Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

Institutions in India

Joint Stock Banks

It can be defined as any company which accepts for the
purpose of lending or investment deposits of money
from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and
withdrawal by cheque, draft order or otherwise
The beginning of commercial banking of the joint
stock variety that could be traced back to the early
18th century.
The western variety of joint stock banking was brought
to India by
the English Agency houses of Calcutta and
The first bank of a joint stock variety was Bank of
Bombay, established in 1720 in Bombay.
This was followed by Bank of Hindustan in Calcutta,
which was established in 1770 .However, the bank

Joint stock banks

The pre-independence period was largely
characterised by the existence of private banks
organised as joint stock companies.
Most banks were small and had private
shareholding of the closely held variety.
They were largely localised and many of them
They came under the purview of the Reserve
Bank that was established as a central bank for the
country in 1935.

The first Indian owned bank was the

Allahabad Bank set up in Allahabad in 1865.
the second, Punjab National Bank was set up
in 1895 in Lahore
and the third, Bank of India was set up in
1906 in Mumbai.
All these banks were founded under private
The Swadeshi Movement of 1906 provided a
great impetus to joint stock banks of Indian
ownership and many more Indian commercial
banks such as Central
Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank,
Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were
established between 1906 and 1913.

JSB are classified by RBI as

- scheduled banks
- non-scheduled banks
Scheduled banks : banks which are listed in the
Second Schedule of the RBI Act, 1934. They are
- Commercial banks
- Regional rural banks
- urban cooperative banks
- State cooperative banks

Scheduled Banks
in India
Cooperative banks

Commercial Banks




sector banks







Presidency Banks
Trade was concentrated in Calcutta after the growth of East
India Companys trading and administration.
With this grew the requirement for modern banking
services, uniform currency to finance foreign trade and
remittances by British army personnel and civil servants.
The first Presidency bank was the Bank of Bengal
established in Calcutta on June 2, 1806 with a capital of
Rs.50 lakh.
The Government subscribed to 20 per cent of its share capital
and shared the privilege of appointing directors with voting
The bank had the task of discounting the Treasury Bills to
provide accommodation to the Government.
The bank was given powers to issue notes in 1823.
The Bank of Bombay was the second Presidency bank
set up in 1840 with a capital of Rs.52 lakh

the Bank of Madras the third Presidency bank

established in July 1843 with a capital of Rs.30 lakh

They were known as Presidency banks

as they
were set up in the three Presidencies
that were the units of administrative
jurisdiction in the country for the East India
The Presidency banks were governed by
Royal Charters.
The Presidency banks issued currency
notes until the enactment of the Paper
Currency Act, 1861, when this right to
issue currency notes by the Presidency
banks was abolished and that function was
entrusted to the Government

The Presidency Bank Act, which came into

existence in 1876, brought the three Presidency
banks under a common statute and imposed some
on their business.
It prohibited them from dealing with risky
business of foreign bills and borrowing abroad
for lending more than 6 months, among others.
In terms of Act XI of 1876, the Government of India
decided on strict enforcement of the charter and
the periodic inspection of the books of these
The proprietary connection of the Government
was, however, terminated, though the banks
continued to hold charge of the public debt offices in
the three presidency towns, and the custody of a part
of the Government balances.

The Act also stipulated the creation of

Reserve Treasuries at Calcutta, Bombay and
Madras into which
sums above the specified minimum balances
to the presidency banks,
The Government could lend to the presidency
banks from such Reserve Treasuries.
This Act enabled the Government to enforce some
stringent measures such as periodic inspection
the books of these banks.
The major banks were organised as private
shareholding companies with the majority
shareholders being Europeans.

By the end of December 1913, the total

number of reporting commercial banks in the
country reached 56 comprising 3 Presidency
banks, 18 Class A banks (with capital of
greater than Rs.5 lakh), 23 Class B banks
(with capital of Rs.1 lakh to 5 lakh) and 12
exchange banks.
Exchange banks were foreign owned banks
that engaged mainly in foreign exchange
business in terms of foreign bills of
exchange and foreign remittances for travel
and trade.
Class A and B were joint stock banks. The
banking sector during this period, however, was
dominated by the Presidency banks as was
reflected in paid-up capital and deposits

World War I and its Impact on Banking in India

The World War I years (1913 to 1918) were indeed
difficult years for the world economy.
The alarming inflationary situation that had developed
as a result of war financing and concentration on the
war led to other problems like neglect of agriculture
and consumers.
Most activity during the war period was
concentrated in urban areas. This further tilted
the already adverse urban-rural balance.
Rural areas lacked access to organised banking
and this led to almost complete dependence of
farmers on moneylenders who charged exorbitant
rates of interest.
During the war period, a number of banks failed.
Some banks that failed had combined trading
functions with banking functions.

More importantly, several of the banks that

failed had a low capital base. For
instance, average capital of failed banks in
1913 was Rs.2.9 lakh as against the
average capital of Rs.12 lakh for the
category of Class A and B banks.
The crisis had begun before the World War
I, but accentuated during it
Most of these banks had also maintained
an unduly low proportion of cash and
other liquid assets.
As a result, they were not resilient
enough to be able to perform under difficult

The presidency banks were amalgamated

into a single bank, the Imperial Bank of
India, in 1921.
The Imperial Bank of India was further
reconstituted with the merger of a number of
banks belonging to old princely states such
as Jaipur, Mysore, Patiala and Jodhpur.
The Imperial Bank of India also functioned
establishment of the Reserve Bank in
Thus, during this phase, the Imperial Bank of
India performed three set of functions, viz.,
commercial banking, central banking and
the banker to the government.

By 1930, the number of commercial

banks increased to 107 with the Imperial
Bank of India still
dominating the Indian banking sector
Besides, at end-March 1929, 158 cooperative
banks also existed.
The number of co-operative banks rose
sharply (more than doubled) between
1922-23 to 1928-29 Although greater
than commercial banks in number, the
size of deposits of co-operative banks
was much smaller.

In 1930, the banking system, in all,

1258 banking institutions registered
under the Indian Companies Act,
Of the 1258 entities registered as banks
in 1930, while some were banks in
genuine terms, others
were indigenous banks, nidhis and
loan companies.

Nidhis are more popular in South India

and are highly localized single office
institutions. They are mutual benefit
societies, because their dealings are
restricted only to the members; and
membership is limited to individuals. The
principal source of funds is the
contribution from the members. The loans
are given to the members at relatively
reasonable rates for purposes such as
house construction or repairs and are
generally secured. The deposits mobilized
by Nidhis are not much when compared to
the organized banking sector.

Indigenous bankers constitute the ancient

banking system of India. They have been
carrying on their age-old banking operations
in different parts of the country under
different names.
In Chennai, these bankers are
calledChettys; in Northern IndiaSahukars,
Mahajans and Khatnes;in Mumbai,Shroffs
and Marwaris;and in Bengal,Seths and
Banias.According to theIndianCentral
Banking Enquiry Committee, an indigenous
banker or bank is defined as an individual or
private firm which receives deposits, deals in
hundies or engages itself in lending money.

The indigenous bankers can be divided into

three categories:
(a)those who deal only in banking business
(e.g., Multani bankers);
(b)those who combine banking business with
trade(e.g., Marwaris and Bengalies); and
(c) those who deal mainly in trade and have
limited banking business.
The indigenous banker is different from the
moneylender. The moneylender is not a
banker; his business is only to lend money
from his own funds. The indigenous banker,
on the other hand, lends and accepts funds
from public.

The world economy was gripped by

the Great
Depression during the period from
1928 to 1934.
This also had an impact on the Indian
banking industry with the number of
banks failing rose sharply due to
their loans going bad.