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Histology of Skin

dr. Alya Amila Fitrie, M.Kes


dr. Radita Nur Anggraeni
Department of Histology
Medical Faculty University of North Sumatera
2012
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INTRODUCTION
The heaviest single
organ of the body,
16% of TBW.
Presenting 1,2 2,3 m2 of surface.
Composed of :
Epidermis : an epithelial layer of
ectodermal origin
Dermis : a layer of connective tissue
of mesodermal origin.
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Comparative thickness of the skin

EPIDERMIS

Consist mainly of
a stratified squamous
keratinized epithelium
keratinocytes.
Three << abundant cell types :
1. Melanocytes : neural crest-derived cell
2. Langerhans cell : derived from bone
marrow precursor
3. Merkels cell : neural crest-derived cell
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Five layers of keratin-producing cells


(keratinocytes) :
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Stratum basale
(stratum
germinativum)
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum

Stratum basale
(Stratum germinativum)
Single layer of basophilic columnar or
cuboidal cell resting on basement
membrane at the dermal-epidermal
junction.
Desmosom (+), hemidesmosom (+)
Stem cells intense mitotic activity & is
responsible, in conjunction with the initial
portion of the next layer, for constant
renewal of epidermal cells.
Human epidermis is renewed about every
15-30 days.

Stratum spinosum
Consists of cuboidal or
slighly flattened cell, a
central nucleus, a
cytoplasms processes :
bundles of keratin filaments,
a spine-studded appearance
(tonofilaments).
The filaments :
Maintaining cohesion among
cells
Resisting the effect of abrasion

Stratum basale + stratum


spinosum = stratum
Malpighi mitoses
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Stratum spinosum (cont.)

Stratum spinosum of the thick skin from sole of the


foot. Pararosaniline-toluidine blue. Medium magnification
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Stratum granulosum
Consists of 3-5 layers of
flattened polygonal cells,
cytoplasm filled with
keratohyalin granules.
The membrane-coated lamellar
granules : containing lamellar disks that
are formed by lipid bilayers. This
granules : fuse with cell membrane
discharge their contents intercellular
spaces of stratum granulosum form of
sheets containing lipid

Stratum lusidum
Translucent, thin layer
of flattened eosinophilic
epidermal cells.
Organelles & nuclei (-)
Cytoplasm : densely packed keratin
filaments
Desmosom (+) between adjacent
cells

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Cornified envelope lipids

Stratum corneum
Consists of 15-20 layers
of flattened nonnucleated keratinized cells.
Cytoplasm :
a birefringent filamentous
scleroprotein, keratin.
After keratinization, the cells consist of only
fibrillar & amorphous proteins; & thickened
plasma membrane horny cells or corneocyte
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Melanocytes
A specialized cell of the epidermis
found beneath or between the cells
of the stratum basale & in the hair
follicles.
Derived from neural crest cells.
Hemidesmosomes(+)
,
desmosome (-)

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Melanogenesis

http://www.ambion.com/tools/pathway/loadImage.p
hp?pos=bl&im=images/Melanocyte
%20Development%20and%20Pigmentation.jpg

Tyrosinase is synthesized in the RER, accumulated in GoC


vesikel : melanosom. Melanin synthesis in the melanosom II
melanosom III melanin granules.
Melanin granules migrates & transferred to the keratinocytes of the
malpighian layer.
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Melanocyte
Melanin granules
accumulate in the
supranuclear region
of the cytoplasm
protecting from
deleterious effects
of solar radiation.
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Langerhans Cells

Star-shaped
Location : stratum
spinosum
Bone marrow-derived
Important in immunologic skin
reaction
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Merkels Cells
Generally in the thick
skin of palms and
soles.
Resemble the
epidermal
epithelial cells, with
small dense granules
in cytoplasm.
Free nerve ending at
the base.
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Immunologic Activity in the


Skin

Its large size


Lymphocytes >>>
Antigen-presenting cells (APC)
Close contacts with antigenic
molecules

Epidermis has an important role in some


types of immune response
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DERMIS
Dermis is connective tissue that
Support epidermis
Binds epidermis to hypodermis

The thickness : varies


The surface : irregular dermal
papillae >< epidermal ridges.
Contains 2 layers :
Papillary layer
Reticular layer

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Papillary Layer
Composed of :
Loose connective tissue
Fibroblasts
Other connective tissue cells : mast cells
& macrophages
Extravasated leukocytes

Anchoring fibrils (+) : special


collagen fibrils
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Reticular Layer
Composed of :
Irregular dense connective tissue (type I
collagen)
More fibers, fewer cells.

Contains a network of fibers of


elastic system responsible Thick
forsection
the
of skin stained
elasticity of the skin.
for the fibers
of the elastic
fibers.
Weigerts stain

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DERMIS (cont)
Rich network of blood & lymph vessels.
Arteriovenous shunt temperature
regulation.
In addition, dermis contains : epidermal
derivatives :
Hair follicle
Sweat & sebaceous glands
Nerves
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Subcutaneous Tissue
Consists of loose connective tissue.
Contain fat cells that vary in
number & size.
Referred to superficial fascia , >>
panniculus adiposus

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Skin & Lymphatic Vessels


The arterial vessels 2 plexuses :
between papillary reticular layer
between dermis subcutaneous tissue

The venous 3 plexuses :


Like arterial vessels + in the middle of the
dermis.

Lymphatic vessels : begin as closed sacs


in the papillae of dermis form two
plexuses.
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Skin Sensorial Receptors


Free nerve endings
The expanded :
Ruffini endings

The encapsulated :
Vater-Pacini
Meissner
Krause.

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Meissner & Paccinian


corpuscle

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GLANDS OF THE SKIN


Sweat glands
Eccrine
Apocrine

Sebaceous glands
Mammary gland

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Sweat Gland
Ecrine (merocrine) sweat gland
Simple coiled tubular gland
Throughout skin important in regulation of
body temperature
Secretory unit dark cells & clear cells
Apocrine sweat gland
Found only in axilla, areola nipple, anal region
Modified apocrine sweat glands
ceruminous glands of ear, glands of moll in
eyelids
Larger than eccrine, lumen of secretory
tubulus is larger
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Sweat Gland

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Sebaceous Gland
Secrete sebum oily substance
Empty secretory product into the
upper parts of the hair follicles Not
found in palms of hand, soles of feet,
sides of feet inferior of hairline
Clinically the sebaceous glands are
important in that they are liable to
infections (e.g. with the development
of acne)
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Sebaceous Gland

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HAIRS
Elongated keratinized structure
Develop from epidermis & invade
the dermis & hypodermis
Everywhere except palms, sole,
glans penis, clitoris & labia
minora
Hairs grow discontinously have
periods of growth (anagen)
followed by period of rest
(telogen)
In scalp : growth period several
years, rest period 3 months
Hair in scalp, face & pubis
strongly influenced by androgens,
adrenal & thyroid hormones
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Hair follicle

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NAILS
Highly keratinized
epithelial cells
arranged in plates of
hard keratin
Develop from nail
matrix nail root
Stratum corneum
forms eponychium or
cuticle nail plate
Nail plate on nail bed

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Histology of Nail

E=eponychium, H= hyponychium, N=nail


plate, DP=distal phalanx

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References
Junqueira, L.C. & Carneiro, J. Basic Histology, Text
& Atlas, 11th edition, Lange Medical Books
McGraw-Hill. 2005
Gartner, L.P. & Hiatt, J.L. Colour Textbook of
Histology, Third Edition. 2007
Kierszenbaum AL. Histology & Cell Biology, An
Introduction to Pathology, 2nd ed. Mosby Elsevier.
2007

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