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HRD Mechanisms

Coaching and mentoring


Performance appraisal, performance
management.
3. Career development and planning
1.
2.

1. Coaching and
Mentoring

COACHING

Coaching means educating,


training subordinates.

instructing

and

Managers rely on coaching for some of their most


important duties such as
Appraising employees
On the job training

Coaching can be defined as a process used to


encourage employee to accept responsibility for
their own performance, to enable them to
achieve and sustain superior performance, and to
treat them as partners in working toward
organizational goals and effectiveness.

Coaching: A four step


process
1.

Preparing to coach: It is partly an observational


process. Preparation means understanding the
problem, the employee, and the employees skills.

ABC approach can be applied in identifying the

problem
Review the antecedents-those things that come
before job performance
Does the employee know what the performance
standards are?
Does he or she know that they are not being met?

Review the employees behavior


was the training adequate?
does the person have necessary aptitudes?
Consequences of doing the job right
Do you reward the person for doing the job well?
2. Planning: This stage requires reaching agreement on
the problem and on what to change.
Layout a change plan in the form of steps to take
Measure of success
Date to complete
Getting agreement on these items requires high
interpersonal communication skills

3. Active coaching:
Start the actual educating, instructing
and training

Interpersonal skills are the heart of


effective coaching

4. Follow up
Re-observe the coach performance

periodically

HRD Professionals role in


coaching
HRD

professionals
can
help
managers and supervisors become
effective coaches by training of
coaching process and necessary
interpersonal skills needed for this
Other HRD interventions such as
training
may
solve
problems
uncovered by a coaching analysis
Coaching is an HRD intervention

Mentoring

Mentoring refers to relationship between junior


and senior member of the organization that
contributes to the career development of both
members.

Mentoring can be formal or informal.

Mentoring caveat: For the supervisor mentoring is


both valuable and dangerous. As mentoring
focuses on long term hard to reverse longer term
issues, and often touches on persons psychology
(i.e. motives, needs, aptitude etc.,)

Special Forms of
Mentoring

Reverse mentoring: The younger employees


mentor senior employees/leaders
Group mentoring: People connect with
different people including peers and seniors
and learn from them at the same time.
Shadowing: The mentee shadows the mentor
(leader/manager) everywhere at workplace
to learn the intricacies (Nokia in India uses
shadowing in its induction process, where
new joinees are mentored by top leaders for
one week).

Effective mentor
Effective

mentor set high standards,


willing to invest time and effort
required in mentoring relationship
It also requires trust: level of trust
reflects mentors
Professional competence
Ability to communicate
Readiness to share control

Protgs responsibility
Choose

an

appropriate

potential

mentor
Dont be surprised if turned down
Respect the mentors time: The
mentoring
relationship
generally
should not involve personal problems
or issues.

A Case on Coaching and Mentoring:


A New Lease of Life

2. Performance
appraisal
It means evaluating an employees
current and/or past performance relative
to his or her performance standards.
Key elements:

Setting

work standards i.e. define the


employees job and performance criteria
Assessing actual performance in relation to
standards. This normally involve some rating
form.
Providing feedback

Defining employees goal and work standards

1. Set S.M.A.R.T. goals


2. Assign specific goals
3. Assign measurable goals
4. Assign challenging but doable goals
5. Encourage participation

Why appraise performance?

Most employers still base pay and promotional


decisions on the employees performance
Assists boss and subordinate to develop a plan
for correcting any deficiency
It provides an opportunity to review the
employees career plans in light of his or her
exhibited strengths and weaknesses.
It plays an integral role in performance
management process
It provides source of most of the current
employees information

The supervisors role


The

supervisor not HR-usually does


the actual appraising.
The HR department serves a policy
making and advisory role.
The
HR team should also be
responsible for training supervisors
to improve their appraisal skills

Techniques for appraising


performance
1.

Critical Incident Technique:


The supervisor keeps a log of positive
and negative examples (critical incidents)
of a subordinates work related behavior
Critical incidents provides examples of
good or poor performance the supervisor
can use to explain the persons rating.
Every 6 months or so, supervisor and
subordinate meet to discuss the latters
performance, using incidents as example.

Provide

examples of what employees


can specifically do to eliminate
deficiencies
Without some numerical rating this
method is not useful for comparing
employees
or
making
salary
decisions.

Examples of Critical Incidents for an Assistant


Plant Manager

2. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales


(BARS)
It is an appraisal tool that anchors a numerical
rating scale with specific examples of good or poor
performance.
Steps:
1. Write critical incidents: i.e. describe specific
illustrations of effective and ineffective job
performance
2. Develop performance dimensions: Group
these incidents into 5 to 10 dimensions and then
define each dimension such as salesmanship skill
3. Reallocate incidents: Have another group to
reallocate the original critical incidents.

Scale the incidents: Rate the


behavior described by the incident
as to how effectively or ineffectively
it represents performance on the
dimension.
5. Develop
a final instrument:
Choose about six or seven of the
incidents
as
the
dimensions
behavioral anchors
4.

Example of a Behaviorally
Anchored Rating Scale

Advantages of BARS

More
accurate
tool
for
performance
assessment
Clearer standards
Feedback: Critical incidents makes it easier
to explain the ratings to appraises
Independent dimensions: it reduces the
rating bias
Consistency skills: BARS based evaluation
seem to be reliable in that different raters
appraisals of the same person tend to be the
same

In

summary, BARS is an appraisal


method that aims at combining the
benefits of narrative critical incidents
and quantified ratings by anchoring
a quantified scale with specific
narrative examples of good or poor
performance

HRD managers
responsibility in PA

Organize workshops to explain to the employees


the basic purpose of performance appraisal.

Train raters to reduce biases

He should protect the confidentiality of appraisal

He should link performance appraisal with other


system such as training, promotions and
research.

PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT

Performance management is an continued


process of identifying, measuring and developing
the performance of individuals and teams and
aligning
their
performance
with
the
organizations goals.

Basic building blocks of PM:


1.

Direction sharing means Communicating the


higher level goals throughout the company and
translating these into achievable departmental,
team and individual goal.

Performance Management.

Goal alignment i.e. having a process that


enable any manager to see the link between an
employees goals and those of the department
and company

Ongoing performance monitoring


include use of computer based system

Coaching and development effort, as a part of


feedback session

Rewards, recognition and compensation play


a role in keeping the employee's goal directed
performance on track

usually

PA vs PM
1.

PA: meeting once or twice a year to review


performance.
PM entails continues interactions and feedback
to ensure continuous improvement

2. PM is always goal directed


3. PM goes beyond annual appraisal ratings and
interviews, and incorporates employee goal
setting, feedback, coaching, rewards, and
individual development.

Performance Appraisal

Performance Management

Top-down assessment

Joint process through dialogue

Annual appraisal meeting

Continuous review with one or


more formal reviews

Use of ratings

Ratings less common

Monolithic system

Flexible process

Focus on quantified objectives

Focus on values and behavior as


well as objectives

Often linked to pay

Less likely to be directly linked to


pay

Bureaucratic-complex paper work

Documentation kept to minimum

Owned by the HR department

Owned by line managers

Case Discussion on
Performance Management

Questions for Discussion

What are the key issues involved in the case?


What went wrong in the above case?
How should performance management process
be linked with employee performance? What
should be its objectives, besides being linked
to the compensation system?
Performance
Management
for
any
organisation is not just a HR functional process
but it is important organisational enabler. In
this light give the suggestions to improve the
situation from HRD perspective.

ound of the case:


petition in the market deepened, profit margins started to decline in Nest Ceram
mpanys new strategic business plan clearly indicates the need to improve perfo
nt advised HR Vice President Ms. Prerna and the HR Department to amend the
ance review process.

es:
Objectives of PMS:
eclining sales
To take increment decision
r. Mahesh (Sales Manager) complaint for pay
or bonus pay out.
performance without merit system
Differentiate between the stars
ecade old performance review system
and the rest.
nient rating to employees
Capability building and employ
per the suggestion received from Mr. Manas (Head),
development platform
Mahesh re assess the performance rating of each employee.
r . Kalyan disagreed with the lower ratings.
Suggestions:
Existing system and process should be understood before incorporating a
new change.
Any change in PM concept should be discussed at the corporate strategy
level.
Change should be announced well in advance.
There should be a connect between strategic priorities and individual
expectations.

3. CAREER
DEVELOPMENT

Questions for Discussion

What is meant by the idea of a new


employment relationship?
When you think about the term career,
what comes to your mind?
Does it make sense to speak of careers and
career
planning
in
todays
business
environment?
What are the typical issues employees face
as they progress through their careers?
What types of career development activities
are actually used?

New Employment
Relationship
Traditionally,
employee
had
entitlement
mentality and employers had paternalistic
approach.
Career progress was defined primarily in terms of
promotion and pay increases within one
organization.
This requires a stable, predictable environment
and a hierarchically structured organization.
The concept of a boundaryless career has
become quite popular.
Does the concept of organizational career
management and development still make sense?

Several themes underlying


different dimensions of the term
The

property of an occupation or
organization
Advancement
Status of a profession
Involvement in ones work
Stability of a persons work pattern

Career terminology
Career Defined
The

pattern of work-related
experiences that span the course of
a persons life.
This definition includes both objective

events, such as jobs, and subjective


views of work, such as the persons
attitudes, values, and expectations.

Career terminology..

Career management: an ongoing process of preparing,


implementing, and monitoring career plans undertaken by
the individual alone or in concert with the organizations
career systems.

Career development: an ongoing process by which


individuals progress through a series of stages, each of
which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues,
themes and tasks

Career development involves a persons past, present and future work


roles.

Career planning: a deliberate process of 1) becoming


aware of self, opportunities, constraints, choices, and
consequences, 2) identifying career related goals and 3)
programming work, education, and related developmental
experiences to provide the direction, timing, and sequence

Spectrum of Career Development


Activities

HRD and Career


Development
Understanding

employee careers
Influencing those careers
Changing KSAOs to reflect changes
in environment
Assist employees in preparing for
new work and enhance their
employability

Career management

Ongoing process of preparing, implementing,


and monitoring career plans undertaken by the
individual alone or in concert with the
organizations career system.

Individual oriented career management

model
Organization
oriented
management model

career

Individual Oriented Model of Career


Management

Summary of Career Management


Activities

Career exploration: gathering information about ones


self and environment
Awareness of self and environment
Goal setting: specifying career goals
Strategy development: action plan to accomplishing
the career goal.
Strategy implementation: carrying out the strategy
Progress toward goal
Feedback from work and non work sources
Career appraisal: Feedback and information on
progress toward the career goal permit the individual to
appraise his or her career.

Organizationally Oriented Career Management


Models

1. Pluralistic approach (Brousseau et al.)


aligning
individual
and
organizational
interests.
Organizations can have career cultures that mirror

these career concepts (i.e. linear, expert, spiral, and


transitory)
At the same time, the organizations career culture
should support its strategic direction

Three type of career management methods


have been suggested under this approach

Counseling
Individual career development program contracts
Cafeteria approach

Career development

It can be defined as the interaction of


psychological, sociological, economic, physical
and chance factors the shape the sequence of
jobs, occupations/professions or careers that a
person may engage in throughout a lifetime.
Traditional view
Contemporary view

A balance between management and planning


makes for effective career development.

Traditional model of career


development

Five stages in Greenhaus et al. model:

Preparation for Work (025): Activities include assessing, possible

occupations, selecting an occupation, obtaining necessary education


Organizational Entry (1825): selects the job and the organization
Early

Career (2540): finding place in the world, becoming


established in a career and in an organization.

Midcareer (4055): Reexamination of the life structure and choices,

career plateauing, obsolescence.


Late Career (55retirement):
Strive to remain productive and maintain sense of self esteem
Disengaging from work

Contemporary view
of career development

Protean career Individuals drive their own careers and reinvent


their careers over time (Hall & Mirvis)

A persons career is made up of a succession of ministages of


exploration-trail-mastery-exit.

Multiple career concept model:


Four different patterns of career experiences known as career
concepts
Linear steady movement up the hierarchy (motivated by desire for power
and achievement)
Expert devotion to expertise within an occupation (desire for competence
and stability)
Spiral periodic moves (7 to 10 years) across related occupations (motives
are creativity and personal growth)
Transitory frequent moves (3 to 5 years) across different jobs or fields
(motives include variety and independence)

Roles in Career Management


Who

is responsible for career


development?
Individual
Manager
HRD professional/career counselor

For

all, it is a cyclical and


continuing process

The Individuals Role

Knowing

What:

Knowing Why:

Knowing Where:

understanding
opportunities, threats and requirements

the

industrys

understanding the meaning, motives,


and interests for pursuing a career
understanding the locations and
boundaries for entering, training, and advancing within career

Knowing Whom: forming relationship, social capital


Knowing When: understanding the timing and choice

of activity

Knowing How:

understanding and acquiring the skill and


talents needed for effective performance in assignment and
responsibilities

Managers
Responsibilities
Coaching
Appraising
Advising
Referral agent

HRD Professionals Responsibility

Recognize individual's career ownership


Recognize that career development is a
relational process in which the career
practitioner plays a broker role.
Develop expertise in CD and assessment
technologies
Create support and info for individual efforts
Promote work planning over career planning
Promote learning through relationship at
work
Be interventionist
Promote mobility and lifelong learner