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Classification of Engines:

Type of Fuel used:

Petrol Engine
Diesel Engine
Gas Engine
Cycle of operations:
Otto-cycle engine
Diesel-cycle engine
Dual Combustion cycle engine or semi diesel cycle engine

Classification of Engines:
No of Strokes per cycle:
Four-stroke engine
Two-stroke engine
Hot spot ignition engine
Type of Ignition:
Spark ignition (SI) engine
Compression ignition (CI) engine

Classification of Engines:
No of Cylinders:
Single-Cylinder Engine
Two-Cylinder Engine
Three-Cylinder Engine
Four-Cylinder Engine
Six-Cylinder Engine
Eight-Cylinder Engine
Twelve- Cylinder Engine
Sixteen-Cylinder Engine

Classification of Engines:
Arrangement of Cylinders:
Vertical Engine
Horizontal Engine
Radial Engine
V Engine
Opposed Cylinder Engine
Type of Cooling
Air cooled engine
Water cooled engine

Classification of Engines:
Valve arrangement:
L-head Engine
I-head Engine
F-head Engine
T-head Engine

Classification by fuel used (Petrol):

It uses petrol for running.
Petrol is a hydrocarbon made up of hydrogen and carbon compounds.
Air- Mixture is sucked into the cylinder during the suction stroke of the
The correct air petrol mixture is obtained from the carburetor.
The mixture is compressed during the compression stroke, ignited during
the power stroke and the exhaust gases pushed out during the exhaust
Spark plug is fitted at the top of the cylinder which gives spark to ignite
the mixture.

Classification by fuel used (Diesel):

It uses diesel for running
It is light , with a low viscosity and high octane number.
Only air is sucked into the cylinder during the suction stroke, and
compressed to high pressure.
Compression ratio is 22:1. Temperature is obtained about 1000F.
Diesel oil is injected by an injector at the end of the compression
stroke which catch fire and burns due to the high temperature of the
compressed air.
No separate ignition system is required.

Diesel Engine differs from Petrol Engine:

Air and Petrol mixed in carburetor before entering into the cylinder.
Air + petrol mixture is compressed and ignited by a separate spark
Diesel directly fed into the cylinder by fuel injector.
Only air is compressed in the cylinder and the ignition is
accomplished by the heat of compression.

Classification by fuel used (Gas):

Gas turbine essentially consists of a two sections:
A gasifier section
Power section
The fuel used in gas turbine can be gasoline, kerosene or oil.
The gasifier section burns the fuel in a burner and delivers the
resulting gas to the power section, where it spins the power turbine.
The power turbine then turns the vehicle wheels through a series of

Components of Gas turbine:

Figure Showing Flame Holder in Gas Turbine:

Operation of Gas turbine:

Gasifier consists of rotor with a series of blades around the edge.

As the rotor rotates, air between the blades is carried around and
thrown out by centrifugal force into the burner which increases the
air pressure.
The fuel is injected in the burner where it burnt and further rises the
pressure and the temperature.
The high pressure and high temperature gas then passes through the
gasifier nozzle diaphragm.
A series of stationary blades directs this gas against a series of
curved blades.

Operation of Gas turbine:

A series of stationary blades directs this gas against a series of curved
blades on the outer edge of the gasifier turbine rotor causing it to
rotate at high speed.
The turbine rotor and the compressor rotor are mounted on the same
shaft, thus the compressor also rotates at high speed.
This action continues to supply the burner with a sufficient amount of
compressed air.
This action continues as long as fuel is supplied to the burner.
The high speed is reduced by a series of transmission gears before the
power is supplied to the vehicle wheels.

Classification by Cycle Operations:

Otto cycle or constant volume cycle was introduced by a German
scientist Otto in 1876.
The engines operating on this are known as Otto cycle engines.
The petrol engine operates on this cycle.
Diesel cycle or constant pressure cycle was introduced by Dr.
Rudolph Diesel in 1897.
The engines operating on this cycle is known as Diesel engines.

Classification by Cycle Operations:

Dual Cycle or Dual Combustion cycle:
In this cycle more time is allowed for the combustion of fuel in
diesel engine.
The fuel is injected before the end of the compression stroke so that
the combustion proceeds partly at constant volume and partly at
constant pressure. Such a cycle is known as dual cycle.
All diesel engines actually works on this cycle.

Classification by number of strokes per cycle:

Four Stroke Engine:

Completes a cycle in four strokes of a piston.

Four strokes require two revolutions of the crankshaft.
For two revolutions there is a power stroke.
Two stroke Engine:
Completes a cycle in two strokes of a piston.
Two strokes requires one revolution of crankshaft.
For every one revolution there is a power stroke.

Classification by Valve arrangement:

Engines are classified according to arrangement of the inlet and
outlet valves in various positions in the cylinder head or block.
These are L, I, F, T head designs.
I head design are most commonly used in automobiles.
L head design:
Inlet and outlet valves are located side by side in the cylinder block.
Cylinder head can be removed easily for overhauling.

Classification by Valve arrangement:

Classification by Valve arrangement:

I headed design:
The inlet and outlet valves are located in the cylinder head.
F head design:
Usually inlet valve is in the head the exhaust valve is on the block.
T head design:
It has inlet valves on the one side and the exhaust valve on the
other side of the cylinder.

Classification by type of cooling: (Air Cooled)

Mostly used in motorcycles.
The cylinders barrels are usually
separate and are equipped with metal
fins which gives the large radiating
surface to increase the rate of cooling.
Many air cooled engines are equipped
with the metal shrouds which direct
the air flow around the cylinders for
improved cooling.

Classification by type of cooling: (Water Cooled)

Mostly used in buses, trucks and
four wheeled vehicles.
The engine uses water with an
anti freeze compound added to
serve as the cooling medium.
The water is circulated through
the water jets around each of
combustion chambers, cylinders,
valve seats and valve stems.
After passing through these it
passes through the radiator
where it is cooled by air drawn
through the radiator.

Classification by Number and Arrangement of

One cylinder engine is used in motor cycles.
Max size is 250-300 cc.
Two cylinder engine is used in tractors.
These can be arranged in three ways inline, opposed and V type.
Four cylinders are mostly used in cars, jeeps.

six cylinders are used in buses, trucks.

Engine Classification by arrangement of cylinders

Engine Components
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Basic Components of Engine:

Engine Block

Cylinder Head

Piston and piston rings



Connecting rod


Valves and its mechanism


Other Parts spark plug, ignition devices, carburetor, manifolds.

Engine Block:
The engine block is the basic support and
attaching point for all other engine parts.
Engine blocks are made by pouring
molten cast iron, steel, or aluminium
into moulds. These moulds can be made
of sand or die cast.
The major parts installed in or on the





camshaft, cylinder heads, and manifolds.

Engine Block:
Cast iron has found to be the satisfactory material for cylinder wall
material as it has better wearing qualities.
In some small engines are plated with chromium very hard metal ,
to reduce wall wear and to increase their service life.
The materials should have low coefficient of thermal expansion and
high wear resistance.

Cylinder Head:
The top of the cylinder is covered by a
separate cast piece know as cylinder
It is bolted on the top of the cylinder





combustion chamber for each cylinder

and forms the top of the cylinder.
Cylinder heads contain the intake and
exhaust valves.

Cylinder Head
It may be removed for cleaning carbon and grinding valves.
To retain the compression in the cylinder a flat piece of gasket is
placed between the cylinder head and cylinder block.
They also contain oil galleries, coolant passages, and openings to
allow the flow of intake and exhaust gases.
Cylinder heads are made from either cast iron or aluminium

Crankcase is attached to the bottom
face of the cylinder block.
It acts as the base to the engine.
It supports the crankshaft and
camshaft in suitable bearings and
provides the arms for supporting
the engine on the frame.
The oil pan and the lower part of
the cylinder block together are
called the crankcase.

It also functions like housing and it protects the engine parts against
dust, water and mud.
It stores lubricating oil required for lubricating engine parts.
The size of the crankcase should be sufficiently large as it
accommodates the revolving crankshaft along with connecting rod.

The gaskets is a piece of soft sheet having similar cuts and holes as
it is in the cylinder head and cylinder block so that the gasket
placed between the cylinder block and cylinder head does not
interfere with the flow of gases or water or bolts passed.

Types of Gaskets:
Copper asbestos gasket: asbestos covered on both sides with copper
Steel asbestos gasket: asbestos covered on both sides with copper
Single sheet rigid or corrugated gasket: only single sheet of copper or
lead is used.
Stainless steel gasket: Thin sheet of stainless steel is used and it is
used in between the cylinder head and cylinder block. Coated with
special varnish, which melts and seals when the cylinder is hot.
Cork gasket: used where high pressure is not needed. In crankcase it is
Rubber gasket: Used in place of cork gasket in holes of crankcase

Cylinder Liners:
The cylindrical liners are in
the form of barrels made of
special alloy iron containing
silicon ,manganese, nickel
and chromium.
They are fitted in the engine
block to form a engine


cylinder sleeves.



Dry Liner:
It is made in the shape of barrel
having flange at the top as shown
in fig.
The flange keeps the liner in the
position in the block. The liner
should be in prefect contact with
the block for effective cooling.
It is not in contact with the
cooling water and hence known as
dry liner. Its thickness ranges
from 1.5 mm to 3mm.

Wet Liner:
It is so called as the water comes in

contact with the liner.

Liner is provided with a flange at

the top which fits in the grove

made in the cylinder block.
To stop the leakage of water into

crankcase its lower end is sealed

with sealing rings or packing
Thickness ranges from 3 mm to 6


Pistons and Piston Rings:

Pistons transfer the force of expanding
combustion gases to the connecting rods. They
are made of aluminium to reduce weight.
Most automotive pistons have two compression
rings and one oil ring.
Compression rings seal in the pressure created
during the compression and power strokes.
The oil-control ring is installed below the
compression rings to prevent excessive oil

Piston Rings:
Piston rings are not completely
They are provided with the
gap at the ends.
This gap allows the ring to fit
over the piston and let the ring
expands with out breaking.

Connecting Rod:
The connecting rods are forged
steel rods that connect the piston
to the crankshaft.
They transfer the force from the
piston to the crankshaft. Each
connecting rod is connected to
a piston by a piston pin.
Piston pin is called as gudgeon
pin or wrist pin.

The crankshaft converts the straight-line force
from the piston and connecting rod into rotary
It is attached to the engine block by bearing
caps and bearings that surround the crankshaft

This design allows the crankshaft to rotate

inside of the bearings with minimal friction.

The bearing caps are held to the engine block

by two, four, or six bolts torqued to

A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to
store rotational energy.
Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia and thus
resist changes in rotational speed.
The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is
proportional to the square of its rotational speed.

Energy is transferred to a flywheel by applying torque to

it, thereby increasing its rotational speed, and hence its
stored energy. Conversely, a flywheel releases stored
energy by applying torque to a mechanical load, thereby
decreasing the flywheel's rotational speed.

Valves and Valve Train:

One or more intake valves are used to control the
flow of the air into each cylinder. One or more
exhaust valves are used to control the flow of
exhaust gases out of each cylinder.












occasionally called mushroom valves due to their

resemblance to a mushroom.
Intake and exhaust valves are identical in shape, but
intake valves are usually larger. Opening and
closing of the valves are controlled by the valve

The camshaft controls the distance
the valves open and the duration of
time over which they are open.
There is one camshaft lobe for each
valve. until the camshaft lobe allows
the valve spring to reseat the valve.
On overhead camshaft engines, the
cam lobes usually push directly on
the valve rocker arm.