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VBB 4043 ENGINEERS IN SOCIETY

: PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Topics Covered
The

world of project management, the


manager, the organization and the
team,
planning, budgeting, scheduling,
allocating resources,
monitoring and controlling, evaluating
and terminating,

References
1. Nicholas, J.M. Project Management for Business and
Engineering: Principles and Practice. 2nd Ed. Elsevier, 2004
2. Levy, S.M. Project Management in Construction
Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 4th Ed., 2002
3. Project Management Institute. A Guide to the
Project Management Body of Knowledge,
PMI, 2000

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LECTURE 1 :
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
MANAGEMENT

Project Slide Show


on :
- PM Application in Civil Engineering and
- The Multidisciplinary Nature of Civil Projects

Topics for todays


lecture
Definitions- Importance- Organization- Approaches- -

Definitions: Project
Project: A temporary endeavor undertaken to create
a unique product or service (PMI,* 2000)
or
Simply anything in which you invest time,
money and resources in hope of a return.
c.f. Operation: A permanent or semi-permanent functional
work to create the same product or service
OVER-AND-OVER again
* Project Management Institute, U.S.A.

Characteristics of Engineering Projects

Have specific goals e.g. build a house, build a car, etc

Have a set of different activities to do e.g. in building:


piling, erect formwork, pour concrete, build brick-wall

Have a defined start & finish date (so has a life cycle)

Consume resources : e.g. people, money, materials, etc

Has definite start and finish date. Temporary and one-off


endeavor.

Often complex and fragmented (many parties involved)

Often large in size and cost,

Has risk and uncertainty

Unique in some way

Project Life Cycle

Defining stage

Inception, definition of project, proposal preparation

Planning Stage

Planning, organizing, design

Execution Stage

Construction or manufacturing or production


Pre-construction planning (for civil)

Delivering stage

Handing over /commissioning


Occupation / operation

Definitions: Project Management


Project Management:
The art of directing and coordinating human and
material resources through the life of a project by using
modern management techniques to achieve predetermined goals of scope, cost, time, quality and
participant satisfaction (PMI, 2000) or
The discipline of organizing and managing resources in
such a way that these resources deliver all the works
required to complete a project within defined scope,
scope time
and cost constraints. (BSI)

Pre-Defined Objectives

Based on the definitions, the pre-defined


objectives are

to complete the project on time,


to complete the project within budget
to complete the project with the desired quality

Importance
Why do we need to think about Project Management

Is it a MUST

Is it a REQUIREMENT

Can we do WITHOUT it

(Project Management is a field originated from


Construction Management- a knowledge developed in
Civil Engineering. Since 1969 it has diffused to other
industry e.g. agriculture, manufacturing, IT, etc).

PM is a necessity because

The inherent characteristics of engineering projects


(complex, fragmented, large in size, unique, etc)
require a systematic approach in managing the
activities and the resources

Resources e.g. time, money, materials and


manpower are limited (unlike in ancient times)

Challenge of PM
Apart from trying to achieve the 3 objectives,
the challenge of Project Management is then:
the optimized utilization, integration &
allocation of the resources (inputs) needed to
meet the pre-defined objectives
The resources are:
Time
Money
People

Materials
Energy
space

The Project Manager

From the definition of PM, Project Managers duty is


PLOC:
Planning - tactical (short term planning at PM level to satisfy
top management objectives); or operational (planning at PM
level to set schedule and standards for the works). N.B.
strategic (long term planning to set up organization, and
policies and strategies for use of resources) is done at top
management level
Organizing creating an organization or team to execute the
managerial objectives and establish how people within it relate
and interact each other
Leading - directing, motivating, specializing, communicating
Controlling measuring what is actually achieved wrt time,
cost, quality and the corrective appropriate measures taken

Organization
Organization is the creation of a control and
communication system that allows management to
achieve its objectives.
Involves the setting up a structure that defines
hierarchies, roles, authorities, control, interaction &
communications mechanisms.
No universal or standard structure for organization
must suit particular project situation
Though temporary in nature, it must also interact with
permanent external and internal organizations.
Example: organization structure (site-civil project )
PM needs good organization to execute his/her duties

Approaches in Project
Management
A. The Traditional Approach to Project
Management: Five Components
based on the project life cycle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project Initiation Stage


Project Planning & Design Stage
Project Execution Stage
Project Monitoring / Control Systems
Project Completion

But still not all projects will have all components


This approach involves pre-planned tasks, so its systematic

Approaches in Project Management


(cont.)
Other Approaches in Project Management
B. Waterfall Development:
Generally used in software development, one series of tasks
after another in linear sequence
C. Agile Project Management Approaches;
Based on the principles of human interaction management and
founded on a process view of human collaboration.
The project is seen as a series of relatively small tasks
conceived and executed as the situation demands in an adaptive
manner rather than as a completely pre-planned process ( rather,
an ad-hoc type of project management)

Thank You