attachment of fine gas bubbles to the particulate
matter, enhancing gravity separation.

Activated Sludge
The AS process is a continuous system in
which aerobic biological growths are mixed
with wastewaters then separated in a
gravity clarifier.
This process should provide an effluent with
a soluble BOD5 of 15 to 40 mg/l, although the
organic concentration of the effluent in
terms of COD in the industrial sector may be
as high as 500 to 1000 mg/l, depending on
the concentration of non-biodegradable
compounds originally in the wastewaters.

Activated Sludge
(continued)
There are many impurities in industrial
wastewaters that must be removed or
altered by preliminary operations
(pretreatment) before subsequent AS
treatment can be considered.
High concentrations of SS discharged
directly to secondary biological processes
can decrease overall process efficiency,
either by reducing the active biological
solids fraction or by creating a sludge less
amenable to sludge handling.
Removing oil by gravity separation is
required in many industrial plants because
oily waters have a deleterious effect on most
secondary and tertiary treatment process.

Anaerobic Treatment of
Organic Wastes
Traditionally, anaerobic degradation of organic
materials has been associated with digestion of
wastewater sludges which resulted from
primary sedimentation of degradable organic
solids or were generated during biological
oxidation of soluble and colloidal organic
materials.
Anaerobic processes are also very effective for
treating soluble and colloidal organic materials
and to biologically reduce nitrogen in the form
of nitrate to harmless nitrogen gas.
Since the anaerobic system can obtain 50 to 70
percent organic destruction at a relatively low
energy input, it may also be utilized very
effectively for pre-treating soluble organic
wastewaters prior to aerobic systems.

Activated Carbon Adsorption


Activated carbon adsorption is most
often employed for the removal of
organic constituents from wastewater.
Although carbon is sometimes used as
a catalyst for decholorination or
oxidation of cyanide and for the
removal of certain heavy metals,
these special cases have limited
applications to wastewater treatment.

Activated Carbon Adsorption


(continued)
The principal applications of carbon
adsorption for the treatment of organic
wastewaters include the removal of nondegradable substances, such as color
producing compounds and pesticides, and
the reduction of specific organic
constituents, such as phenols, in waste
streams which contain relatively small
concentrations of specific organic species.
This process may be performed in
combination with biological treatment for
the removal of either degradable or
refractory organic constituents.

Ion Exchange
Ion exchange is a process in which
ions, held by electrostatic forces to
functional groups on the surface of a
solid, are exchanged for ions of a
similar charge in solution.
Ion exchange is more often applied
for the removal or exchange of
dissolved inorganic salts in waters or
wastewaters, such as hardness
(calcium and magnesium) or heavy
metals.

Chemical Oxidation
The vocabulary of some regulatory
authorities is rapidly evolving to include such
terms as resistant, refractory,
incompatible, and perdurable to
describe those constituents which are not
removed by conventional wastewater
treatment methods.
The objective of chemical oxidation in water
and wastewater treatment is to transform
undesirable chemical constituents to a more
oxidized state which reduces the pollution
potential.

Chemical Oxidation
(continued)
It is often unnecessary to carry the oxidation
of a compound to completion since,
depending on the oxidant and oxidizing
conditions, the intermediate oxidation
products which may be formed will be of
much lower toxicity or less objectionable
characteristic than the original materials.
Complete oxidation may not only be
impractible from a treatment standpoint, but
also represents a non-justified economical
outlay.

Chemical Oxidation
(continued)
Subsequently, chemical oxidation might
be considered as a selective
modification or elimination of
objectionable or toxic substances,
including :
Inorganic constituents, such as Mn(II),
Fe(II), S2-, CN-, SO32- and
Organic compounds, such as phenols,
amines, humic acids, other taste, odor,
or color producing or toxic compounds,
bacteria and algae

APPROACH FOR THE TREATABILITY OF THE


INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS
In fact, this approach depends on the predictions on which
parameters and in what efficiency will the treatment units
will work while the consideration that the effects of these
units on the other units in the system is taken account, by
using the table of unit removal efficiency.
At this point it is important to realize that, the relationships
between the parameters are have to be taken account.
For instance if the parameter of COD is to be removed than
the parameters such as Oil & Grease, Suspended Solids and
all the other organic and inorganic parameters should be
evaluated carefully.
At this point, the most important parameters are collective
parameters such as COD, BOD, SS, Oil& Grease, Phenols

CONCLUSION
In the frame of the approach that is discussed above:
First of all, process survey must be done for the industrial wastewaters
in order to learn about the inputs and outputs in the industry.
A waste survey should be prepared according to process survey and
then pollution profile must be done without any mistake.
Only with a perfect characterization of a wastewater can an efficient
design be done.
Relationships between the parameters should be evaluated, especially
the collective parameters must be considered as the most important
ones
For all the industrial wastewaters, treat ability tests must be done.
However with a good characterization and perfect unit performance
knowledge it is possible to have conceptual design in a very short
period of time and in a safe way.
All the units that will be used as the base of the design of the treatment
system should be well defined.
The effects of the treatment units on the other units in the system
should be well evaluated.

CONCLUSION (continued)
if you dont satisfy by your solutions
and answers, imagine that your brain
is the best ecosystem and you have to
balance some ethical pollution in it.
each quantity has a quality of its own
which was never reached before and
which shall never be reached again.

CONCLUSION (continued)
Your destiny can behold for a good
future, if you have a scientific
thinking in your brain and clarity in
your heart.
taking an exam is nothing, thinking
and its quality is everything. All
achievements have quality of their
own.
. TALINLI

CONCLUSION (continued)
Do not hate multiple choice
because you will have to choose
during your life, even your partner.
The choices you made by your
wisdom will always be much more
effective than everything will. .
TALINLI

CONCLUSION (continued)

we can make several things


clearer, but we can not make
anything clear.
Frank P.
RAMSEY