Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 59

Anna Marie

Rebucas
Vianca Empiales
Patricia Diane Lim
Andrew Jayme

INDONESIAN
ARCHITECTURE

INFLUEN
CES:
I. Geographical.
Indonesia officially the
Republic of
Indonesia is a
sovereign state in
Southeast Asia and
Oceania.Indonesia is
an
archipelagocomprising
thousands of islands.It
encompasses 34
provinces.

It comprises five main


islands:
Sumatra, Java, Borneo
(known as "Kalimantan"),
and New
TwoSulawesi,
major archipelagos
Guinea

Nusa Tenggara

Maluku Islands

And Sixty smaller archipelagoes.

III.Climate. Being a tropical


II. Geological

It lies on the Pacific Ring of


Fire

Sumatra, Java, Madura,


and Kalimantan lie on the
Sunda Shelf and
geographers have
conventionally grouped
them, (along with
Sulawesi), as the Greater
Sunda Islands.

Most of the larger islands


are mountainous, with
peaks ranging between
3,000 and 3,800 metre

Tallest mountains are


located in the Jayawijaya
Mountains and the
Sudirman Range in Papua.

Twenty-nine volcanic
eruptions were recorded,

country,
Indonesia
is
blessed with two seasons,
namely dry and rainy. Dry
usually occurs from June to
September and the rest is
rainy season. Sunshine is
abundant except in rainy
season when the sky tends
to be cloudy. It is advisable
to visit Indonesia during dry
season.

IV. Religion. Indonesia is a secular


democratic country that has a
Muslim-majority population. It
stipulates that the state shall be
based upon the belief in "the
one and only God" (a condition
which also forms the first
principle of thePancasila, the
Indonesian
state
philosophy
introduced
by
Soekarnoin
1945). At first sight these two
conditions
seem
to
be
somewhat contradictory but
Soekarno,
Indonesia's
first
president, resolved this issue by
hypothesizing
that
every
religion
(including
'soft
polytheistic'
Hinduism)
essentially has one highest
Supreme Being to which one
subjects
oneself.
Although
Indonesia is not an Islamic
state, Islamic principles do

The
Indonesian
Islam in Indonesia
Constitution
guarantees The history of Islam in
freedom
of
religion.
Indonesia is complex and
However, the government
reflects the diversity of
only recognizes six official
Indonesian cultures
religions:
Islam, By the 15th century, the
Christianity, Hinduism,
spread of the religion
accelerated via the
Buddhism, Confucianism
missionary work of Maulana
and Protestantism.

Malik Ibrahim in Sumatra


and Java as well as Admiral
Zheng He (from China) in
north Java.
Islam in Indonesia is in many
cases less meticulously
practiced in comparison to
Islam in the Middle
Eastregion.Majority of
Indonesian Muslims practice
Sunni Islams of Shafi school
of jurisprudence.

V. Historical.
.Historically,
immigrationfrom India,
China, Portugal, Arabia,
and the
Netherlandshas been a
major contributor to the
diversity of religion and
culturewithin the
country.
.Prior to the arrival of
Islam, and the
Abrahamicfaiths of
Christianity and
Judaism, the popular
belief systemsin the
region were thoroughly
influenced by Dharmic
religious philosophy
through Hinduism and

These religions were brought


to Indonesia around the 2nd
and 4th centuries,
respectively, when Indian
traders arrived on the islands
of Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi.

The
most
dominant
influences on Indonesian
architecturehave
traditionally been Indian ;
however, Chinese, Arab,
and European architectural
influences
have
been

Christianity
The

Government
of
Indonesiaofficially recognizes

the
two
Christiandivisions
in
and

main

Indonesia,Protestantism

Roman Catholicism,
separate religions.

as

two

PROTESTANTISM

form

a significant minority in
some parts of the country. On
the island ofSulawesi, 17% of
the citizens are Protestants.

Christianity

brought
byLudwig
Ingwer
Nommensenwho is known as
apostle to the Batak people

Today

was

most of the population


native to North Sulawesi
practice
some
form
of
Protestantism,
while
transmigrants
from
Java
andMadurapractice Islam.

Roman
Catholicism
Catholicismarrived in
Indonesia during the
Portuguese arrival with
spice trading.
Many Portuguese had the
goal of spreading Roman
Catholicism in Indonesia,
starting
withMoluccas(Maluku) in
1534.
Between 1546 and 1547,
the pioneerChristian
missionary,Saint Francis
Xavier, visited the islands
andbaptisedseveral
thousand locals.
As of 2006, 3% of all
Indonesians are Catholics,
about half the number of

HINDUISM
Hinduism in Indonesia takes
on a tone distinct from
other parts of the world.

incorporated
nativeAustronesian
elements that
reveredhyangs, deities and
spirits of nature and
deceasedancestors.

As of 2007, the official


number of Hindu
practitioners was 10 million,
giving Indonesia the fourth
largest number of Hindus in
the world.

This number is disputed by


the representative of
Hinduism in Indonesia,
theParisada Hindu
Dharma.

Buddhism
Buddhism is the second oldest
religion in Indonesia, arriving
around the sixth century.
The history of Buddhism in
Indonesia is closely related to the
history of Hinduism, as a number
of empires based on Buddhist
culture were established around
the same period.
The arrival of Buddhism was
started with the trading activity
that began in the early of first
century on theSilk Roadbetween
Indonesia and India.
According to some Chinese
source, a Chinese traveler monk
on his journey to India, witnessed
the powerful maritime empire of
Srivijaya based onSumatra. The
empire also served as a Buddhist
learning center in the region.

2000 nationalcensus,
roughly 1% of the total
citizens of Indonesia are
Buddhists, which takes up
about 2 million people.

practitioners of Confucianism
andTaoism, which are not
considered official religions of
Indonesia, referred to
themselves as Buddhists on
the census.

CONFUCIANISM
Confucianismoriginated
inChinaand was brought to
Indonesia
byChinesemerchants, as
early as the 3rd century AD.
more like a way of life
orsocial movementthan a
religion
In 1965,Sukarno issued
Presidential Decree No.
1/Pn.Ps/1965, recognizing
that six religions are
embraced by the Indonesian
people, including
Confucianism.
the status of Confucianism in
Indonesia in the New Order
regime was never clear but
later part Confucianism once
again became officially
recognized as a religion in
Indonesia.

CULTURE

Culture
ThecultureofIndonesiahas
been shaped by
longinteractionbetween
original indigenous customs and
multiple foreign influences.
along ancienttrading
routesbetween theFar
East,South Asiaand theMiddle
East, resulting in many cultural
practices being strongly
influenced by a multitude
ofreligions.
Western culturehas greatly
influenced Indonesia in science,
technology and modern
entertainment such as television
shows, film and music, as well
as political system and issues.
Indiahas notably influenced
Indonesian songs and movies.

Despite the influences of


foreign culture, some
remote Indonesian regions
still preserve uniquely
indigenous culture.

Indigenousethnic
groupsMentawai,Asmat,
Dani,Dayak,Torajaand
many others are still
practicing their ethnic
rituals, customs and
wearing traditional clothes.

CUISINE

Thecuisine of Indonesiahas
been influenced byChinese
cultureandIndian culture,
as well as byWestern
culture.
The most important aspect
of modern Indonesian
cuisine is that food must
behalal, conforming to
Islamic food laws.Haraam,
the opposite of halal,
includesporkandalcohol.
Indonesian dishes are
usually spicy, using a wide
range ofchili peppersand
spices.
Chinese and Indian cultures
have influenced the serving
of food and the types of
spices used.

Poetry
There is a long tradition in
Indonesia, particularly
among
ethnicallyMalaypopulatio
ns, of extemporary,
interactive, oral
composition of poetry.
These poems are referred
to as pantun.
CRAFTS
Several Indonesian
islands are famous for
theirbatik,ikatandsongk
etcloth.
Other worldwide famous
Indonesian crafts
ISJeparawood carving.

Architectural Characteristic of Indonesia


The characteristic Architecture of Indonesia such as
timber construction, varied and elaborate roof structures.
Concept design overall; symmetric, nature contextual
and used nature materials. Some of design form come
from domestic architecture influence religion foreign such
as; Java, Bali and others province common Austronesian
ancestry (originating in Taiwan, c. 6,000 years ago).
The earliest Austronesian structures were communal
longhouses on stilts, with steep sloping roofs and heavy
gables, as seen in the Batak rumah adat and the Torajan
Tongkonan. Variations on the communal longhouse
principle are found among the Dayak people of Borneo,
as well as the Mentawai people.

TheNational Monument
Indonesian:Monumen
Nasional, abbreviatedMonas
Description: Monas is a
132m (433ft) tower in the
centre ofMerdeka
Square,Central Jakarta,
symbolizing the fight
forIndonesia. It is thenational
monumentof theRepublic of
Indonesia, built to
commemorate thestruggle for
Indonesian independence.

Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta

Istiqlal Mosque, orMasjid Istiqlal, (Independence


Mosque)
inJakarta,
Indonesia
is
the
largestmosquein Southeast Asia. Thisnational
mosqueof Indonesia was built to commemorate
Indonesian independence and named "Istiqlal", an
Arabic word for "independence". The mosque was
opened to the public 22 February 1978. Within
Jakarta, the mosque is positioned next toMerdeka
Squareand theJakarta Cathedral.

Religious Architecture
in Indonesia

Althoughreligious
architecturehas
been
widespread in Indonesia,
the most significant was
developed
inJava.
A
number of often large and
sophisticated
religious
structures
(known
ascandiinIndonesian)
were built in Java during the
peak of Indonesia's great
Hindu-Buddhist
kingdoms
between the 8th and 14th
centuries
(seeAncient
temples
of
Java).
The
earliest surviving Hindu
temples in Java are at
theDieng Plateau. Thought
to have originally numbered
as many as 400, only 8

One hundred years later the


secondKingdom
of
Matarambuilt the Prambanan
complex
near
Jogjakarta;
considered the largest and
finest example of Hindu
architecture in Java.

ThePrambanantemple
complex

The World Heritage-listed


Buddhist
monument
Borobudur was built by the
Sailendra Dynasty between
750 and 850 AD, but it was
abandoned shortly after its
completion as a result of
the decline of Buddhism
and a shift of power to
eastern Java.
By the fifteenth century, Islam
had become the dominant
religion in Java and Sumatra,
Indonesia's two most populous
islands.

Traditional

Indonesia has 33 provinces,


Each Vernacular
of province has its
own Architecture
distinctive form and
identity
of
traditional
vernacular
architecture,
known as Rumah Adat in
Indonesian. The concept of
Rumah Adat are base on
social relations, traditional
laws, taboos, myths and
religion. The main focus of
that house for family, theirs
community
and
some
residents activities. Design
of Rumah Adat didn't have
an architect designer but
that build their own homes
or
community
under
direction
of
a
master
builder or a carpenter. Also
the amazing unique is
every province has different
ethnic
and
they
have

Batak Karo House

Mentawai House - Nias

The 33 provinces of
Indonesia

1. Province Aceh
Acehnesetraditionalhousescalled"RumohAceh".This
custom home-typehouses on stiltswith
3mainsectionsandanadditional part.Three main parts
ofAcehishomeseuramokeu
(frontporch),seuramoTeungoh
(centralfoyer)andseuramolikot (backporch).
Whileanadditionalpartthat
isrumohDapu(homekitchen).

2. Province North
Sumatra / Batak
In general,the form
ofbuilding custom
homesin
theBatakindigenousgroup
symbolizing"standingbuff
alo".It iseven more
clearto decoratethe top
ofthe roofwith abuffalo
head.
Karo traditional house
Siwaluh Jabu looks great
and is higher in comparison
with other custom homes. The
roof is made of fibers and is
usually coupled with the roofs
of the smaller triangle called
ayo-ayo and tersek.

Batak Toba:Bolon,The
form ofcustom homesin
the
areaSimalungunquite
attractive.Complexcusto
m homesin the village
ofAncientCausewayconsi
stsofseveralbuildingstha
t"houseBolon",Bolonha
ll,drying,abstinencehall
need,anddimples.

Nias Island: "Omo Niha",The


shape andlayoutofthe
housetype.Niasconstructiono
f housesmade
ofhardwoodand sturdy.Poles
arehigh,so peoplecan get
intounder thehouse.Forms
oftraditionalchief's house,the
roofisdominantcompared
toother houses.

3. Province West
Sumatra / Padang
The traditional house
ofWest Sumatra,
especiallyfrom
ethnicMinangkabaucalled

"Rumah Gadang".
Usuallybuilt ona plot
ofland belonging tothe
parentfamilyinthe
tribe/peoplearehereditar
y.Not farfrom gadang
housecomplexesare
usuallyalsobuiltamosqu
ethat servesas a
placeofworshipand
residenceof theadult
malebut not yetmarried.

Tower Houseis
maderectangularanddivide
dinto
twofrontandrearportion,g
enerally made
ofwood,anda cursorylook
like ahouse on stiltswith
theroofshape
ofatypical,stand outlike a
buffalo horn,the local
communityandwas
formerlycalledgonjongroof
ismade

4. Province Riau
Traditional House :Rumah
melayu selaso jatuh kembar 5. Province Riau Islands
Traditional House :Rumah
(Rumah Lancang)
Selaso Jatuh Kembar (Rumah
Belah Bubung)

6. Province Jambi
Traditional House : Rumah
Panjang

7. Province South
Sumatra / Palembang
The houseis awooden
stage.
In terms
ofarchitecture,the wooden
houseswerecalled
Rumah Limas
/pyramidhousebecause
ofthe
shapeofapyramidroof.

8. Province Lampung
Traditional House : Nuwo sesat

9. Province Bengkulu
Traditional House : Rumah
bubungan lima (Rumah
Rakyat)

10. Province BangkaBelitung Islands


Rumah Adat Tradisional :
Rumah rakit/Rumah Gede
All thebuilding
materialsmade ofwoodup
to theroof,
calledtheshinglesof
buildingsdividedinto
threeparts,patioroom,livi
ng
roomormain,bufferspace,
andspaceispublic
spacebelakang.

11. Province DKI Jakarta


Traditional House : Rumah
kebaya

12. Province West Java /


Sunda
Traditional House : Kesepuhan

13. Province Banten


Traditional House :
Kasepuhan

15. Province DI
Yogyakarta
Traditional House : Rumah
Bangsal Kencono

14. Province Central Java


Traditional House :Rumah
joglo
The architecture of Central
Java is characterized by the
juxtaposition of the old and
the new and a wide variety of
architectural styles.
The tower of the famous
Mosque of Kudus resembles a
Hindu-Javanese or Balinese
temple more than a traditional
Middle-Eastern mosque.

16. Province East Java /


Surabaya
Traditional House : Rumah
joglo

17. Province Bali


Balihousein accordancewith
the rules ofAstaKosalaKosali.
Balinesearchitectureis
alwaysfilled
withornaments,carvings,
tools, andthe
color.Decorativecontaina
certain senseof beautyas an
expression ofsymbols and
communicationdelivery.
Decorativeformsoffaunaspe
18. Province Nusa
Tenggara Barat / Lombok ciesalso serve
asritualsymbolsare
Traditional House : Dalam
displayedin the sculpture.
loka samawa

19. Provinsi Nusa


Tenggara Timur /
Kupang
Traditional House :Sao
ata mosa
lakitana(Musalaki)

20. Provinsi West


Kalimantan / Pontianak
Traditional House : Rumah
panjang

21. Provinsi Central


Kalimantan / Palangka
Raya
Traditional House : Rumah
bentang

22. Provinsi South


Kalimantan / Banjarmasin
Traditional House :Rumah
Banjar Bubungan Tinggi

23. Provinsi East


Kalimantan /Tenggarong
Traditional House : Rumah
lamin

24. Provinsi North


Sulawesi /Menado
Traditional House : Rumah
Pewaris

25. Provinsi Gorontalo


Traditional House : Rumah
Dolohupa

26. Provinsi Central


Sulawesi /Palu
Traditional House : Souraja /
Rumah besar

27. ProvinsiSoutheast
Sulawesi /Kendari
Traditional House : Laikas

29. Province West


Sulawesi / Mamuju
Traditional House : banua
layuk

28. Province South


Sulawesi /Ujung Pandang
Traditional House :
Tongkonan
Tongkonanare the center of
Torajan social life. The rituals
associated with
thetongkonanare important
expressions of Torajan spiritual
life, and therefore all family
members are impelled to
participate, because
symbolically
thetongkonanrepresents links
to their ancestors and to living
and future kin.

31. Province North


Maluku
Traditional House :
Sasadu
30. Province Maluku /
Ambon
Traditional House : Baileo

32. Province Irian Jaya /


Papua
Traditional House : Rumah
Honai

33. Province West


Papua / Manokwari
The traditional house has
only one form of "Honai
Housebuilt by wood and
straw, that materials
building are readily
available in natural
surroundings.
Honai house has one small
door, it is usually without
windows and ventilation to
be safe from beast and
keep the room temperature
still warm. The center of
the room has a furnace
that is used for cooking
and for room heating. As
well as a gathering place
for families.

One Honai house, consisting


of several families or single
heads of households with
multiple wives and children.
Home honai has circular form
with a half of coconut-shaped
roof. Also open space interior
with 2 level, which on top
level used as a bed.

Balinese architecture

Balinese
architectureis
avernacular
architecturetradition ofBalinese peoplethat inhabits
volcanic island ofBali,Indonesia. The Balinese
architecture is a centuries-old architectural tradition
influenced
byBalinese
culturedeveloped
fromHinduinfluences through ancient Javanese
intermediary, as well as pre-Hindu elements of native

They uses natural materials such asthatch roofing,


bamboo poles, woven bamboo, coconut wood, teak wood,
brick
and
stone.
The
thatched
roof
usually
usesijuk(blackarenfibers),
dried
coconut
orrumbialeafs, orsirap(hard wood shingles arranged
like tiles) roof. Stones and red bricks are usually used as
foundation and walls, whilesandstoneandandesitestone
are usually carved as ornamentation.

Today, contemporary Balinese style is known as one of the


most popular Asian tropical architecture, due largely to the
growth of the tourism industry in Bali that has created
demand for Balinese-style houses, cottages, villas and
hotels. Contemporary Balinese architecture combines
traditional aesthetic principles, island's abundance of natural
materials, famous artistry and craftmanship of its people, as
well as international architecture influences, new techniques
and trends.

Palace architecture

Istan
(or
"palace")
architecture
of
the
various kingdoms and
realms of Indonesia, is
more often than not
based
on
the
vernacularadatdomesti
c styles of the area.
Royal courts, however,
were able to develop
much
grander
and
elaborate versions of
this
traditional
architecture.
Pagaruyung Palace (Sumatra Barat
In the Javanese palaces
thependopois
the
tallest and largest hall
within a complex. As the
place where the ruler
sits, it is the focus of

Colonial architecture

The
16th
and
17th
The largest stock of colonial
centuries saw the arrival
era buildings are in the large
of European powers in
cities of Java, such as
Indonesia
who
Bandung,Jakarta,Semarang,
usedmasonryfor much of
andSurabaya.
their
construction.
Previously timber and its
by-products had been
almost exclusively used in
Indonesia,
with
the
exception
some
major
For almostoftwo
centuries,
religious
and did palace
the colonialists
little to
architecture.
adapt
their
European
architectural habits to the
tropical climate. The canals
became dumping grounds
for noxious waste and
sewage
and
an
ideal
Museum Jakarta - Old Cty - Jakarta K
breeding
ground
for
theanophelesmosquitos,
with
malaria

Contemporary
architecture

The 1970s, 1980s and 1990s


saw foreign investment and
economic
growth;
large
construction booms brought
major changes to Indonesian
cities,
including
the
replacement of the early
twentieth
styles
with
latemodernandpostmoder
nstyle.
The
urban
construction booms have
continued
in
the
21st
century and are shaping
skylines in Indonesian cities.
Many new buildings are clad
with shiny glass surfaces to
reflect
the
tropical
sun.Architectural styles are
influenced by developments
in
architecture
internationally,including the

Central Park
Jakarta

Modern
Architect
ure in
Indonesia

Al-Irsyad Mosque
Location: Bandung,
Indonesia
Architect: PT. Urbane
Indonesia
Location:Kota Baru
Parahyangan,
Padalarang, Jawa Barat,
Indonesia
Client:PT. Belaputera
Intiland
Site
Area:8,000
sqm mosque that is shaped as a cube,
Description:
A modern
Project
sqmbuilt in 2009 and completed in 2010.
without aArea:970
dome. It was
Uses stacked stones as the main faade to create tectonic
effect, while embedding Islamic text/calligraphy on the
faade as a graphic element and reminder prayer. With a
capacity to accommodate approximately 1,000 people, the
mosque is also designed to blend in with nature. The
stacked stones allow for natural ventilation without the need
for air-conditioning. Surrounded by water, the ambient
temperature around the mosque will be lower during the hot
season. Once inside, the people are able to look out and
appreciate the external scenery.

Additional
Photos

Wisma 46
Location: Jakarta, Indonesia
Architects: Zeidler Roberts
Partnership
(Zeidler
Partnership Architects) and DP
Architects Private Ltd.
Type: Office, Retail
Architectural style: High-rise
Description: Currently the
tallest building in Indonesia.
The tower is a cuboid concrete
tower rising 200 m before a
sleek glass tower rises out of it
before culminating in a curved
spire. The glass tower has a
totally glass exterior unlike the
tower it rises from which has a
concrete exterior with square
windows. The building's design
is described as modern and
late-modernist. The tower has
48 floors above ground which
consist of offices only. There

Additional Photos

Sahid Perdana
Towers
Proposed
Architects: M. Ridwan
Kamil & A.D. Tardiyana
Location: Sahid City
Superblock

Description: The SPT, consist of two


main towers: a 50-storey five-star
hotel and a 45-storey office building.
At ground level the twin towers flank a
graceful globe-like exhibition hall and
performing arts centre; the same
shape is mirrored by the spa in the
sky that connects the two towers
higher
up.
The Sahid Perdana Towers sleek
elliptical shape has a distinctly
modern aesthetic while also reflecting
a Javanese symbol, the twin lotus. The
towers are rotated in such a way to
preserve views from both buildings.
The towers curtain wall also
meets both objectives. The bottom
half of the buildingsfrom the podium
to the 30th floorhas a modern,
futuristic wall made of coloured glass
and aluminium cladding to express
strong horizontal lines; from the 31st
floor to the top of the tower, the
curtain wall is made of a clear glass
that is textured through an internal

Additional photos

Peruri 88
Proposed
Location: Jakarta,
Indonesia
Year : 2012
Client : Wijiya Karya Benhill Property
Peruri 88 is approximately a
360,000 square-meter 88story high rise mixed-use
district in the heart of
Jakartas
capitol
region.
Designed to be the grandeur
of Peruri and Indonesia, Peruri
88
combines
residential,
hotel,
office,
retail
and
entertainment uses and is
envisioned as a modern iconic
and active public gathering
place for the city.

Additional photos

Central Park
Jakarta

Central ParkinJakarta,Indonesiais a mixed-use complex


including a shopping mall, an office tower, 3 apartments,
and
a
hotel
covering
an
area
of
about
655,000m2(7,050,000sqft) located in the district ofGrogol
Petamburan,West Jakartacreated by the Agung Podomoro
Group. The Complex is the10th largest building in the
worldin terms of floor space.
It is named after the originalCentral ParkinNew York City.
Central Park Jakarta is situated in betweenMall Taman

Bakrie Tower
Architect: Hellmuth, Obata &
Kassabaum.
Building type: Skyscraper
Structural material:
Concrete
Faade material: Glass
Faade system: Curtain wall
Description: A 50-storey
office tower reaching the
height of 215 m with 64,856
sqm of useable area,
strategically located within the
Epicentrum Rasuna in the
heart of Jakartas golden
triangle. Developed with a
unique building architecture
concept and with considering
energy efficiency and
environment, its amazing
twists and interlocking design
makes Bakrie Tower the new
landmark in Jakartas prime

BCA Tower
Location: Central Jakarta
Architect: RKTL
Description: Menara become
Jakarta's tallest premium-grade
office building that incorporates
the latest design and structural
layoyts with state of art
technology all in an elegant,
business-friendly environment.
At level 3 of high speed lifts
there is a connection to the
mall, hotel, apartment and
entertainment centre. At level
11 has the swimming pool at
Platinum Fitness First' outdoor.
At level 56, one of Jakarta best
restaurants, with spectacular
views overlooking the city from
the outdoor penthouse balcony.

The Capital Residence


Tower 1
Location: Jakarta
Architect: PT. Airmas Asri
Building type: Skyscraper
Main usage: Residential
Condominium
Description: The architectural
inspiration for the Capital
Residence was the majestic
Prambanan Temple Complex.
Through the application of
cutting the edge technology
and careful utilization of
modern materials. This symbol
of power in ancient Java has
become the architectural icon
of Jakarta.

Pakubowono Signature
Location: Jakarta
Pakubowono Signature is the
last tower, the most luxurious
and the tallest among
Pakubuwono Residence (5
tower) and Pakubowno View (2
tower) residential complex at
Pakubuwono Street, Kebayoran
Baru, South Jakarta.
Pakubuwono Signature will
scrape Jakarta's sky with
counted 50 floor of residential
tower, official height is not open
for public yet, but with 50 floor
plus the antena this tower could
be reach 200m.

Equity Tower
Location: Jakarta
Building Uses:office, retail
Structural Types: Highrise
Materials: Glass, Reinforced
concrete
Description: Equity Tower is
a 44-storey office tower
located at the heart of
Sudirman Central Business
District, recognized to be the
most desirable area for
business and commerce in
Jakarta. Occupying a sizeable
area of 9,535 sq m on this
prime land, the design aims to
address the physical and
urban context and to create
an iconic landmark.

End.