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REVIEW ON CONSULTANT & CONTRACTOR

ACCREDITATION FOR MATERIALS ENGINEERS

M O D U L E

GENERAL DISCUSSION ON DEFINITION AND TERMS RELATED


TO MATERIALS TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL
Definition of Materials Testing
Importance of Materials Testing
Benefits Gain in Learning Materials Testing
Definition of Quality Control
Modern Concept of Quality Control
Purpose of Quality Control
Quality Control Procedures
RESPONSIBILITIES OF ENGINEER AND INSPECTOR IN THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF MATERIALS TESTING AND QUALITY
CONTROL
Roles of Project Engineers and Materials Engineers
Duties and Responsibilities of Project Engineer in Project Implementation
Duties and Responsibilities of Materials Engineer in Project Implementation

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES


( MATERIALS AND QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS )
Earthworks
Item 102 -- Excavation
Item 104 Embankment
Item 105 Subgrade Preparation
Item 106 Compaction Equipment and Density Control

Subbase and Base Course


Item 200 Aggregate Subbase Course
Item 201 - Aggregate Base Course
Item 202 Crushed Aggregate Base Course

Surface Courses
Item 300 Aggregate Surface Course
Item 301 Bituminous Prime Coat
Item 302 - Bituminous Tack Coat
Item 307 - Bituminous Plant Mix Surface Course-General
Item 310 Bituminous Concrete Surface Course, Hot Laid
Item 311 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

Bridge Construction
Item 404 Reinforcing Steel
Item 405 Structural Concrete
Item 406 Prestressed Concrete Structures
Item 407 Concrete Structures
Item 411 Paints

Drainage and Slope Protection Works


Item 500 Pipe Culverts and Storm Drains
Item 505 Riprap and Grouted Riprap
Item 506 Stone Masonry
Item 507 - Rubble Concrete
Item 511 Gabions and Mattresses

* Miscellaneuos

Materials

Item 603 Guardrail


Item 704 Concrete Masonry Blocks

GENERAL DISCUSSION ON DEFINITION AND TERMS


RELATED TO MATERIALS TESTING AND
QUALITY CONTROL

IN ENGINEERING POINT OF VIEW, MATERIALS


QUALITY CONTROL HAS TWO ASPECTS
NAMELY :

MATERIALS TESTING

QUALITY CONTROL

WHAT IS MATERIALS TESTING ?


is the basic means or a tool by which an engineer
or an inspector can be used to determined whether
the materials should be allowed to be incorporated
or be rejected into the work.
It is a documented proof of the quality of materials
indicating it meets or it fails the desired properties
as called for in the specifications requirements of an
approved contract.
There can be no quality assurance without adequate quality
control at the source or manufacturer or at construction,
therefore testing is a tool for measuring quality control
in project implementation.

WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS


TESTING
Engineers do not guess !!!
Testing is an important complement of quality
control in engineering works

Materials testing is not done by sight or other means without


the benefit of laboratory tests. If it is done by sight, it is pure
and simple guessing.
So without testing even in the field or in the laboratory,
no one can state definitely if the quality of materials is
satisfied or not, even the expert.

WHY WE NEED TO KNOW & LEARN TESTING


-

Project Engineers, Materials Engineers and Laboratory Technicians


who are involved in the implementation of various infrastructures
needs to learn & know testing technology in construction materials to
enhance and strength their capabilities in the implementation of
Quality Assurance Program in a project.

WHAT BENEFITS WILL YOU ACQUIRED IN


LEARNING MATERIALS TESTING
Recognize the basic technologies in testing of
construction materials.
Identify and familiarize the required tests on specific
construction materials

Identify and understand the basic properties of materials


Understand the significance of tests on the materials
Aware of the importance of materials testing in project
implementation

Perform effectively field/laboratory sampling and testing of


construction materials in accordance with the standard
methods/procedures.
Familiarize in the application of the proper method of sampling
of materials in the field and laboratory

Identify and familiarize in all laboratory testing apparatus /


equipment for materials sampling and testing

Learn and familiarize standard methods and procedures of


laboratory testing of various construction materials

Learn to check the accuracy and proper maintenance of


laboratory testing apparatus/equipment

Evaluate, analyze and interpret test results of


construction materials for the purpose of acceptance and
rejection.
Learn proper computation and check result of
tests performed

Know the proper reporting system of test reports


Understand the application of materials standard
specifications based on the result of tests

Learn how to analyze and evaluate result of


tests indicated on official test reports from testing
laboratories
Learn the proper recommended measures in the
acceptance or rejection of materials

HOW MATERIALS IS REPRESENTED


BY A TEST

The usual procedure is to make a test for a certain quantity of materials


representing the quantities to be incorporated into the work or in
accordance with the minimum testing requirements prescribed in each
project. The requirements specify the kind and number of tests for
each items of works.

It should be emphasized that what are specified are the minimum number
of testing only. Additional number of test can be require to the materials
if the owner/inspector is in doubt of the quality of materials or the
finished structure.

When the Testing of Materials be Conducted


An aspect of testing which is very important and most often
overlook is when testing should be conducted.
Testing of material is conducted prior to incorporation into the
work.

If the test is not conducted at the proper time, there is no quality control
since it will then be too late to correct anything that is defective.

If someone will attempt to evaluate the quality of materials without testing


he is taking a big risk because he is guessing.

What is Quality ?
is a judgment by the customer or users of a product or
service.
It is the extent to which the customer or users feel the
product or service surpasses their needs and
expectations.

the characteristic of a product that provides a level of


performance in terms of service and life.

What is Control ?
It is usually used in relation to something in need of
checking or regulating due to some important and
compelling reasons.
It is used to correct something which has gone wrong or
in other words, control is instituted as a (corrective)
preventive measure.
There is another form of control which is now widely and
increasingly used in most industries to gauge the
performance and excellence of work and product. It is the
combination of the above two-words we have just defined and
the name is Quality Control.

In the implementation of quality control in the engineering construction,


two-items are checked.

What is checked?
Materials and methods of construction or workmanship
Quality Control therefore includes all procedures which are necessary
to insure that the materials used and workmanship employed conform
to the standard of quality specified in the approved plans and specifications
If quality control is done by sight or other means without the benefit
of laboratory tests, and lately executed, it is pure and simple
guessing.

Quality Control is being increasingly instituted in the construction


industry, not necessarily as a corrective measure, but more as
a preventive tool.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure ,was originally a
medical advice, but it is equally applicable to engineering.

Preventive measures are always economical and this is true, if the


finished structure is defective or fails, the cost of repair and/or
maintenance will be very high.

Quality Control in construction is checking for conformity to the


requirements of the approved plans and specifications.

The Modern Concept of Quality Control


- The modern concept of Quality Control is that, it is a system
which involves the joint but independent efforts of the owner
and the contractor to achieve the level of quality desired by the
owner as established in the project specifications.
- The owners task is to verify that the contractors quality
control system is functioning and the completed structure is of
the specified quality

- The contractors task is to regulate, test and inspect the


procedures, equipment, materials, and manpower so that the
completed facility will comply with the requirements.

What is the Purpose of the Quality Control?


to insure the highest quality of work
to extend the service life of any structure by
constructing according to the prescribed plans
and specifications
to check and regulate the use of construction
materials
to economize the cost of construction of a structure

Quality Control Procedures


In the construction or improvement projects of the Department of
Public Works & Highways, the following quality control procedures
are commonly used/practice:
1. Quality Control Program
2. Certificate of Quality Control Assurance
3. Pretesting of Manufactured Materials
4. Monthly Materials Report
5. Accomplishment of Quality Control Logbook
6. Inspection

Quality Control Program ( QCP)


- A program of quality control works in a certain project which
involve inspection and testing of materials to be incorporated
into a work.

- It specifies the minimum number of tests required for an item


of work which corresponds to the quantities stated in the
approved Program of Work of a project

- It is prepared by the concerned Materials Engineer of the


owner and be approved by the Project Engineer
assigned in the project.

QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM


PROJECT: Restoration of Nueva Ecija Pangasinan Road
Sta. 3+930 to Sta. 14+360, Nueva Ecija

A.

Tests to be Performed

Item No.

Description

Unit

Quantity

103 (1)

Structure Excavation

cu.m.

41

None

103 (6)

Exc. For Pipe Culverts

cu.m.

85

None

104 (1)

Emb. From Rd. Excavation

cu.m.

659

104 (2)

Emb. From Borrow

cu.m.

1657

105 (1)

Subgrade Preparation

sq.m.

21,808

200 (1)

Agg. Subbase Course

cu.m.

4811

GP-16,C-4,D-64,
Q-4, CBR-2

201

Agg. Base Course

cu.m.

7474

GP-25, C-5,Q-5,
D-100, CBR-3

311

PCCP
sq. m.
a. Cement
bags
b. Fine Agg.
cu. m.
c. Coarse Agg.
cu. m.
d. Steel Bars
kg.
e. Concrete
cu. m.
f. Completed PCCP, 200mm. , thk.

34,181
61,526
3419
5264
700

No. of Test (Min.)

GPC 1, D-7
GPC 1, D-17
GPC 3, D-44

Q 31
Q 3, G- 46
Q 4, G-71
Q1
FS 91 sets CB
5 cores/km/lane

B.

INSPECTION:

Continuous quality control inspection on all Items of Works shall be done


as construction work progresses. Inspection Report to be submitted as
required.

Prepared and Submitted By:

__________________________________
Materials Engineer

Approved By:

_______________________________
Project Engineer

Certificate of Quality Control Assurance ( CQCA)


In the DPWH, engineering works should emphasize that
Quality Control is the responsibility of the contractor while the
Quality Assurance is the responsibility of the Implementing
Office ( Owner )

Cerificate of Quality Control Assurance (CQCA) is an assurance


report prepared and accomplished by the project implementing
office stating the accomplished quantity per item of work as the
work progresses and certifying the quality of materials completed
works.
CQCA is accomplished and submitted weekly by the Materials
Engineer and both duly signed by the concerned Project Engineer
and Materials Engineer and it is a required documents when a
contractor is requesting for partial or final payment of the
completed works.

Date

CERTIFICATE OF QUALITY CONTROL ASSURANCE


Project ____________________________________________________________________
Contractor _________________________________________________________________
We hereby certify that we have conducted an inspection and verification
on work accomplished on the above mentioned project for the period
______________. We further certify that we found that the quality of materials
in the following items of work corresponding to the quantity accomplished
conforms with the Standard Specifications and Special Provision of the
Contract, viz:
Item No.
__________
__________
__________

Description

Quantity Accomplished

________________________
_________________________
_________________________

_________________________
_________________________
__________________________

Note: To be submitted every quarter of the month


1 st report
17
2 nd report
8 15
3 rd report
16 22
4 th report
23 30/31

Pretesting of Manufactured Materials


- to avoid delays of sending samples from the project
to testing laboratories, samples of manufactured
materials are obtained at the factory or at reputable
supplier and tested at any of the DPWH or Accredited
testing laboratories.

- Manufactured materials such as asphalt, cement, steel


bars, paints and etc. particularly in big projects are
pretested upon the instruction of Engineer and upon
verification, the pretested materials are allowed to use
upon the delivery at the job-site.

MONTHLY MATERIALS REPORT


The Materials Engineer shall prepare and submit to the Project
Engineer a Monthly Materials Report containing the individual
tests conducted on the materials incorporated into the works and
the status of tests accomplished based on the approved Quality
Control Program.
The report shall include the following:
a.

Status of tests performed and the balanced of tests as


required in the approved Quality Control Program

b.

Summary of field and laboratory tests

c.

Back-up test results of all tested construction materials

d. Photographs and Inspection Reports covering materials used


during the month.

Accomplishment of Quality Control Logbook


Project Control Logbook is being accomplished by the Project
/Resident Engineer , stating the daily construction activities in the
project, but another control logbook (Materials Quality Control
Logbook) where the daily entries of activities undertaken relative to
sampling, testing, inspection and other quality control activities/
comments in the project shall be properly encoded by the concerned
Materials Engineer.
Materials Quality Control Logbook shall contain all information and/
or observation relevant to materials quality control and shall be duly
signed by the concerned Materials Engineer of the project.

Logbook must always be kept available at all times for inspection.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OF MATERIALS LOGBOOK


Date and Day _ _ _ _ March 10,2005 / Thursday
Weather _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A.MClear

PM.Clear

Project Activities:
a.
b.
c.

Compaction of the fill materials, Item 105 was done with sheepsfoot roller at
Sta. 1+600 to Sta. 2+000
Screening of coarse aggregate from Bauan River was done at the batching plant
for use for Item 405
Preparation of reinforcing steel bars for concrete pouring of double culvert at Sta.
2+105.70

Materials Quality Control Activities:


a. Field Density test were performed by Contractors men at Sta. 1+700 and Sta. 1+800 and
supervised by government Materialsmen R. Cruz. We reported that two test were made
and the samples for moisturre content were brought to the project laboratory, wieghed
and dried under my supervision.
b. Sieve analysis was conducted on screened coarse aggregates for use for Item 405 for
checking of the required gradation and the results was reviewed by me.
c. Checked the size and spacing of rebars installed at double culvert at Sta. 2+105.70 for
compliance to approved plans.
(SGD.) JUAN DELA CRUZ
Materials Engineer

Inspection
- An activity which is complimentary to quality control
- It is done on items of works not subject to testing. Construction
activities such as proper placing of forms, building up an embankment
in layers, benching of the hillside prior to filling, placing of
reinforcement or curing of concrete are encompassed by inspection.

When the Inspection should be done?


- Like in testing, it is also important that inspection is done at
the proper time and should be done as the work progresses.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ENGINEER AND


INSPECTOR IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
MATERIALS TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL

Whose Responsibility for Quality Control ?


The concept that quality control rests solely on the Materials
Engineer is wrong. Quality control is the responsibility of
everyone involved in the construction. It is the responsibility
of the engineers, inspectors, technicians and even an ordinary
laborers.

Quality control is a team effort, it is like a chain that a weakness


in any one link will cause the whole chain to fail, all parties
involved in the construction must do their part in order to
insure success of a quality control program.

Engineers and supervisors have the great responsibility in the


implementation of the quality control, if it fails, they were to be
blame, because they failed to transmit their knowledge of good
quality control practices to the lower levels.

Quality Control, if properly executed, it will more than pay itself,


it is the key to more economical construction. Therefore, quality
control is not a cost item; it is in reality an investment. It pays
dividends to all, especially the owner and the builder.

ROLE OF PROJECT ENGRS. & MATERIALS ENGRS. IN THE


IMPLEMENTATION OF MATERIALS QUALITY CONTROL
Project Engineers has the overall responsibility in terms of
materials quality control. He must have the technical know how in materials testing and quality control to enable to
check and regulate the use of construction materials and to
economize the cost of materials in the project.
Materials Engineers has the primary responsibility in the
quality of materials which includes sampling, testing and
inspection, recommends for the acceptance or rejection and
recommends appropriate corrective measures to improved\
the quality of materials and works.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PROJECT ENGINEER


1. Ensures that materials and workmanship are at all times in
accordance with plans and specifications.

Is authorized to reject materials which fails to meet specification


requirements even though they have previously passed the
requirements.

Is authorized to require the contractor to discontinue operations


if the workmanship or methods employed would adversely affect
the quality, durability or appearance of the work.
Is directly supervise the sampling testing and control as well as
check the result of test to verify the quality of materials prior to
May
order the pre-testing/retesting
of construction materials under
incorporation
into the work.
the conditions for acceptance of materials which have sampled
and passed as satisfactory, may be re-sampled and retested.

2. Ensures that inspections and tests are carried out promptly


and timely.
Check/verify the quantities reported in the Certificate of Quality
Control Assurance (CQCA) Report and ensure that quantities
being claimed have corresponding test results.

Check that the required tests on materials are conducted


prior to its actual use and meets the minimum testing
requirements of the approved Quality Control Program.
Issue pouring permit for asphalt and concreting works

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MATERIALS ENGINEER


Ascertain that all materials incorporated into the works pass the
requirements of DPWH Standard Specifications for Highways,
Bridges and Airports and strictly comply with the schedule of
Minimum Testing Requirements.

Advice the Project Engineer on the acceptance or rejection of


construction materials intended for use in the project (based on test
results)

Recommend the Project Engineer remedial measures for the


correction of unsatisfactory condition of materials.
Prepare Quality Control Program (QCP ) of the project based on
the standard minimum testing requirements.

Accomplish the weekly Certificate of Quality Control Assurance


(CQCA) reports of the project.

Prepare design mixes for concrete and bituminous mixtures.


Fully acquaint himself with the standard procedures of sampling,
testing and control.

Ensure that the laboratory is adequately equipped such that the


progress of the work will not be impeded to laboratory testing
and that non-performance of tests should not caused delay in the
prosecution of work.

Submit test reports and other pertinent quality control reports


within the required time frame.

Strictly supervise his laboratory technicians in the performance of


field and laboratory test.

DPWH STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS


FOR HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES
( MATERIALS AND QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

ITEM 201 Aggregate Base Course


ITEM 200 Aggregate Subbase Course
Item 104 - Embankment
SUBGRADE or NATURAL GROUND

6 - STO
NE MAS
ONRY

ITEM 311 - PCCP

ITEM 50

ITE
M

505

GR
OU
T

ED

RIP
R

AP

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF A ROADWAY

ITEM 102 EXCAVATION

ITEM 102 EXCAVATION


This item shall consists of roadway, drainage and borrow excavation
and the disposal of material in accordance with specification and in
conformity with the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the Plans.
Roadway excavation includes excavation and grading for roadways,
parking areas, intersections, approaches, slope rounding, benching,
waterways and dtches; removal of unsuitable material from the roadbed and
beneath embankment areas; and excavating selected material found
in the roadway for specific use in the improvement.
Classification of Roadway Excavation
1. Unclassified Excavation - it consist of the excavation and disposal
of all materials regardless of its nature, not classified
and included in the Bill of Quantities
2. Rock Excavation it consist of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock which cannot be excavated without blasting
or the use of rippers, and all boulders or other
detached stones each having a volume of 1 cubic meter or more

Classification of Roadway Excavation


3. Common Excavation - it consist of all excavation not included in the Bill
of Quantities under Rock Excavation or other pay items.
4. Muck Excavation - it consist of the removal and disposal of deposits of
saturated or unsaturated mixtures of soils and organic matter not
suitable for foundation material regardless of moisture content.
Borrow Excavation - consist of the excavation and utilization of
approved material required for the construction of
embankments or for other portions of the work and shall be
obtained from approved sources in accordance with the following:
Borrow, Case 1 - will consist of material obtained from sources
designated on the Plans or in the Special Provision
Borrow, Case 2 - will consist of material obtained from sources
provided by the contractor.

Construction/Quality Control Requirements:


All excavation shall be finished to reasonably smooth and uniform
surfaces. No materials shall be wasted without the authority of the
Engineer.
Prior to excavation, all necessary clearing and grubbing in that area shall
have been performed in accordance with Item 100, Clearing and Grubbing
All suitable materials removed from the excavation shall be used in
the formation of the embankment, subgrade, shoulders, slopes, bedding,
and backfill for structures and for other purposes shown on the Plans or as
directed.
All excess material, including rock and boulders that cannot be used in the
embankments shall be disposed off as directed.

ITEM 104 - EMBANKMENT

ITEM 104 - EMBANKMENT


an earth material placed on top of subgrade in order to distribute the wheel
load transmitted to the subgrade. It is commonly used as fill materials to a
roadway construction where it needs to upgrade the existing grade elevation
to suit to actual field conditions when required in the plans.

MATERIALS REQUIREMENT :
Embankments shall be constructed of suitable materials, in consonance
with the following definitions:
1. Suitable Material material which is acceptable in accordance with the
contract and which can be compacted in the manner specified. It can be
common material or rock.
Selected Borrow , for Topping soil of such gradation that all particles
will pass sieve with 75 mm ( 3 inches ) and not more than 15 mass
percent will pass the 0.075 mm ( N0. 200 ) sieve. The materials shall have
a plasticity index of not more than 6 and a liquid limit of not more than
30

2. Unsuitable Material - material other than suitable materials such as:


a.

Materials containing detrimental quantities of organic materials,


such as grass, roots and sewerage.

b. Organic soils such as peat and muck.


c. Soils with liquid limit exceeding 80 and/or plasticity index exceeding
55
d. Soils with a natural water content exceeding 100%
e. Soils with very low natural density, 800 kg/m3 or lower
f. Soils that cannot be properly compacted as determined by Engineer

CONSTRUCTION / QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS :


The surface of the existing ground shall be compacted to a depth of
150 mm ( 6 in. ) and the top portions of the roadbed in both cuts and
fill of embankments shall consist of selected borrow for topping from
excavations.

Roadway embankment of earth material shall be placed in horizontal


layers not exceeding 200 mm ( 8 inches ), loose measurement, and shall
be compacted before the next layer is placed.
Thicker layer may be placed if vibratory roller with high compactive
effort is used provided that density requirement is attained and as
approved by the Engineer.

Compaction Trials
Before commencing the formation of embankments, compaction trials
on areas not less than 10 m wide and 50 m long shall be carry-out to
determine the relationship between types of compaction equipment and
the number of passes required and the method of adjusting moisture
content.
The embankment material shall be compacted in layers until a uniform
density of not less than 95 mass percent of the maximum dry density is
attained as determined by AASTHO T 99 Method C
At least one group of three in-situ density tests shall be carried out
for each 500 m2 of each layer of compacted fill.

ITEM 105 - SUBGRADE PREPARATION


This item shall consist of the preparation of the subgrade for the support of
overlying structural layers and should extend to full width of the roadway.
MATERIALS REQUIREMENT :
Unless otherwise stated in the Contract and except when the subgrade is
in rock cut, all materials below subgrade level to a depth of 150 mm or to
such greater depth shall meet the requirements of Item 104 - Embankment
CONSTRUCTION / QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS :
The finished compacted surface of the subgrade shall conform to the
allowable tolerances:
Permitted variation from design Level of Surface
Permitted Surface Irregularity measured by 3m
Straight Edge
Permitted Variation from Design Cross Fall or
Camber
Permitted Variation from Design Longitudinal
Grade over 25 m length

+ 20 mm
- 30 mm
30 mm
0.5%
0.1%

ITEM 106 - COMPACTION EQUIPMENT and DENSITY


CONTROL STRIPS
This item is a control procedure used to determine density requirements
of selected embankments, subgrade, bases and bituminous concrete. The
procedure will consist of control strip construction to establish target
densities for the specified course plus uce of sand-cone method of density
testing equipment to determine in-place densities obtained during the
construction process.
CONSTRUCTION / QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS :
Minimum requirements for compaction equipment:
1. Sheepsfoot, tamping or grid rollers shall be capable of exerting a force
of 45 newton/mm (250 lbs/in.) of length of roller drum
2. Steel-wheel rollers other than vibratory shall be capable of exerting force
of not less than 45 newton/mm (250 lbs/in.) of width of the compression
roll or rolls
3. Vibratory steel-wheel rollers shall have a minimum mass of 6 tonnes.
The compactor shall be equipped with amplitude and frequency controls
and specifically designed to compact the material on which is used.

4. Pneumatic-tire rollers shall have a smooth tread tires of equal size that will
provide a uniform compacting pressure for the full width of the roller and
capable of exerting a ground pressure of at least 550 kpa (80 lbs/in2).
5. Heavier compacting unit may be required to achieve the specified
density of the embankment
To determine target density, a control strip shall be constructed at the
beginning of work each course material to be compacted. A control
strip shall an area of approximately 335 sq.m.
The target density shall be the mean density of the control strip by
averaging the results of ten in-place density tests taken at randomly
selected sites within the control strips
If the mean density of the control strips is less than 98 percent of the
density of laboratory compacted specimens as determined by testing
procedures appropriate for the material being placed, another control
strip shall be constructed.

ITEM 200 AGGREGATE SUBBASE COURSE

ITEM 200 AGGREGATE SUBBASE COURSE


The subbase is a structural layer which accepts greater compressive stress
than the subgrade and thus reduces the deformation of the pavement under
traffic loading.
Made of economical materials with a relatively low load bearing capacity
which are place on top of subgrade or an embankment materials in order to
distribute the wheel load transmitted to the subgrade.

Materials Requirements:
Subbase materials shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of
crushed slag, or crushed natural gravel and filler of natural or crushed sand
or other finely divided mineral matter shall be free from vegetable matter and
lumps or balls of clay.

Grading Requirements:
The subbase materials should be well graded and should conform to
the following grading requirements as tested by ASSHTO T 11 and T 27
Sieve Designation

Mass % Passing

Mm

Inches

50

100

25

55 85

9.5

3/8

40 75

0.075

No. 200

0 - 12

Liquid Limit: (Tested by AASHTO T 89)


-

The fraction passing 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a Liquid
Limit of not greater than 35

Plasticity Index: (Tested by AASHTO T 90)


-

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a
plasticity index (PI) of not greater than 12

Abrasion Loss or Mass Percent Wear: (Tested by AASHTO T


96)
-

The coarse portion, retained on a 2.0 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a
mass percent of wear not exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles
Abrasion Tests.

CBR Value: (Tested by AASHTO T 193)


-

The material shall shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than
25%. This value shall obtained at
the maximum dry density
(MDD) as determined by ASSHTO T 180, Method D)

Construction/Quality Control Requirements:


Spreading and Compacting
- where the required thickness is 150 mm or less, the material may be
spread and compacted in one-layer.
- where the required thickness is more than 150 mm, the aggregate
subbase shall be spread and compacted into two (2) or more layers
of approximately equal thickness and the maximum compacted
thickness of any one (1) layer shall not exceed 150 mm
- compaction of each layer shall have a field density of at least 100
percent of the maximum dry density determined in accordance with
AASHTO T-180, Method D
- before subbase construction is started, a trial section shall be
conducted in order to check the suitability of the materials and the
efficiency of the equipment and construction method which is
proposed to be used by the contractor.
- one trial section of about 500 m2 shall be made for every type of
material and/or construction equipment/procedure propose for use.

Allowable Tolerances to the Designed Level and


Transverse Slopes for a Compacted Aggregate Subbase

Permitted variation from design


Thickness of Layer - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

20 mm

Permitted variation from design


Level of Surface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

+ 10 mm
- 20 mm

Permitted Surface Irregularity


Measured by 3-m straight edge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

20 mm

Permitted variation from design


Crossfall or Camber - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

0.3%

Permitted variation from design


Longitudinal Grade over 25 m length - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

0.1%

ITEM 201 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


The base reduces the vertical compressive stress induced by traffic
in the subbase and the subgrade.
Made of high quality material with a high load bearing capacity and lies
close under the surfacing course material. It provides a relatively nonfrost material on which to provide support for surface course and
sometimes to carry traffic temporarily.

Materials Requirements:
The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200 sieve shall not be
greater than 0.66 (two thirds) of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm
(No. 40 sieve)

Materials Requirements
The base course materials should conform to one of the following
grading requirements:
Sieve Designation

Mass % Passing

mm

inches

Grading A

Grading B

50

100

37.5

100

25.0

60 85

19.0

60 85

12.5

35 65

4.75

No. 4

20 50

30 55

0.425

No. 40

5 20

8 25

0.075

No. 200

0 - 12

2 14

Liquid Limit: (Tested by AASHTO T 89)


The fraction passing 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a Liquid
Limit of not greater than 25

Plasticity Index: (Tested by AASHTO T 90)


The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a
plasticity index (PI) of not greater than 6

Abrasion Loss or Mass Percent Wear: (Tested by AASHTO T 96)


The coarse portion, retained on a 2.0 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a
mass percent of wear not exceeding 50.

CBR Value: (Tested by AASHTO T 193)


The material passing the 19 mm (3/4 in.) shall have a soaked CBR
value not less than 80%. The CBR value shall be obtained at MDD
by AASHTO T 180, Method D

CONSTRUCTION / QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS


Spreading and Compaction
The same as construction procedure as in Item 200 Aggregate Subbase
Course
Allowable Tolerances to the Designed Level and
Transverse Slopes for a Compacted Aggregate Subbase
Permitted variation from design
Thickness of Layer - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 mm
Permitted variation from design
+ 5 mm
Level of Surface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 mm
Permitted Surface Irregularity
Measured by 3-m straight edge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 mm
Permitted variation from design
Crossfall or Camber - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.2%
Permitted variation from design
Longitudinal Grade over 25 m length - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

0.1%

ITEM 202 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


Either a natural or manufactured base course material where granular
component are made of crushed gravel, crushed stone or crushed rock and
of much superior quality than an ordinary base course and not less than 50
mass percent shall have at least one (1) fractured surface.
This material requires a soil binder to have plasticity for proper bonding of
aggregates and use to provide support for surface course of a roadway.

Material Requirements
Crushed Aggregates
shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of stone or gravel
crushed to the size and shall be clean and free from vegetable matters,
lumps or balls of clay and other deleterious substances. The material
shall be of such nature that it can be compacted readily to form a
firm, stable base.

GRADING REQUIREMENTS
The base material shall conform to one of the following grading
requirements, whichever is called for in the Bill of Quantities.
Sieve Designation
Std., mm

Mass Percent Passing

Std., inch

Grading A

37.5

1 1/ 2

100

25

19

Grading B

100

3 /4

60 - 85

12.5

1/ 2

60 - 90

4.75

No. 4

30 - 55

35 - 65

0.425

No. 40

8 - 25

10 - 30

0.075

No. 200

2- 14

5 - 15

Liquid Limit : ( Tested by AASTHO T 89 )


The portion of the material passing the 0.425 mm ( No.40 ) sieve shall
have a liquid limit of not greater than 25

Plasticity Index : ( Tested by AASTHO T 90 )


The portion of the materials passing the 0.425 mm ( No. 40 ) sieve shall
have a plasticity index of not greater than 6

Abrasion Loss or Mass Percent Wear (Tested by AASTHO T 96)


The course aggregate retained on a 2.0 mm ( No.10 ) sieve shall have a
mass percent not exceeding 45 by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test

CBR VALUE : ( Tested by AASTHO T 180 )


The material passing the 19 mm ( in. ) sieve shall have a minimum
soaked CBR value of 80% tested according to AASTHO T 193. The CBR
value shall be obtained at the maximum dry density determined
according to AASTHO t 180, Method D.

ITEM 300 - AGGREGATE SURFACE COURSE


This Item consist of a wearing course or top course composed of gravel
or crushed aggregate and binder material constructed on a prepared base.

Materials Requirement :
Shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of stone or gravel and
sand or other fine mineral particles free from vegetable matter and lumps
or balls of clay and it can be compacted readily to form a firm, stable layer.

Grading Requirements
Sieve Designation
Standard
mm
25

Alternate
US Std.

Mass Percent Passing


Grading
A

Grading
B

Grading
D

100

3/8

50 85

60 100

4.75

No. 4

35 65

50 85

55 100

70 - 100

2.00

No. 10

25 50

40 70

40 100

55 100

0.425

No. 40

15 30

25 45

20 50

30 70

0. 075

No. 200

5 20

5 20

6 20

8 - 25

9.5

100

Grading
C
100

100

Abrasion Loss or Mass Percent Wear: ( Tested by AASHTO T 96 )


The coarse portion, retained on a 2.0 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a
mass percent of wear by Los Angeles Test of not more than 45.

Fracture Face
When crushed aggregate is intended for use, not less than fifty ( 50 ) mass
percent of the particles retained on the 4.75 mm ( No. 4 ) shall have at least
one ( 1 ) fractured surface.

Liquid Limit and Plasticity Index


The fraction passing the 0.425 mm ( No. 40 ) sieve shall have a liquid limit
not greater than 35 and a plasticity index range of 4 to 9, when tested by
AASTHO T 89 AND T 90, respectively.

CBR Value: (Tested by AASHTO T 193)


The material passing the 19 mm (3/4 in.) shall have a soaked CBR
value not less than 80%. The CBR value shall be obtained at MDD
by AASHTO T 180, Method D

CONSTRUCTION / QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS :


Placing, Compacting Requirements and Trial Sections shall be in
accordance with the requirements of Item 201, Aggregate Base Course.

Surface Course Thickness and Tolerances


Permitted variation from design
Thickness of Layer - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Permitted variation from design
Level of Surface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Permitted Surface Irregularity
Measured by 3-m straight edge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Permitted variation from design
Crossfall or Camber - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Permitted variation from design
Longitudinal Grade over 25 m length - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

+ 15 mm
- 5 mm
+ 15 mm
- 5 mm
5 mm
+ 0.2%

+ 0.1%

ITEM 301 - BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT


This item consists of preparing and treating an aggregate base course
with bituminous material preparatory to the construction of bituminous
surface course.

Materials Requirement :
Bituminous material shall be either Rapid Curing (RC) or Medium Curing
(MC) Cut-Back Asphalt
Rapid Curing Liquid Asphalts shall conform to the requirements of
AASHTO M 81
Medium Curing Liquid Asphalts shall conform to the requirements of
AASHTO
M 82

Construction / Quality Control Requirements :


Prime coat shall be applied only to surfaces which are dry or slightly
moist. No prime coat shall be applied when the weather is foggy or
rainy.
The bituminous material shall be sprayed by means of a pressure
distributor of not less than 1000 liters capacity mounted on pneumatic
tires with a heated temperature of 180 deg. centigrade

The rate of application of the bituminous material shall be within the


range of 1 to 2 liters/m2
The prime coat shall be left undisturbed for a period of at least 24
hours and shall not be opened to traffic until it has penetrated and
cured sufficiently.

ITEM 302 - BITUMINOUS TACK COAT


This item consists of preparing and treating an existing bituminous
or cement concrete surface with bituminous material preparatory to
the construction of bituminous surface course.

Materials Requirement :
Bituminous material shall be either Rapid Curing (RC) Cut-Back or
Emulsified Asphalt
Rapid Curing Liquid Asphalts shall conform to the requirements of
AASHTO
M 81
Emulsified Asphalt shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M140
(Anionic) or AASHTO M 208 (Cationic)

Construction / Quality Control Requirements :


Tack coat shall be applied only to surfaces which are dry or slightly
moist. No tack coat shall be applied when the weather is foggy or
rainy.
Before applying the tack coat , the full width of the surface to be
treated shall be cleaned of loose and foreign materials by means of
power broom or blower and supplemented as necessary by hand
sweeping.

The rate of application of the bituminous material shall be within the


range of 0.2 to 0.7 liters/m2

ITEM 310 - BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SURFACE COURSE,


HOT LAID
This is Item shall consist of constructing a bituminous concrete surface
course composed of aggregates, mineral filler, and bituminous material
mixed in a central plant , constructed and laid hot on the prepared base.

Materials Requirements :
Composition and Quality of Bituminous Mixture
( Job Mix Formula )
Each job-mix formula shall propose definite single values for :
1. The percentage of aggregate passing each specified sieve size
2. The percentage of bituminous material to be added.
3. The temperature of the mixture delivered on the road
4. The kind and percentage of additive to be used
5. The kind and percentage of mineral filler to be used

Standard Tolerances for the Job - Mix Formula


Passing No. 4 and larger sieves

7 percent

Passing No. 8 to No. 100 sieves ( inclusive )

+ 4 percent

Passing No. 200 sieve

+ 2 percent

Bituminous Material

+ 0.4 percent

Temperature of Mixture

+ 10 deg. Centigrade

The mixture shall have a minimum compressive strength of 1.4 Mpa


( 200 psi )
The mixture shall have a mass percent air voids with the range of 3 to 5
The mixture shall also have an index of Retain Strength of not less than
70 when tested by AASTHO T 165
The proportion of bituminous material, on the basis of total dry aggregate
shall be from 5.0 to 8.0 mass percent
Hydrated lime shall be added to the mixture during the mixing operation
in the amount of one-half to one ( 0.5 to 1.0 ) mass percent by dry
aggregate basis.

Construction / Quality Control Requirements :


Weather Limitations : Bituminous mixtures shall not be placed on any
wet surface, or when weather conditions would be prevent
the proper handling or finishing of the material.
The mixture shall be placed at a temperature not less than 107 deg.
Centigrade as measured in the truck just prior to dumping into the
spreader.

The mixture shall be rolled/compacted by a paver until the marks roller


marks are eliminated and a minimum of 97 mass percent of the density
of the laboratory compacted specimens prepared in accordance with
AASTHO t 166 has been obtained.

Acceptance, Sampling and Testing

Samples shall be cut at full depth of the finished pavement for testing
by sawing or core drilling. Sawed and cored samples shall be squared
at least 150 mm x 150 mm or 100 mm diameter, respectively.
At least one, but not more than three (3) samples shall be taken for each
full days operation.
If no core samples were taken during the days operation, core samples
shall be taken from the completed pavement for every 100 lm. per lane.
no acceptance and final payment shall be made on completed asphalt
pavement unless core test for thickness determination is conducted.

The compacted pavement shall have a density equal to, or greater than 97
mass percent of the density of a laboratory specimen. The asphalt
pavement represented by the cores shall not accepted if the deficiency in
density is more than 2 %.
The compacted pavement shall have a thickness tolerances of (-) 5 mm.
Thickness in excess of the specified thickness shall not be considered in
the payment of asphalt pavement.
The asphalt pavement represented by the individual core shall not be
accepted if the deficiency in the core thickness is more than 5 mm.
Averaging of the density and thickness of asphalt cores is not permitted.
If the deficiency in the core thickness is more than 5 mm, additional layer
may be permitted in order to meet the designed thickness, however, the
minimum additional asphalt overlay thickness should be dependent on the
minimum capacity of asphalt paver but it should not be less than 50 mm
( 2 inches ).

ITEM 311 - PORTLAND CEMENT C0NCRETE PAVEMENT


This item consist of pavement of Portland Cement Concrete, with or without
reinforcement, constructed on the prepared base in accordance with
specification and in conformity with lines and grades, thickness and
typical cross-section of the plans.

Materials Requirements:
1. Portland Cement
Only Type I Portland Cement shall be used unless otherwise provided for
in the Special Provisions.
Different brands or the same brands from different mills shall not be mixed
nor shall they be used alternately unless the mix is approved by the
Engineer.
The use of Portland Pozzolan Cement Type IP meeting the requirements
of AASTHO M 240 / ASTM C 695 shall be allowed, provided that the trial
mixes shall be done and that the mixes meet the concrete strength
requirements.

2. Fine Aggregate
material passing the 0.075 mm ( No. 200 sieve ) shall not contain
more than (3) mass percent by washing nor more than (1) mass
percent each of clay lumps or shale.
when subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness
test, the weighted loss, shall not exceed 10 mass percent
if subjected to the calorimetric test for organic impurities and a color
darker than the standard is produced, it shall be rejected.

* when tested for the effect of organic impurities of strength of mortar,


the fine aggregate may be used if the relative strength at 7 and 28
days is not less than 95 mass percent

Grading Requirements for Fine Aggregates


Sieve Designation
9.5 mm ( 3/8 in. )

Mass Percent Passing


100

4.75 mm ( No. 4 )

95 - 100

2.36 mm ( No. 8 )

1.18 mm ( No. 16 )

45 - 80

0.600 mm ( No. 30 )

0.300 mm ( No. 50 )

5 - 30

0.150 mm ( No. 100 )

0 - 10

3. Coarse Aggregate
contain not more than one (1) mass percent of material passing the 0.074
mm ( No. 200 sieve ) by washing nor more than 0.25 mass percent of clay
lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass percent of soft fragments.

if subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the
weighted loss shall not exceed 12 mass percent.

shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested to Los
Abrasion machine.

Grading Requirement For Coarse Aggregate


Sieve Designation
Standard
mm

Alternate
U.S. Std.

Mass Percent Passing


Grading
A

Grading
B

Grading
C

100

90 100

100

100

75

3 in.

63

2 in.

50

2 in.

37. 5

1 in.

25

1 in.

0 15

35 70

19

in.

0 10

12.5

in.

05

05

10 30

No. 4

05

4.75

90 100

25 60

35 70

95 - 100
-

5. Reinforcing Steel
tie bars shall be deformed bars that are to bent and re-straightened
during construction and shall conform to the requirements of AASTHO M
31 or M42

dowel bars shall be plain round bars where one-half of the length shall
be painted with one coat of approved lead or tar paint and shall conform to
the requirements of AASTHO M 31 or M42.

sleeves for dowel bars shall be metal of approved design to cover


50 mm ( 2 inches ) of the dowel with a closed end, and with suitable
stop to hold the end of the sleeve at least 25 mm (1 inch ) from the end
of the dowel.

PROPORTIONING, CONSISTENCY AND STRENGTH OF CONCRETE


Cement Factor, Min. :
- to meet the minimum strength requirements for paving concrete, it is
required to have at least 364 kg. of cement per cubic meter of concrete or
a cement content of 9.1 bags/cu.m. of concrete on a 40 kg. per bag of
cement

Slump Requirements :
- if vibrated, a slump between 37.5 75 mm ( 1-1/2 3 inches )
- if not vibrated, a slump between 12.5 37.5 mm ( - 3 inches )

Strength Requirements :
- flexural strength @ 14 days of 3.8 Mpa ( 550 psi ), when tested by the
third point method or 4.5 Mpa ( 650 psi ), when tested by mid-point
method
- compressive strength @ 14 days of 24.1 Mpa ( 3500 psi ) for cores taken
and tested in accordance with AASTHO T 24

CONSTRUCTION / QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS


Preparation of Grade
the prepared base shall be checked of the required density, surface
imperfections and finished grade elevation.
the prepared base shall be extended and compacted at least 60 cm.
beyond the edge of the proposed concrete pavement to ensure that the
density of the base at the edge of pavement is the same as on its carriageway
that can support the paving machine when it is used.

Setting of Forms
forms shall be of steel and of equal depth equal to the thickness of the
pavement at the edge and provided with adequate devices for secure
setting.
any roadbed, which at the form line is found below established grade,
shall be filled with approved granular materials to grade in lifts of 3 cm.
or less, and thoroughly re-rolled or tamped.

Mixing of Concrete
the concrete may be mixed at the site of the work, in a centralmix plant, or in truck mixers
concrete mix when supplied by a batching plant, shall only be
allowed in the DPWH projects provided it is duly accredited
by the BRS ( DO # 253, S. of 2003 ).
batching plants installed/used in the DPWH contract projects
shall also be required to be accredited prior to supply the
concrete mix.
concrete when mixed at the site or in a central mixing plant, the
mixing time shall not be less than 50 seconds nor more than 90
seconds

Mixing of Concrete
the time elapsed from the time the water is added to the mix until the
concrete is deposited in place at the site, shall not exceed 45 minutes
when concrete is hauled in non agitating trucks, nor 90 minutes when
hauled in truck mixers.
when volumetric measurements are authorized for small project requiring
less than 75 cu.m. of concrete per day of pouring, the weight proportions
shall be converted to equivalent volumetric proportions. Use of chute is
allowed provided that a weighing scales for determining the batch weight
will be used.

retempering concrete by adding water or by other means shall not be


permitted, except that when concrete is delivered in truck mixers, provided
all these operations are performed within 45 minutes after the initial mixing
operation and the water-cement ratio is not exceeded.

Limitation of Mixing
concrete not in place within 90 minutes from the time the ingredients were charged into the mixing drum or that has developed
initial set shall not be used.
retempering of concrete or mortar which has partially hardened
that is remixing with or without additional cement,aggregate or
water, shall not be permitted.

Placing of Concrete
if only finishing equipment is carried on the newly paved lane,
paving in adjoining lanes may be permitted after 3 days.
concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated by means of a vibrator
inserted in the concrete in a vertical position and should not be
operated longer than 15 seconds in any one location.
vibrators shall operate at a frequency of 8,300 to 9,600 impulses
per minute under load and the space interval of inserting
vibrators should be between 50 cm to 60 cm.

Placing of Concrete
vibrators shall be used for consolidation only, and not be used for
moving concrete horizontally along the forms.
a well consolidated concrete is 20 % to 25 % higher in strength than that
of concrete which is not thoroughly consolidated
concrete not in-place within 90 minutes from the time the ingredients
were charged into the mixing drum or that has develop initial set shall
not be used.

Test Specimens
as work progresses, at least one (1) set consisting of three (3) concrete
beam test specimens, 150 mm x 150 mm x 525 mm or 900 mm shall be
taken from each 330 m2 of pavement, 230 mm depth, or fraction thereof
placed each day.

Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavement


Longitudinal Joints
deformed steel tie bars of specified length, size,spacing shall be placed
perpendicular to the longitudinal joints and may be bent at right angles
against the form of the first lane constructed and straightened into final
position before the concrete of the adjacent lane is placed.

when shown on the plans and when the adjacent lanes of pavement are
constructed separately, joint steel side forms shall be used which will
form a keyway along the construction.

Transverse Contraction Joint/ Weakened Joint


consists of planes of weakness created by forming or cutting
grooves in the surface of the pavement and shall include transfer
assemblies.

the depth of the weakened plane joint should at all times not less
than 50 mm and width should not be more than 6 mm.

Longitudinal joints

width = 6mm, min.

Depth = 50mm min.

Types of Contraction/Weakened Joint


1. Transverse Strip Contraction Joint
- can be formed by installing a parting strip to be left in place
2. Formed Groove Contraction Joint
- shall be made by depressing an approved tool or device into the
plastic concrete and shall remain in place unti the concrete has
attain its initial set and shall then be removed without disturbing the
adjacent concrete, unless the device is designed to remain in the
joint.
3. Sawed Contraction Joint
- created by sawing grooves in the surface of the pavement of the width
not more than 6 mm and depth of not less than 50 mm and at the
spacing and lines as shown on the plans.
- sawing of the joints shall commence as soon as the concrete has
hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without excessive ravelling,
usually 4 to 24 hours.
- sawing of any joint shall be omitted if cracks occurs at or near the joint
location prior to the time of sawing.

Transverse Construction Joint


shall be constructed when there is an interruption of more than
30 minutes in the concreting operations.
no transverse joint shall be constructed within 1.50 m of an
expansion joint, or plane of weakness.
if sufficient concrete has been mixed at the time of interruption
to form a slab of at least 1.5 m long, the excess concrete from
the last preceding joint shall be removed and disposed off as
directed.

Load Transfer Device


dowel bar of specified size, length and spacing is used in
transverse contraction joint as load transfer device to the
succeeding plane of weakness and shall be held in position
parallel to the surface and center line of the slab that is
left in the pavement.
the portion of each dowel shall be painted with one coat of lead
or tar and be thorouhly coated of an approved lubricant to
prevent the concrete from binding to that portion of the dowel.

dowel bar shall be provided with metal sleeves designed to cover


50 mm plus or minus 5 mm of the dowel , with a watertight
closed end and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the
sleeves at least 25 mm from the end of the dowel.

Final Finish
brooming operation should be executed that the corrugations
produced in the surface shall be uniform in appearance and
not more than 1.5 mm in depth.

the hardened surface of the finished pavement shall have a


coefficient of friction less than 0.25 or more. Completed
pavement that is found to have a coefficient of friction less
than 0.25 shall be grounded or scored by the contractor at
his own expense to provide the required coefficient of friction.

Surface Test
the hardened finished pavement shall be tested with a 3-m
straight-edge or other specified device.
areas showing high spots of more than 3 mm but not exceeding
12 mm shall be marked and immediately ground down with an
approved grinding tool to an elevation where there area or spot
will not show surface deviations in excess of 3 mm when tested
with 3 m straight
areas showing high spots of more than 12 mm, the pavement
shall be removed and replaced by and at the expense of the
contractor.
any area or section to be removed shall not be less than 1.5 m
in length and not less than the full width of the lane involved.
any remaining portion of the slab to be removed and replaced
adjacent to the joints that is less than 1.5 m in length, shall also
be removed and replaced.

Curing
Immediately after the finishing operations have been completed and
the concrete has sufficiently set, the surface of the newly placed
concrete shall be cured for a period of 72 hours, with any of the
following methods:
1. By covering the pavement with cotton or burlap mats saturated with
water.
2. By thoroughly wetting the pavement and covering its top surface
and sides with waterproof paper.
3. By ponding which involves maintaining a layer of water on the
surface of the pavement by means of earth or sand dikes.
4. By spraying uniformly with white pigmented curing compound
( Impervious Membrane Method ) immediately after finishing of the
surface and before the set of concrete has taken place.

Removal of Forms
forms for concrete shall remain in place undisturbed for not
less than24 hours after concrete pouring.

in case portions of the concrete are spalled during the removal


of forms, they shall be immediately repaired with fresh mortar
mixed in the proportioned of one part of Portland Cement and
two parts of fine aggregates.

in case major honeycombs occurs on sides of the pavement, it


shall be removed and replaced at the expense of the contractor.

Acceptance of Concrete
the strength level of the concrete will be considered satisfactory if the
averages of all sets of three (3) consecutive strength test results equals
or exceed the specified strength and no individual strength test result
is deficient by more than 15 % of the specified strength.

Concrete deemed to be not acceptable using the above criteria may


be rejected unless the contractor can provide evidence, by means of
core tests, that the quality of concrete represented by failed test is
acceptable in place.

Concrete in the area represented by the cores will be considered


adequate if the average strength of the cores is equal to at least 85%
of and if no single core is less than 75% of the specified strength.

Acceptance of Concrete
if the strength of control specimens does not meet the strength
requirements and it is not advisable to obtain cores from the structure
due to structural considerations, payment of the concrete will be made
at an adjusted price due to strength deficiency of concrete specimens
as specified hereunder:
Deficiency in Strength of Concrete Specimens
Percent (%)
Less than 5

Percent (%) of Contract


Price Allowed
100

5 to less than 10

80

10 to less than 15

70

15 to less than 20

60

20 to less than 25

50

25 or more

Opening to Traffic
the concrete pavement will not be opened to traffic until the test
specimens molded and cured have attained the minimum strength
requirements.

if tests are not conducted prior to the specified age, the pavement
shall not be operated to traffic until 14 days after the concrete was
placed.

Tolerance and Pavement Thickness


the thickness of the pavement will be determined by measurement of cores from the completed pavement.
the completed pavement shall be accepted on a lot basis when :
a. Pavement length of 1000 lm when single lane is poured.
b. Pavement length of 500 lm when two lanes are poured concurrently.
c. The last unit in each slab constitutes a lot in itself when its length is
at least of the normal length, however, if it is shorter than of
the normal length, it shall be included in the previous lot.
d. Other areas such as intersections, entrances, cross-overs, ramps,
etc., will be grouped together to form a lot.
e. Each lot will be divided into five (5) equal segments and one
core will be obtained from each segment.

Rule in Calculating the Average Thickness of Pavement


1. Individual measurements which are in excess of the specified
thickness by more than 5 mm will be considered as the specified
thickness plus 5 mm
2. Measurement which are less than the specified thickness by more
than 25 mm shall not be included in the average.
3. When the average thickness for the lot is deficient, the contract unit
price will be adjusted for thickness.
4. When measurement of any core is less than the specified thickness
by more than 25 mm, the actual thickness of the pavement is this area
will be determined by taking additional cores at no less than 5 m
intervals parallel to the centerline in each direction from the
affected location until a core is found in each direction, which is
not deficient by more than 25 mm.

Rule in Calculating the Average Thickness of Pavement


5. The area of slab for which no payment will be made shall be the
product of the paving width multiplied by the distance along the center
line of the road between transverse sections found not
deficient in thickness by more than 25 mm .

6. The remainder of the segment to be used to get the average thickness


of each lot shall be determined by taking the average thickness
of additional cores which are not deficient by more than 25 mm .

Adjustment for Thickness


when the average thickness of the pavement per lot is deficient
payment for the lot shall be adjusted as follows:
Deficiency in the Average
Thickness, per lot (mm)

Percentage Contract
Price Per Lot

05

100% payment

6 10

95% payment

11 15

85% payment

16 20

70% payment

21 25

50% payment

More than 25

Remove and replace/No Payment

ITEM 404 - REINFORCING STEEL


Reinforcing Steel for concreting works under the Item 311, Portland
Cement Concrete Pavement and Item 405, Structural Concrete shall
conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 31 (ASTM A 615)

The used of PNS 49, (Philippine National Standard Specification) for


concrete reinforcement is allowed provided that a special provision in
the contract is duly approved by the Head of the DPWH.

REINFORCING STEEL BARS

AASHTO M 31 ( 2003 )
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEFORMED AND PLAIN STEEL BARS
FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS:
GRADE

Tensile Strenght , MPa, min.

Yield Stenght , Mpa, min.

280 ( 40 )
420 ( 60 )

420
620

280
420

520 ( 75 )

690

520

ELONGATION REQUREMENTS:
BAR DESIGNATION No. (mm)

No. 3

( 10 )

GRADE 280 ( 40 )

GRADE 420 (60 )

GRADE 520 (75)

11

No. 4, 5 ( 13, 16 )

12

No. 6

12

No. 7, 8 ( 22, 25 )

No. 9,10,11 ( 29, 32, 36 )

No. 14, 18 ( 43, 57 )

( 19 )

AASHTO M 31 ( 2003 )
STANDARD NOMINAL DIMENSIONS AND DEFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
Nominal Dia. Nominal Mass
mm
kg / m

Nominal Cross
Sect. Area, mm2

Max. Ave.
Spacing, mm

Min. Ave. Ht.


mm

Max. Gap
mm

10

0.560

71

6.7

0.38

3.6

13

0.994

129

8.9

0.51

4.9

16

1.552

199

11.1

0.71

6.1

19

2.235

284

13.3

0.97

7.3

22

3.042

387

15.5

1.12

8.5

25

3.973

510

17.8

1.27

9.7

29

5.060

645

20.1

1.42

10.9

32

6.404

819

22.6

1.63

12.4

36

7.907

1006

25.1

1.80

13.7

Bending Requirement

No cracking on outside bent

Variation in Mass, %

6.0 Max. under nominal mass

Phosphorous Content, %

0.06 Max.

Footnotes:
Grade 280 (40) are furnished only in sizes 10 mm through 19 mm
Grade 520 (75) are furnished only in sizes 19 mm through 57 mm
Grade 420 (60) are furnished in all sizes from 10 mm to 57 mm

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD

PNS 49: 2000

SPECIFICATION FOR STEEL BARS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT


STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS:
GRADE

MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH, Mpa


NON - WELDABLE

MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH, Mpa

WELDABLE

NON - WELDABLE

WELDABLE

230

390

390

230

230

275

480

480

275

275

415

620

550 *

415

415 **

ELONGATION REQUREMENTS:
GRADE

PERCENT

BAR DIAMETER, mm

NON WELDABLE

230

275

425

ELONGATION
WELDABLE

< 25 mm

18

20

25 mm

16

18

< 25 mm

10

16

25 mm

14

< 25 mm

14

25 mm

12

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD

PNS 49: 2000

SPECIFICATION FOR STEEL BARS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT


DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES

PARAMETERS

NOMINAL DIAMETER, mm
10

12

16

20

25

28

32

36

40

Nominal Unit Mass, kg/m

0.616

0.888

1.578

2.466

3.853

4.834

6.313

7.990

9.865

Nominal X-Sect. Area, mm2

78.54

113.10

201.06

314.16

490.88

615.75

804.25

1017.88

1256.64

17.25

19.6

22.4

25.2

28.0

Max. Ave. Spacing, mm

7.0

8.4

11.2

14.0

Min. Lug Height, mm

0.4

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Max. Lug Height, mm

0.8

1.0

1.4

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

3.6

4.0

Max. Summ. Of Gaps, mm

7.8

9.4

12.6

15.7

19.6

22.0

25.1

27.5

31.41

Variation in Mass, %

Note : * Tensile srength shall not be less than 1.25 times the actual yield strength. TS / TY for
Weldable 1.25
** Yield Strength = 540 Mpa max.

ITEM 405 - STRUCTURAL CONCRETE


Item Description
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and finishing concrete
in all structures except pavements in accordance with this
Specification and conforming to the lines, grades and dimensions
shown on the plans.
Concrete shall consist of a mixture of portland cement, fine
aggregate, coarse aggregate, admixture, when specified and water in
proportions specified or approved by the Engineer.

Classes and Uses of Structural Concrete


Class

A-

All superstructures and heavily reinforced substructures


such as slabs, beams, girders, columns, arch ribs, box
culverts, reinforced abutments, retaining walls and
reinforced footings.

Class B - Footings, pedestals, massive pier shafts, pipe bedding, and


gravity walls, un-reinforced or with only a small reinforcement

Class C - Thin reinforced sections, railings, precast R.C. piles and cribbing and
for filler grid floors.
Class P Seal

Prestressed concrete structures and members


Concrete deposited in water

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS
Portland Cement

Type I Portland Cement shall be used unless otherwise


in the Special Provisions

provided for

Use of Portland Pozzolan Cement Type IP meeting the requirements


of AASHTO M 240/ASTM C 695, Specifications for Blended Hydraulic
Cement shall be allowed, provided that trial mixes shall be done
and that the mixes meet the concrete strength requirements.
Fine Aggregates
It shall consist of natural sand, stone screenings or other inert
materials with similar characteristics, or combinations, thereof,
having hard, strong and durable particles.
It shall not contain more than three (3) mass percent of material
passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200 sieve) by washing nor more than
one (1) mass percent each of day lumps or shale.

When subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test
the weighted loss shall not exceed 10 mass percent

When tested for the effect of organic impurities of strength of mortar by


AASHTO T 71, the fine aggregates may be used if the relative strength at
7 and 28 days is not less than 95 mass percent.

Grading Requirements for Fine Aggregates


Sieve Designation

Mass Percent Passing

9.5 mm ( 3/8 in. )

100

4.75 mm ( No. 4 )

95 - 100

2.36 mm ( No. 8 )

1.18 mm ( No. 16 )

45 - 80

0.600 mm ( No. 30 )

0.300 mm ( No. 50 )

5 - 30

0.150 mm ( No. 100 )

0 - 10

Course Aggregates

It shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or other


approved inert materials of similar characteristics or combinations
thereof, having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any adherent
coatings.

It shall contain not more than one (1) mass percent of materials passing
the 0.075 mm (No. 200 Sieve), not more than 0.25 mass percent of clay
lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass percent of soft fragments.

If subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the
weighted loss shall not exceed 12 mass percent.

It shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested by


AASHTO T 96.

Grading Requirements for Coarse Aggregates

Sieve Designation

Mass Percent Passing

Standard Alternative Class A

Class B

63.0

2 1/2 in

100

50.0

2 in

100

95 - 100

37.5

1-1/2 in

95100

25.0

1 in

35-70

19.0

34 in

35-70

12.5

1/2 in

9.5

3/8 in

4.75

No. 4

Class C

Class P

Class
Seal

100
100

95-100

100

95 - 100

10-30

90-100

25-60

10-30

40-70

20-55

0-5

0-5

0-15

0-10

0-10

Reinforcing Steel

it shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 31 (ASTM A


615) Deformed Billet Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

bar reinforcement for concrete structures, except No. 2 bars shall be


deformed in accordance with AASTHO M 42, M 31 and M 53 for Nos. 3
through 11.

specification requires the use of structural or intermediate grades of


steel with suitable chemical composition, tensile and bending
properties.

reinforcing steel should be clean and free of loose rust or mill scale
when concrete is placed.

Curing Materials
curing means preventing or delaying drying up of intrinsic moisture
inside the capillaries of concrete for adequate hydration of cement in
the mix in order that may continue to gain strength.

Curing materials for concrete such as cotton mats, burlap cloth, waterproof paper, liquid membrane forming compounds or sheeting (film)
materials shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 182, AASHTO
M 171 and AASHTO M 148, respectively
immediately after the finishing operations have been completed and the
concrete has sufficiently set, the surface of the newly placed concrete
shall be cured for a period of 72 hours, with any of the methods as in
Item 311-Portland Cement Concrete Pavement.

Sampling and testing of Structural Concrete

As work progresses, at least one (1) sample consisting of three


(3) concrete cylinder test specimens; 150 mm x 300 mm (6 x 12
inches), shall be taken from each 75 cubic meters of each class of
concrete or fraction thereof placed each day.
the cylinder shall be prepared, cured and tested at the specified date.

Composition and Strength of Concrete for Use in Structures

Class of
Concrete
A

Designated Size
Consistency Range
Min. Cement
Max.
of Coarse
in Slump
Content per m3 kg Water/Cement
Aggregate
(bag**)
Ratio kg/kg
Mm (inch)
Std. Mm (inch)
360

0.53

(9 bags)
B

320

0.58

(8 bags)
C

380

0.55

(9.5 bags)
P

440

0.49

(11 bags)
Seal

380

0.58

(9.5 bags)

Min. Compressive
Strength of Concrete
Cylinder Specimens @
28 days
MN/m2 (psi)

50 100

37.5 4.75

20.7

(2 4)

(1-1/2 No. 4)

(3,000)

50 100

5.0 4.75

16.5

(2 4)

(2 No. 4)

(2,400)

50 100

12.5 4.75

20.7

(2 4)

(1/2 No. 4*)

(3,000)

100 max

19.0 4.75

37.7

(4 max.)

(3/4 No. 4*)

(5,000)

100 200

25 4.75

20.7

(4 8)

(1 No. 4*)

(3,000)

The measured cement content shall be within plus or minus and mass percent of
the design cement content

**

Based of 40 kg/bag

Mixing and Delivery of Concrete

Concrete may be mixed at the site of construction, at a central point of by


a combination of central point and truck mixing or by a combination of
central point and truck agitating.

concrete mix when supplied by a batching plant, shall only be allowed in


the DPWH projects provided it is duly accredited by the BRS ( DO # 253,
S. of 2003 ).
batching plants installed/used in the DPWH contract projects shall also be
required to be accredited prior to supply the concrete mix.

the intervals between delivery of batches shall not be so great as to allow the
concrete inplace to harden partially , and in no case shall such an interval
exceed 30 minutes.

when volumetric measurements are authorized for small project requiring


less than 75 cu.m. of concrete per day of pouring, the weight proportions
shall be converted to equivalent volumetric proportions.
concrete mixing, by chute is allowed provided that a weighing scales for
determining the batch weight to be used.
mixer having a rated capacity of less than a one-bag batch shall not be
used and the volume of concrete mixed per batch shall not exceed the
mixers nominal capacity.

mixing time shall be measured from the time all materials, except water,
are in the drum and shall not be less than 60 seconds for mixers having a
capacity of 1.5 cu.m. or less. While for mixers having a capacity greater
than 1.5 cu.m., the mixing time shall not be less than 90 minutes.

Placing of Concrete

Concrete during and immediately after placing shall be thoroughly


compacted., The concrete in walls, beams, columns and the likes shall
be placed in horizontal layers not more than 30 cm thick.

a well consolidated concrete is 20% to 25% higher than that


of concrete which is not thoroughly consolidated.

Vibrators shall be inserted into and withdrawn slowly and vertically


from the concrete to penetrate underlying lift for homogeneity between
lifts.

Application
of vibrators shall be at points uniformly spaced, and not
further apart than twice the radius over which the vibration is visibly
effective.

the time of consolidation/compaction of structural concrete must not


exceed 15 seconds and the space interval of inserting vibrators should
be between 50 cm to 60 cm.
Joints in the concrete due to stopping work shall be avoided as much as
possible. When placing of concrete is temporarily discontinued, the
concrete, after becoming firm enough to retain its shape, shall be
cleaned of laitance and other objectionable materials to a sufficient
depth to expose sound concrete.

Curing of Concrete
Curing of concrete shall be done by any of the following method:
1. Water Method

The concrete shall be kept continuously wet by the application of water


for a minimum period of 7 days after the concrete has been placed.
Cotton mats, rugs, carpets, or earth or sand blankets may be used to
retain the moisture.

2. Curing Compound

Surfaces exposed to the air may be cured by the application of an


impervious membrane and shall be practically colorless liquid. The
compound shall be applied with a pressurized spray to cover the entire
concrete surface with a uniform film and shall be of such character that
it will harden within 30 minutes after application.

3. Waterproof Membrane Method

The exposed finished surfaces of concrete shall be sprayed with water,


using a nozzle that so atomizes the flow that a mist and not a spray is
form until the concrete has set, after which a curing membrane of
waterproof paper or plastic sheeting shall be placed

Curing membrane shall remain in place for a period of not less than 72
hours.

4.
Admixtures
- a material, other than water, aggregates and hydraulic cement (included
blended cement) that is used as an ingredient of concrete and is added
to the batch in controlled amounts immediately before or during mixing
to produce some desired modification to the properties of the concrete.
-Admixtures should be added only to the concrete mix to produce some
desired modifications to the properties of concrete when necessary, but
not as partial replacement of cement.
-Chemical admixtures, if specified or permitted, shall conform to the
requirements of AASHTO M 194. Fly Ash, if specified or permitted as a
mineral admixture and as 20 % partial replacement of Portland
Cement in concrete mix shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C
618.

Types of Chemical Admixtures


- Concrete chemical admixtures shall be classified as follows and
shall
conform the requirements of AASHTO M 194.
Type A Accelerating Admixtures - an admixture that accelerates the time
of setting and early strength development of concrete.
Type B Retarding Admixtures admixtures that delays the time of
setting of concrete.
Type C Water- Reducing Admixtures - an admixture that reduces the
quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a
given consistency.
Type D Water Reducing High Range, Admixtures - an admixture that
decreases the quantity of mixing water required to produce
concrete of a given consistency by 12 percent or greater.

Type E Water Reducing and Accelerating Admixtures - an admixture


that decreases the quantity of mixing water required to produce
concrete of a given consistency and hastens the time of setting
and early strength development of concrete.
Type F Water Reducing and Retarding Admixtures - an admixture that
decreases the quantity of mixing water required to produce
concrete of a given consistency and delays the time of setting
of concrete.
Type G Water- Reducing, High Range, and Retarding Admixtures
- an admixture that decreases the quantity of mixing water
required to produce concrete of a given consistency of
12 percent or greater and delays the time of setting of concrete.

4. Forms In-place Method

Formed surfaces of concrete may be cured by retaining the form-inplace and shall remain in place for a minimum period of 7 days after the
concrete has been placed, except that for members over 50 cm in least
dimensions, the form shall remain in-place for a minimum period of 5
days. Wooden forms shall be kept wet by watering during the curing
period.

5. Steam Curing Method

this method is applicable on pre-cast concrete members.

After placement of the concrete members shall be held for a minimum


4 hour pre-steaming period.

to prevent moisture loss on exposed surfaces during the pre-steaming


period, members shall be covered immediately after casting or the
exposed surface shall be kept wet by fog spray or wet blankets.

Removal of Forms and Falsework


Forms and falsework shall not be removed without the consent of the
Engineer.
when concrete strength tests are used for removal of forms and supports,
such removal should not begin until the concrete has attained the percentage
of the specified design strength as shown below:

Part of Concrete Structure


Centering under Girders, Beam
Frames or Arches

Minimum Time

Min. % Design Str.

14 days

80 %

14 days

70 %

Walls

1 day

70 %

Columns

2 days

70 %

1 day

70 %

Floor Slabs

Sides of Beams and all other


Vertical surfaces

ITEM 406 - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


This item shall consist of prestressed concrete structures and the prestressed concrete structures including the furnish and installing of any
appurtenant items necessary for the particular prestressing system to be
used, including but not limited to ducts, anchorage assemblies and grouts
used for pressure grouting ducts.

Materials Requirements
Concrete and Grout
The materials for concrete and grout shall conform to Item 405, Structural
Concrete. Concrete shall be Class P unless otherwise shown on the plans
or specified in the Special Provisions.
Prestressing Reinforcing Steel
It shall conform to the requirements of the following:
High-Tensile Wire AASSHTO M 204 (ASTM A 421)
High Tensile Wire Rope (AASHTO M 203 (ASTM 203)
High-Tensile Alloy Bars

High-Tensile Alloy Bars shall be cold strecthed to a minimum of 895.7 Mpa


(130,000 psi) and the resultant physical properties shall be as follows:
Minimum ultimate tensile strength _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1000 Mpa (145,000 psi)
followed by stress relieving
Minimum yield strength measured by the 0.7%
under load method shall not less than _ _ _ _ 895.7 Mpa ( 130,000 psi)

extension

Minimum modulus of elasticity _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _25,000,000


Minimum elongation in 20 bar diameters after rupture _ 4 percent
Diameters Tolerance _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + 0.762 mm - 0.254 mm
(+ 0.03 - 0.01)

Sampling and Testing


All samples submitted shall be represented of the lot to be furnished and in the case
of wire or strand, shall be taken from the same master roll. The selection of samples
selected from each lot will be made at the manufacturers plant by the Engineer or
his representative in the following manner:
1. For pretensioning work-samples at least 2.0 m long shall be furnished of each
size of wire or strand proposed.

2. For post-tensioning work-samples of the following lengths shall be furnished


of each size of wire proposed.
a. For wire requiring heading, 2.0 meter
b. For wires not requiring heading, sufficient length to make up one parallel
cable of 1.50 m long consisting of the same number of wires as the cable
to be furnished.
c. For strand to be furnished with fittings, 1.50 m between near ends of
fittings.
d. For bars to be furnished with thread ends and nuts, 1.50 m between
threads at ends.
3. Anchorage assemblies If anchorage assemblies are not attached to reinforcement
samples, two (2) anchorage assemblies shall be furnished, completed with distribution plates of each size and type to be used.

Construction / Quality Control Requirements


Concrete - concrete structural members shall be constructed in accordance with
the requirements of Item 405 Structural Concrete
Reinforcing Steel Bars - Shall be placed in accordance with the requirements of
Item 404 Reinforcing Steel

Prestressing Method - prior to casting of any members to be prestressed, the


contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval of the
complete details of the methods, materials and equipment he
proposes to use in the prestressing operations.

Details shall outline the following :


a.
b.
c.
d.

method and sequence of stressing


complete specifications and details of the prestressing
steel and anchoring devices proposed for use anchoring stresses
type of enclosures and all other data pertaining to the prestressing
operations, including the proposed arrangement of the prestressing
units in the members
e. pressure grouting materials and equipment.

Prestressing Equipment - hydraulic jacks used to stress tendons shall be equipped


with either a pressure gauge or a load cell for determining the jacking stress.
The pressure gauge ,if used, shall have an accurate reading dial at least 154 mm
(6 inches) in diameter and its jack and its gauge shall be
calibrated as a unit with the cylinder extension in the
approximate position that it will be at final jacking force and
shall be accompanied by a certified calibration chart.

The load cell, if used, shall be calibrated and shall be provided with an indicator by
means of which the prestressing force in the tendon may be determined.
The range of the load cell shall be such that the lower ten (10) percent
of the manufacturers rated capacity will not be used in determining the
jacking stress.

Pretensioning
No bond stress shall be transferred to the concrete, nor end anchorages released
until the concrete has attained a compressive strength, as shown by cylinder tests,
of at least 28 Mpa unless otherwise specified.

Curing
Steam curing process may be used as an alternative to water curing.
Two to four hours after placing the concrete and after the concrete has under
gone initial set, the first application of steam or radiant heat shall be made unless
retarders are used, in which case the waiting period before the application of the
Steam or radiant heat shall be increased to from four to six hours.

Post-tensioning
Tensioning of the prestressing reinforcement shall not be commenced until tests
on concrete cylinders, manufactured of the same concrete under the same
conditions , indicate that the concrete of the particular member to be prestressed has attained compressive strength of at least 28 Mpa unless otherwise
specified.

ITEM 411 - PAINTS


This item shall consist of furnishing and applying all paint materials
including vehicles, pigments, pastes, driers, thinners and mixed paints
for steel and wooden structures; sampling and testing and packing;
preparation of the surface and application of paint structures.

Materials Requirements
All paints shall meet the following general requirements:
1.The paint shall show no excessive settling and shall easily redisperse
with a paddle to a smooth, homogeneous state. The paint shall show
no curdling, livering, caking or color separation and shall free from
lumps and skins.
2. The paint as received shall brush easily, possess good levellng
properties and shall show no running or sagging when applied to
a smooth vertical surface.
3.The paint shall dry to a smooth uniform finish, free from roughness
grit, unevenness and other imperfections.
4. The paint shall not skin within 48 hours in a filled tightly closed
container.

The paint shall conform to the requirements of the Specifications indicated


as follows:
Ready Mixed Red Lead Paint _ _ _ _ AASHTO 72 and PNS Type
I, II, III & IV
Aluminum Paint _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AASHTO M 69 and PNS Type I & II
White & Tinted Ready Mixed Paint _ _ AASHTO M 70
Foliage Green Bridge Paint _ _ _ _ _ AASHTO M 67
Black Paint for Bridges &
Timber Structure _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AASHTO M 68
Ready Mixed Primer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AASHTO M 229
Ready Mixed Aluminum _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AASHTO M 260 and PNS

Containers and Markings


All paints shall be shipped to strong substantial containers plainly mark
with the weight, color and volume in liters of the paint content, a true
statement of the percentage composition of the pigment, the proportions of
the pigment to vehicle, and the stencil of the authorized inspecting agency.
Any package or container not so marked will not be accepted for use.

Sampling and Testing


1. One 20 liter can sample in original unopened container shall be
be obtained for 100 cans of the delivered material or 10% fraction
thereof.
2. One 4 liter can sample in original unopened container shall be
be obtained for 100 cans of the delivered material.

ITEM 500 - PIPE CULVERTS AND STORM DRAINS


This item shall consist of the construction or reconstruction of pipe
culverts and storm drains referred as conduit .

Materials Requirements:
Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain and Sewer Pipe shall meets the
requirements of AASHTO M 170
Joint Mortar - it shall consist of one (1) part by volume of Portland
Cement and two (2) parts of approved sand with water as
necessary to obtain the required consistency . Mortar shall
be used within 30 minutes after its preparation.
Bedding - shall conform to one of the classes specified, however, when
no bedding class is specified, the requirements for Class C
bedding shall apply.
Class A bedding shall consist of a continuous concrete cradle
conforming to the plan details

Class B bedding shall consist of bedding conduit to a depth of not less


than 30 percent of the vertical outside diameter of the pipe.
The maximum thickness of bedding materials beneath the pipe
shall be 100 mm
The bedding material shall be sand or selected sandy soil all of
which passes a 9.5 mm sieve and not more than 10 percent of
which passes a 0.075 mm sieve.
Class C bedding shall consist of bedding the conduit to a depth of not
less than 10 percent of its total height and a bedding of
Backfilling materials for backfilling on each side of the pipes for the full trench
width and to an elevation of 300 mm above the top of the pipes shall
be fine, readily compactible soil or granular material selected from
excavation and shall not contain stones that would be retained on a
50 mm sieve , chunks of highly plastic clay, or other objectionable
material.
Granular backfill material shall have not less than 95 percent passing
a 12.5 mm sieve and not less than 95 percent retained on a 4.75 mm
sieve. Oversized material, if present, shall be removed at the source
of the material.

STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE CULVERT, STORM DRAIN, AND SEWER
AASHTO M 170M 94 or ASTM C 76M - 90a
PIPE ( Metric )
CLASS II REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE - WALL B
DESIGN REQMTS.

600 mm

750 mm

900 mm

Internal Diameter, mm

600 - 620

750 775

900 925

Wall Thickness, mm

70 min.

83 min.

990 min.

1050 mm

1200 mm

1050 1080

1200 - 1230

95 min.

108 min.

120 min.

990 min.

990 min.

990 min.

990 min.

16 max.

16 max.

16 max.

16 max.

16 max.

Covering, mm

19 min.

19 min.

19 min.

19 min.

19 min.

Spacing, mm

100 max.

100 max.

100 max.

150 max.

150 max.

380 min.

Length, mm
Sides variation, mm
REINFORCEMENT

REINFORCEMENT AREA, mm2 / linear m


Inner cage

150 min.

300 min.

250 min.

320 min.

Outer cage

150 min.

190 min.

0.3 mm crack, N

50 min.

50 min.

50 min.

Ultimate Load, N

75 min.

75 min.

75 min.

75 min.

9 max.

9 max.

9 max.

9 max.

230 min.

STRENGTH, D Load to Produce:

Absorption, %

50 min.

50 min.
75 min.
9 max.

Item 505 - RIPRAP AND GROUTED RIPRAP


- A structure which is built of stone only or stone, cement, fine
aggregates and water, with or without filter backing which is
commonly used in slope protection works, drainage canals and other
places as called for in the plans, and constructed on the prepared
foundation bed in accordance with the lines and grades, sections and
dimensions shown on the plans.

Materials Requirements
Stones consist of rock as nearly rectangular in section as is
practical,except that riprap of Class A may consist of round
natural stones. The stones shall be sound, tough, durable,
dense, resistant to the action of air and water, and suitable
in all respects for the purpose intended.
-

Sound pieces of concrete obtained from the removal of


bridges, culverts and other structures may be substituted
for stone with the approval of the Engineer.

Classes of Stones Intended for Riprap


Class A

Stones ranging from a minimum of 15 kg to a maximum of


25 kg., with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing more
than 20 kg.

Class B

Stones ranging from a minimum of 30 kg to a maximum of


70 kg. with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing more
than 50 kg.

Class C

Stones ranging from a minimum of 60 kg to a maximum of


100 kg with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing more
than 80 kg.

Class D

Stones ranging from a minimum of 100 kg to a maximum of


200 kg with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing more
than 150 kg.

Mortar

shall consists of sand, cement and water conforming to the


requirements under Item 405 Structural Concrete.

shall be mixed in the proportion of one part cement to three parts


sand by volume and sufficient water to obtain the required
consistency

Portland Cement Type I conforming to the requirements of


AASHTO M 85 (ASTM C 150) shall be used.

Use of Portland Pozzolan Type IP meeting the requirements of


AASHTO M 240 (ASTM C 595) Specifications for Blended
Hydraulic Cement shall be allowed, provided that trial mix shall be
done and that the mixes meet the strength requirement.

Fine aggregates shall conform to the requirements as specified in


Item 405, Structural Concrete and have the following grading
requirements:

Grading Requirements for Structural Concrete


Sieve Designation
9.5

mm ( 3/8 )

4.75 mm ( No.4 )

Mass Percent Passing


100
95 - 100

2.36 mm ( No. 8 )

1.18 mm ( No.16 )

45 - 80

0.600 mm ( No. 30 )

0.300 mm ( No. 50 )

5 - 30

0.150 mm ( No. 100 )

0 - 10

Mortar
the horizontal and vertical contact surface between stones shall be
embedded by cement mortar having a minimum thickness of 20 mm.
sufficient mortar shall be used to completely fill all voids leaving the
face of the stones exposed.

Filter Materials
when required, the riprap shall be placed on a filter layer to prevent fine
embankment materials to be washed out through the voids of the faces of
stones.
the grading of the filter material shall be specified on the Plans or in the
Special Provisions.
if not so specified, fine aggregate passing the grading requirements for
Item 405, Structural Concrete, will satisfy for the filter materials.

Construction / Quality Control Requirements


the bed for riprap shall be excavated to the required depths
and properly compacted, trimmed and shaped.
stones placed below the water line shall be distributed so that
the minimum thickness of the riprap is not less than that of
the specified.
stones above the water line shall be placed by hand or
individually by machines and they shall be laid with close,
broken joints and shall be firmly bedded into the slope and
against the adjoining stones.
Stones shall be laid with its larger axis perpendicular to the
slope in close contact with each adjacent stone.
For dry riprap, interstices between stones shall be filled with
small broken fragments firmly rammed into place

the surface of riprap shall not vary from the theoretical surface
by more than 100 mm at any point.
Grouted riprap shall be cured for a period of at least three (3)
days.
For grouted riprap, spaces between the stones shall be filled
with cement mortar throughout the thickness of the riprap and
sufficient mortar shall be used to completely fill all voids
except that the face surface of the stone shall be left exposed.
Riprap shall have the following minimum thickness, measured
perpendicular to the slope
Class A - 300 mm
Class B - 500 mm
Class C - 600 mm
Class D - 800 mm

Weepholes shall be placed horizontally at the lowest points


where free outlets for water can be obtained and shall spaced
at not more than 2 meter center to center in a staggered
manner.

All faces of stones shall be thoroughly cleaned of mortar stains


immediately after stones are laid and while the mortar is fresh.

ITEM 506 - STONE MASONRY


This item consist of stone masonry in minor structures, in headwalls for
culverts, in retaining walls at the toes of slopes, and at other places called
for on the Plans.

Materials Requirements
Stone - unless otherwise shown on the Plans, stones shall have a thickness
of not less than 150 mm, and widths of not less than one and one-half
times their respective thickness, and lengths of not less than one and
one-half times their respective widths. Stones shall be clean, hard,
durable and of good shape and free of depressions and projections
that might weaken or prevent it from being properly bedded. Adobe
stones shall not be used unless otherwise specified.

Mortar
-

shall consists of sand, cement and water conforming to there


requirements under Item 405 Structural Concrete except as to
the of fine aggregate which shall all pass the 2.36 mm (No.8)
sieve, not less than 15 nor more than 40 percent shall pass the 0.3
mm (No. 50) sieve, and not more than 10 percent shall pass the 0.15
mm (No. 100) sieve.

shall be mixed in the proportion of one part cement to three parts sand by
volume and sufficient water to obtain the required consistency that can be
handled easily and spread with the trowel.

Mortar that is not used within 90 minutes after the water has been added shall be
discarded. Retempering of mortar will not be permitted.

Construction / Quality Control Requirements

Stones shall be laid with their longest faces horizontal in full beds of mortar and
joints shall be flushed with mortar. Large stones shall be used in the corners.

The exposed faces of individual stones shall be parallel to the faces of the walls
in which the stones are set.

Weepholes shall be placed horizontally at the lowest points where free outlets
for water can be obtained and shall spaced at not more than 2 meter center to
center in a staggered manner. Other provision of weepholes shall conform to the
requirements of Item 405, Riprap and Grouted Riprap.

All faces of stones shall be thoroughly cleaned of mortar stains immediately after
stones are laid and while the mortar is fresh.

The stone masonry shall be protected from the hot or dry weather and
shall be cured by keeping wet for a period of at least three (3) days after
completion.
Weepholes shall be placed horizontally at the lowest points where free
outlets for water can be obtained and shall spaced at not more than 2
meter center to center in a staggered manner.
The length of the weepholes shall not be less than the thickness of the
walls of the abutment and shall be at least 50 mm diameter PVC or other
pipe material accepted by the Engineer.
Cleaning of exposed faces of stones shall be immediately done after
being laid and while the mortar is still fresh. All face of stones shall be
thoroughly cleaned of mortar stains and shall be kept clean until the
work is completed.
Curing of the completed stone masonry shall be satisfactory protected
from the sun and shall be kept wet for a period of at least three (3) days
after completion.

ITEM 507 - RUBBLE CONCRETE


This item consist of the construction of rubble concrete in accordance
with the specification and in conformity with the lines, grades, slopes and
dimension shown in the Plans.

Materials Requirements
Stone - the stone shall be cleaned, hard, and durable and shall be
subject to the Engineers approval. Adobe stone shall not be used
unless otherwise specified. Stones to be used shall be more than
0.015 cubic meter in volume and not less than 75 percent of the
total volume of rock embankment and shall consist of stones 0.03
cubic meter in volume.

Concrete Class B
- It shall be in accordance with Item 405, Structural Concrete with
16.50 Mpa ( 2400 psi ) minimum compressive strength @ 28 days

Construction / Quality Control Requirements


Placing of Concrete:
- One layer of concrete Class B shall be placed at the prepared
base prior to placing of stones. Clearance between stones shall
not be less than 2-1/2 inches or the maximum size of concrete
aggregates for Class B.
- Concrete Class B shall be placed after each layer of stone and shall
be thoroughly consolidated by means of a vibrator inserted in each
in each layer of concrete. In no case shall the vibrator be operated
longer than 10 seconds in any location.

Weepholes
Weepholes shall be placed horizontally at the lowest points where
free outlets for water can be obtained and shall spaced at not more
than 2 meter center to center in a staggered manner. Other provision
of weepholes shall conform to the requirements of Item 405, Riprap
and Grouted Riprap.

Item 511 Gabions and Mattresses

Gabions

Gabion
s

GABIONS
- is a restraint structure used to control landslide or erosion. It is free
draining, heavy monolithic gravity structure consisting of wire
baskets filled with non-degrable rocks.

- gabions are flexible enough to cope with differential settlement and


they have excellent permeability to drain the restrained material. Less
lateral space is needed as compared to the rock buttress, and much
preferred where the space is limited.
- it is made of zinc-coated steel wire and range in size from 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0
m to 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 m. Each basket is secured to an adjacent basket
with a tie wire and is loaded in place with selected rocks ranging from
200 mm to 400 mm in size.

Gabion structures can be subject to various stresses and they must be able to
settle, twist and conform to channel and foundation shifts and changes. At the
same time, gabions must have sufficient strength to contain the weight of the
rocks with which they are filled and of additional filled gabions that may be
placed upon them, as well as to resist the impact force of high velocity
currents and soil pressure.

Applications:
Mass gravity retaining structures
Mechanically stabilized earth walls (MSE walls)
Vegetated slope reinforcement

Slope Stabilization

Slope reinforcement

Slope & Bank protection


Shore Protection
Culvert Outlet scour pads & headwalls
Bridge abutments

Erosion Control

Gabions shall be constructed of wire mesh and shall be supplied in


various lengths and heights. A double twisted wire mesh
container of various sizes, uniformly partitioned into internal
cells , interconnected with other units and filled with stones to
form flexible, permeable, monolithic structures such as retaining
walls, spur dikes, sea walls, revetments and channel linings for
erosion control.
The lengths shall be multiples of 2,3 or 4 times the width of the gabion
and height shall be 0.50 m to 1.00 m and the horizontal width shall
not be less than one-meter.

Mattresses are double twisted wire mesh container uniformly partitioned into
internal cells with relatively small height in relation to other
dimensions, having smaller mesh openings than the mesh used for
gabions. It is generally used for river bank protection and channel
linings.
The length shall be 3.00 m to 6.00 m, the width shall be 2.00 m
and the height shall be 0.17 m, 0.23 m 0r 0.30 m or as shown
on the Plans.

Materials Requirements
Wire - the wire used in the manufactured of double-twisted mesh for use in
gabions and mattresses shall conform to the specifications for the
style ordered as shown below:
Style 1 - double-twisted mesh shall be manufactured from zinccoated steel wire conforming to the specification
requirements of ASTM A 641, Class 3 coating, soft temper
Style 2 - double-twisted mesh shall be manufactured from Zn5A1-MM- coated steel wire conforming to the
specification requirements of ASTM A 856/ A 856 M,
Class 3 coating, soft temper
Style 3 - double-twisted mesh shall be manufactured from the
same type of metallic coated steel wire as Style 1
with
an additional PVC coating extruded into the metalliccoated steel wire.
Style 4 - double-twisted mesh shall be manufactured from
aluminum- coated steel wire conforming to the
specification requirement of ASTM A 809, soft temper

The minimum size of the galvanized and PVC coated wire to be used in the
fabrication of the gabion and mattresses shall be as follows:
Diameter, mm, min.
Gabion

Mattress

Metallic
Coated

PVC
Coated

Metallic
Coated

PVC
Coated

Body Wire

3.05

2.70

2.20

2.20

Selvedge or Perimeter Wire

3.80

3.40

2.70

2.70

Tying & Connecting Wire

2.20

2.20

2.70

2.20

Diameter Tolerances for Galvanized Wire to be used in the fabrication of gabion


and mattresses shall be 0.10 mm
The nominal and the minimum thickness of PVC coating shall be 0.50 mm and
0.38 mm, respectively
The PVC coating shall not show cracks or breaks after the wires are twisted in the
fabrication of the mesh.

Lacing Wire and Stiffener - shall be made of wire having the same
coating material as the double-twisted wire mesh
conforming to Specification requirements of ASTM 641, A
856/A 856 M or A 809

Dimension Requirements of Gabion and Mattresses


Diameter, mm, min.
Gabion

Mattresses

Metallic
Coated

PVC
Coated

Metallic
Coated

PVC
Coated

Body Wire

3.05

2.70

2.20

2.20

Selvedge or Perimeter Wire

3.80

3.40

2.70

2.70

Tying and Connecting Wire

2.20

2.20

2.70

2.20

Tensile Strength of Zinc-Coated Wire for Fabrication of


Gabion and Mattresses
Strength, min., MPa
Gabion

Mattresses

Body Wire

485

515

Selvedge or Perimeter Wire

485

485

Tying and Connecting Wire

515

515

Weight of Zinc Coating Per Unit Area of Uncoated Wire Surface


Wire Diameter, mm

Class 3 or A Coating, g/m2

Over 1.90 to 2.30

220

Over 2.30 to 2.70

230

Over 2.70 to 3.10

240

Over 3.10 to 3.50

260

Over 3.50 to 3.90

270

Rockfill
Rock used in the gabions and mattresses shall consist of hard, durable
rock pieces that will not deteriorate when submerge to water or exposed
to severe weather conditions.

Rock pieces shall be generally uniformly graded in sizes ranging from


100 mm to 200 mm ( 4 to 8 inches).

Filled gabions shall have a minimum density of 1,400 kg/m3. Voids


shall be evenly distributed
No rock size shall exceed 2/3 the mattress depth and at least 85% by
weight of the stone shall have a size greater than 80 mm. No stones
shall be able to pass through the mesh.
Rock shall have a sodium sulfate soundness loss of not more than 9%
after five (5) cycles.

Construction / Quality Control Requirements


Gabion shall be assembled by binding together all vertical edges with
wire ties on approximately 152 mm (6 inches) spacing or by continuous
piece of connecting wire stitch around the vertical edges with a coil
every 102 mm (4 inches).

Before laying/placing of the mattress and gabion, the subgrade or base


shall be properly compacted to a depth of 150 mm.

The gabions shall be filled with stone carefully placed by hand or


machine to assure alignment and avoid bulges with a minimum voids.
properly compacted to a depth of 150 mm.

ITEM 704 MASONRY

UNITS

DPWH STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR


CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT
ITEM 704 Masonry Units
Concrete Masonry Blocks
ASTM C 90 - Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units
ASTM C 129 - Non Load Bearing Concrete Masonry
Units

Concrete Solid Blocks


ASTM C 139 or ASTM 145, Grade as specified

ASTM C 90 - Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units


Strength Requirements
Individual : 5.5 Mpa ( 800 psi )
Average

6.9 Mpa ( 1000 psi )

ASTM C 129 - Non Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units


Strength Requirements
Individual : 3.45 Mpa ( 500 psi )
Average

4.14 Mpa ( 600 psi )

SAMPLING

OF

GUIDELINES
OF

IN

MATERIALS
THE

SAMPLES

AND

SUBMISSION

Sampling of Materials
Is the process of selecting a part (sample), which will be used to judge
the whole (lot). Sampling of construction materials should be done on the
delivered materials at the project site and not in the place where it was
purchase.
Sampling of materials shall be in accordance with the Standard Sampling
Procedures to obtained a true representative of a lot and based on the
minimum testing requirements as prescribe for the item of works.

The quantity of representative sample to be brought to a testing laboratory


should be adequate and meets the requirements for the sizes, shapes and
part of the material where it should be taken to obtain a reliable test results in
the conduct of the required physical and chemical analysis of a material that
will subjected for testing.

In soil sampling the following should be observed:


1. Use new clean containers to avoid contamination.
2. Seal filled containers with clean, dry, and tight fitting aids
3. Label container clearly and properly

If samples are not truly representative, both sampling and


testing are complete waste of time as the test results will be of no
value. Laboratory testing involves much time and great expense,
therefore, considerable care and judgment must be exercised in
sampling.

Types of Soil Materials & Method of Sampling


1. Undisturbed Soils
- are those obtained from the field with minimum disturbance
by using drilling equipment that provides clean hole before
insertion of thin walled tubes that is both the natural density
and moisture content are preserved as much as practicable.
- soil samples are obtained for investigation to determined the
properties of the materials necessary for the design analysis
of a structure.
Tests on Undisturbed Soils
a. Density

e. Shear test

b. Permeability

f. Hydrometer analysis

c. Consolidation

g. Specific gravity

d. Tri - axial

2. Disturbed Soils
-

are those obtained from the field thru manual sampling on the point of
sources and or at stockpiles for investigation purposes and construction
materials for use in the road and other structures.
Tests on Disturbed Soils
a. Wash and Grading Tests
b. Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit Tests
c. Moisture Density Relation Test
d. Abrasion and Field density Tests
e. California Bearing Ratio ( CBR ) Test

Sampling from Stockpiles or Transportation Units

Avoid sampling coarse aggregate or mixed coarse and fine aggregate from
the stockpiles or transportation units whenever possible, particularly when
the sampling is done for the purpose of determining aggregate properties
that may be dependent upon the grading of the sample

- If circumstances make it necessary to obtain samples from the stockpile


of coarse aggregate or a stockpile of combined coarse and fine aggregate,
design a sampling plan for the specific case under consideration. This
approach will allow the sampling agency to use a sampling plan that will
give a confidence in results obtained there from that is agreed upon by all
parties concerned to be acceptable for the particular situation.
- The sampling plan shall define the number of samples necessary to
represent lots and sub lots of specific sizes. General principles for sampling
from stockpiles are applicable to sampling from trucks, rail cars, barges, or
other transportation units.
- Sampling of soil aggregates in a big stockpile shall be done by taking
sample from the bottom, middle and top of the stockpile.

Sampling of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates

Sampling from a Roadway


- Sample units shall be selected by a random method from the construction
site. Obtain at least three (3) approximately equal increments, selected at
randomfrom the unit being sampled, and combined to form a field sample
whose equal or exceeds the minimum recommended size of samples.

- Take all the increments from the roadway for the full depth of the material,
taking care to exclude the underlying material.

Sampling from a Roadway

Sampling from the Conveyor Belt


- Select units to be sampled by a random method from the production.
Obtain at least three approximately equal increments, selected at
random, from the unit being sampled and combine to form a field
sample thats mass equals or exceeds the minimum.
- Stop the conveyor belt while the sample increments are being obtained.
Insert two templates, the shape of which conforms to the shape of the
belt in the aggregate stream on the belt, and space them such that the
material contained between them will yield an increment of the required
weight.
- Carefully scoop all material between the templates into a suitable
container and collect the fines on the belt with a brush and dust pan
and add to the container.

Sampling of coarse and fine aggregates from the conveyor belt

Handling and Storage of Materials


Delivered construction materials should be placed or stored in a
safe location/place to protect from contamination or the action of the
weather and to avoid damaged and to maintain the desired quality.
To prevent contamination of materials to other similar type particularly those coming from other sources, it should be provided with
seperator or partition in case of an small stockpile area, however,
in case of a big stockpile area, provide adequate distance for each
type of materials depending on sources and sizes.

Other construction materials which are sensitive to weather


conditions like cement, steel bars, etc. should be kept in a site that are
protected from direct sunlight and rain. It should not be place directly
on the ground to maintain its quality.

Storage of Cement
All cement shall be stored, immediately upon delivery at the Site, in
weather proof building which will protect the cement from dampness.
The floor shall be raised from the ground.

Provisions for storage shall be ample, and the shipments of cement as


received shall be separately stored in such a manner as to allow the
earliest deliveries to be used first and to provide easy access for
identification and inspection of each shipment.

Storage building shall have capacity for storage of a sufficient quantity


of cement to allow sampling at least twelve (12) days before the cement is to
be used.

Proper Storage of Cement

Storage of Concrete Aggregates


The handling and storing of concrete aggregates shall be such as to
prevent segregation or the inclusion of foreign materials The Engineer may
require that aggregates be stored on separate platforms at satisfactory
locations.
In order to secure greater uniformity of concrete mix, the Engineer may require
that the coarse aggregate be separated into two or more sized. Different sized of
aggregate shall be stored in separate bins or in separate stockpiles sufficiently
removed from each other to prevent the material at the edges of the piles from
becoming intermixed.

Storage of Reinforcing Steel Bars


Steel reinforcement shall be stored above the surface of the ground upon
platforms, skids, or other supports and shall be protected as far as
practicable from mechanical injury and surface deterioration caused by
exposure to conditions producing rust.
When placed in the work, reinforcement shall be free from dirt, detrimental
rust, loose scale, paint, grease, oil, or other foreign materials. Reinforcement
shall be free from injurious defects such as cracks and laminations.

Rust, surface seams, surface irregularities or mill scale will not be cause for
rejection, provided the minimum dimensions, cross sectional area and tensile
properties of a hand wire brushed specimen meets the physical requirements
For the size and grade of steel specified.

Storage and Protection of Steel Bars

TRANSPORTATION OF SPECIMENS TO TESTING LABORATORY


Concrete specimens such as beams and cylinders shall not be
transported from the field to the laboratory before completion of the
initial curing.
Specimens must be protected with suitable cushioning material
to prevent damage from jarring and damage by freezing temperature,
or moisture loss. Moisture loss may be prevented by wrapping the
specimens in plastic or surrounding them with wet sand or wet saw
dust.
Transport aggregate in bags or other containers so constructed as to
preclude loss or contamination of any part of the sample, or damage
to the contents from mishandling during shipment.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBMISSION OF SAMPLES


MATERIALS

MINIMUM TESTING
REQUIREMENTS

1. Cement

1 Sample per 2000 bags

2. Asphaltic Matls.

1 Sample per 40 tonnes


or 200 drums

3. Asphalt Mix

1 Sample per 130 tonnes

4. Aggregates
a. Coarse Agg.
b. Fine Agg.

1 Sample per 1500 cu.m.

5. Soil Agg.
a. Classification
b. Routinary tests
c. Moisture Density
Relation & CBR

1 Sample per 1500 cu.m.

6. Non-Reinforced
Concrete Pipe

MINIMUM QTY./VOL.
OF MATLS. FOR EACH
SAMPLE SUBMITTED
10 kg
5 L
20 kg

70 kg
50 kg

20 kg
50 kg
50 kg
2 Pipes min./0.5% of no. of Pipes

2 pipes

MATERIALS

7. Reinforced Conc. Pipe

MINIMUM TESTING
REQUIREMENTS
1 Sample per 50 pipes or
2% of no. of pipes

MINIMUM QTY./VOL.
OF MATLS. FOR EACH
SAMPLE SUBMITTED
1 pipe (1 m length)

8. Steel Pipe (Galvanized)

1 Sample per 500 m length

9. Conc. Hollow Blocks


a. Complete test
b. Strength
c. Moisture Content

1 Sample per 10,000 units

10. Steel Bar

1 Sample per 10,000 kgs.

1 meter

1 Sample per 1,000 sheets

1 sheet

11. Steel Sheet (Galvanized)

2 pcs. of 100 mm
long taken from
both ends w/o
thread
6 units
3 units
3 units

12. Wire Strand (Strap)

2 meters

13. Gabions

1 m x 2m

14. Paints

1 Sample per 100 cans

1 ( 4L can)
1 ( 20L can)

MATERIALS

MINIMUM TESTING
REQUIREMENTS

MINIMUM QTY./VOL.
OF MATLS. FOR EACH
SAMPLE SUBMITTED

15. Joint Filler ( Pre-mold )

For every shipment

1 ( 400 mm x 400 mm )

16. Curing Compound

For every shipment

1 liter

17. Concrete Cylinder

1 Set of 3 cylinders
for every 75 cu.m. or day of pouring

1 set of 3 cylinders
( 6 x 12 )

18. Concrete Beam

1 Set of 3 beams for


every 75 cu.m. or day of pouring

1 set of 3 beams
( 6 x 21 )

19. Concrete Core

5 cores/km/lane

20. Asphalt Cores

1 core/100m/ lane

21. Water Analysis


a. Chemical Analysis
b. Sediment Analysis
22. Structural Steel Sheet

500 ml
500 ml
Reduced Section
(as prescribed)

MINIMUM
ON

TESTING
DPWH

REQUIREMENTS

ITEMS

WORKS

MINIMUM TESTING REQUIREMENTS


The prescribed tests on the construction materials to
be used in a project based on approved contract
quantities
The requirements which specify the kind and number
of tests for each pay item of works

It should emphasized that what are specified are the


minimum number of testing only. Additional number of
test can be require to the materials if the
owner/inspector is in doubt of the quality of materials
or the finished structure

ITEM 102 EXCAVATION and


ITEM 103 - STRUCTURE EXCAVATION
* If excavated materials are wasted, the volume involved shall be
reported, so that quality control requirements may be adjusted
accordingly. Submit Project Engineer Certificate of Waste
* If excavated materials are to be incorporated into the work:
Tests:
For every 1500 m3 of fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test ( LL. PL. PI )
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test

For every layer of 150 mm of compacted depth/based on the results of


compaction trials;

At least one group of three in-situ density tests for each 500 m 2 or
fraction thereof

ITEM 104 - EMBANKMENT


Minimum Testing Requirements:
Tests:
For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test ( LL, PL, PI )
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
For each 500 m2 of each layer of compacted fill or fraction
thereof at least one group of three in-situ density tests.
The layers shall be placed not exceeding 200 mm in loose
measurement or based on the result of compaction trials.

ITEM 200 AGGREGATE SUBBASE COURSE


Minimum Testing Requirements:
Tests:
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof :
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test ( LL, PL, PI )
For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof :
1 - Q, Quality Test for : ( Grading, Plasticity and Abrasion )
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
For every 2500 m3 or fraction thereof :
1 CBR, California Bearing Ratio Test
For every layer of 150 mm of compacted depth/based on
The results of compaction trials.
At least one group of three in-situ density tests for each
500 m2 or fraction thereof.

ITEM 201 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


Minimum Testing Requirements:

Tests :
Same as in Item No. 200

ITEM 202 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


Minimum Testing Requirements:

Tests:
Same as for Item 201 except:
1 F, Fractured Face

ITEM 300 AGGREGATE SURFACE COURSE


Minimum Testing Requirement:
Tests :
Same as in Item No. 202

ITEM 307 BITUMINOUS PLANT-MIX SURFACE


COURSE - GENERAL
A. Aggregates
Tests:
For every 75 m3 / 200 t or fraction thereof:
1 G & P, Grading and Plasticity Tests
For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof :
1 Q, Quality Test for: ( Grading, Plasticity,
Abrasion, Stripping and Bulk Specific Gravity )
1 F, Fractured Face
B. Bituminous Materials
Quantity: 5.0 to 8.0 mass % of total aggregate
Tests: 1 Q, Quality Test for each 40 T or fraction
thereof

C. Mix
Tests: For every 75 m3 / 130 T or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 Ext., Extraction
1 Sty., Stability
1 C, Laboratory Compaction
D. Hydrated Lime
Tests: For every 100 t or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test

E. Mineral Filler
Tests: For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G & P, Grading and Plasticity Tests
( LL, PL, PI )

F. Compacted Pavement
Teats: For each full days operation:
D & T ( Density and Thickness Tests )- at least
one (1) but not more than three (3) samples shall
be taken.

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SURFACE


COURSE, HOT-LAID
Tests for Aggregates, Bituminous Materials, Mix,
Hydrated Lime, Mineral Filler and Compacted Pavement

Same as in Item 307

ITEM 311 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT


A. Cement
Quantity: 9.00 bags / m3 ( 40 kg / bag )
Tests : For every 2000 bags or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
B. Fine Aggregates
Quantity : 0.50 m /m3 ( if rounded course aggregate is used )
0.54 m3/m3( if angular course aggregate is used )
Tests : For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof:
a. For a source not yet tested, or failed in previous
quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test for: Grading, Elutriation
( Wash ) Bulk Specific Gravity, Absorption,
Mortar Strength, Soundness, Organic Content,
Unit Weight, % Clay Lumps and Shale.

b. For a source previously tested and passed quality test:


1 Q, Quality Test for: Grading, Elutriation (Wash),
Bulk Specific Gravity, Absorption and Mortar Test
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
C. Course Aggregate
Quantity:

0.77 m3/m3 concrete ( if rounded coarse aggregate


is used )
0.68 m3/m3 concrete ( if angular is used )

Tests: For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof:


a. For a source not yet tested or failed in quality tests:
1 Q, Quality Test for: Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption, Abrasion, Soundness and Unit Weight

b. For a source previously tested and passed quality test:


1 Q, Quality Test for : Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption and Abrasion
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
D. Water
Tests: 1 Certificate from Project Engineer or
1 - Q, Quality Test, if source is questionable
E. Joint Filler
1. Poured Joint Filler
Tests: 1 Q, Quality Test on each type of ingredient for each
shipment
2. Premolded Joint Filler
Tests: 1- Q, Quality Test on each thickness of filler for each
shipment

F. Special Curing Agent


Tests : 1 Q, Quality Test for each shipment
G. Steel Bars
Tests : For every 10,000 kgs. or fraction thereof
for each size
1 Q, Quality Test, Bending, Tension and Chemical
Analysis
H. Concrete
Tests : Flexural Strength Test on Concrete Beam Samples
1 set consisting of 3 beam samples shall represent a
330 m2 of pavement, 230 mm depth, or fraction
thereof placed each day. Volume of concrete not
more than 75 m3

I. Completed Pavement
Tests:
Thickness determination by concrete core drilling on
a lot basis
Five (5) holes per km per lane or five (5) holes per
500 m when two (2) lanes are poured concurrently.

ITEM 404 - REINFORCING STEEL


A. Bar reinforcement for concrete for every 10,000 kgs
or fraction thereof for each size:
1 Q, Quality Test for Bending, Tension and
Chemical Analysis
B. Wire and Wire Mesh
1 Q, Quality Test

ITEM 405 - STRUCTURAL CONCRETE


A. Cement : Quantity : ( 40 kg./bag )
Class A ----------- 9.0 bags / m3 of concrete
Class B ------------ 8.0 bags / m3 of concrete
Class C ------------ 9.5 bags / m3 of concrete
Class P ----------- 11.0 bags / m3 of concrete
Tests: For every 2000 bags or fraction thereof :
1 Q, - Quality Test
B. Fine Aggregate
Quantity :
For Rounded

For Angular

Class A --- 0.50 m3/m3 of conc.

0.54 m3/m3 of concrete

Class B --- 0.45 m3/m3 of conc.


Class C --- 0.53 m3/m3 of conc.

0.52 m3/m3 of concrete


0.59 m3/m3 of concrete

Class P --- 0.44 m3/m3 of conc.

0.47 m3/m3 of concrete

Tests: For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof:


a. For a source not yet tested or failed in previous quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test for : Grading, Elutriation (Wash), Bulk
Specific Gravity, Absorption, Mortar Strength,
Soundness, Organic Impurities, Unit Weight, % Clay
Lumps and Shale
b. For a source previously and passed quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test for : Grading, Elutriation (Wash), Bulk
Specific Gravity, Absorption and Mortar Strength

For every 75 cu.m. or fraction thereof:


1 G, Grading Test

C. Coarse Aggregate
Quantity:
For Rounded CA

For Angular CA

Class A -----0.77

0.68 m3/m3 of concrete

Class B ---- 0.82


Class C----- 0.70
Class P----- 0.68

0.73 m3/m3 of concrete


0.68 m3/m3 of concrete
0.65 m3/m3 of concrete

Tests : For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof:


a. For a source not yet tested or failed in previous quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test for: Grading Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption, Abrasion, Soundness and Unit Weight
b. For a source previously tested and passed quality test
1 Q, Quality Test for: Grading, Absorption, Bulk
Specific Gravity and Abrasion
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof :
1 G, Grading Test

D. Water
Tests:
1 Certification from Project Engineer
1 Q, Quality Test, if source is questionable
E. Premolded Filler for expansion joints
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test on each thickness of filler for each
shipment
F. Steel Reinforcement
Tests :
1 Q, Quality Test for every 10,000 kgs. or fraction
thereof:
G. Concrete
Tests :
Compressive strength test on concrete cylinder samples.
One (1) set consisting of three (3) concrete cylinder
samples and to represent not more than 75 m3 of concrete
Or fraction thereof.

ITEM 411 - PAINT


Tests :

1 Q, Quality , One 20 L can for every 100 cans or


fraction thereof or
1 Q, Quality, 4 L can for every 100 cans or fraction
thereof

ITEM 500 PIPE CULVERTS AND STORM DRAINS


A. Pipes

Tests: 1 pipe for every 50 pieces ( Strength, Absorption,


and Dimension )
Alternative Requirements:
1 set consisting of 3 concrete cylinder samples for not
more than 25 pcs. cast in the field and
1 Inspection Report for each size for not more than
25 pcs. cast in the field

B. Mortar for Joint


Tests: Cement, Fine Aggregates and Water Same as
for Item 405

ITEM 505 RIPRAP AND GROUTED RIPRAP


A. Cement
Quantity: 3 bags / m3
Tests

: For every 2,000 bags or fraction thereof:


1 Q, Quality Test

B. Fine Aggregates
Quantity : 0.17 m3/m3
Tests: For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
C. Stone
Tests: Inspection Report
D. Water
Tests: 1 Certificate from Project Engineer or
1 Q, Quality Test, if source is questionable

ITEM 506 STONE MASONRY


A. Cement
Quantity: 2 bags of cement / m3
Tests: Same as in Item 505
B. Fine Aggregates
Quantity and Tests: Same as in Item 505
C. Stone
Tests: Same as in Item 505
D. Water
Tests: Same as in Item 505

ITEM 509 - SHEET PILES


A. Timber Sheet Piles
Tests: Inspection Report
B. Concrete Sheet Piles
Tests:

Concrete same as in Item 405


Reinforcing Steel Bar - same as in Item 404

C. Steel Sheet Piles


Tests: 1- Q, Quality Test or Mill Certificate for each
type of materials used
1 Inspection Report for each type and shipment
of metal used

ITEM 511 GABIONS AND MATTRESSES


A. Wire Mesh Basket
Tests: 1 Q, Quality Test for each shipment
( Tensile Strength, Diameter of Body &
Selvedge Wire and Weight of Coating-Zinc )
B. Rock Fill
Tests: 1 Soundness Test for each source
1 - Inspection Report on Rocks used
C. Lacing Wire and Stiffener
Test: 1 Tensile Strength and Diameter for each shipment

ITEM 704 MASONRY UNITS


Tests: 1 Q, Quality Test for every 10,000 units or
fraction thereof ( Compression, Absorption
and Dimension )

ITEM 709 - PAINTS


Tests:
1 Q, One (1) 20-L can for every 100 cans or fraction
thereof or
1 Q, One (1) 4-L can for every 100 cans or fraction
thereof

ITEM 712 - STRUCTURAL METAL


Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test or Mill Certificate for each type
of materials used
1 - Inspection Report for each type and shipment of
metal used

EXERCISES IN THE USAGE OF THE


MINIMUM TESTING

REQUIREMENTS

QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM


PROJECT: Restoration of Nueva Ecija Pangasinan Road
Sta. 3+930 to Sta. 14+360, Nueva Ecija
A. Tests to be Performed:
ITEM NO.

DESCRIPTION

UNIT

QUANTITY

NO. OF TESTS(Min.)

103 (1)

Structure Excavation

cu.m.

41

None

103 (6)

Exc. For Pipe Culverts

cu.m.

85

None

104 (1)

Emb. From Rd. Exc.

cu.m.

659

GPC 1, D-7

1O4 (2)

Emb. From Borrow

cu.m.

1657

GPC 2, D-17

105 (1)

Subgrade Preparation

sq.m.

21,808

GPC 3, D-44

200 (1)

Agg. Subbase Course

cu.m.

4811

GP-16,C-4,D-64,
Q-4, CBR-2

Agg. Base Course

cu.m.

7474

GP-25, C-5,Q-5,
D-100, CBR-3

201

Item 311

Portland Cement Concrete


Pavement ( PCCP )

sq. m.

34,181

a. Cement

bags

61,526

b. Fine Aggregate

cu. m.

3,419

Q 3, G - 46

c. Course Aggregate

cu. m.

5,264

Q 4, G - 71

d. Reinf. Steel Bars, 16 mm

kg.

3,000

Q-1

e. Concrete

FS 92 sets of CB

f. Completed PCCP, 200mm.,thk.


Item 500

Q - 31

Pipe Culvert, 910 mm

pcs.

5 - cores
45

Q-1

Alternative: In case no available Pipe Tester: 2 sets of concrete cylinder and 2 Inspection Report on Casting
Item 505

Grouted Riprap
a. Cement
b. Fine Aggregates
c. Stone

cu. m.
bags
cu.m

2,500
3,450

Q-2
G- 46, Q- 3
Inspection Rep.

Computation:
Item 103 ( 1 & 6 )

Structure Excavation

Item 104 (1)

Embankment from Road


Excavation

No test is required, excavated


materials is wasted
Qty: 659 m3

GPC = 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof


D = 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _659 / 0.20 / 500 = 6.59 say 7 ( For each 500 m2 of each layer of
compacted fill or fraction thereof at least one group of 3 in
situ density tests. The layers shall be placed not exceeding
200 mm in loose measurement.

Item 104 (2)

Embankment from Borrow

Qty: 1657 m3

GPC = 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _For every 1500 m3 or fraction thereof


D = 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ 1657 / 0.20 / 500 = 16.57 say 17 ( Same as in I-104 (1)
Item 105

Subgrade Preparation

Qty: 21,808 m2

GPC = 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ 21,808 x 0.20 / 1,500 = 2.90 say 3


D = 44 _ _ _ _ _ _21,808 / 500 = 43.6 say 44

Item 200

Aggregate Subbase

Qty: 4811 cu.m.

G,P = 16

For every 300 cu.m. or fraction thereof

Q, C = 4

For every 1500 cu.m. or fraction thereof

CBR = 2

For every 2,500 cu.m. or fraction thereof

D = 64

Item 201

4811 / 0.15 / 500 = 64 ( At least one-group of three in-situ


density tests for each 500 m2 or fraction thereof and for
every layer of 150 mm of compacted depth.

Aggregate Base Course

Qty: 7474 cu.m.

G,P = 25

For every 300 cu.m. or fraction thereof

Q,C = 5

For every 1,500 cu.m. or fraction thereof

CBR = 3

For every 2,500 cu.m. or fraction thereof

D = 100

7474 / 0.15 / 500 = 99.65 say 100 ( Same as in I- 200 )

ITEM 311 PCCP


Cement :

Quantity : 34,181 sq. m.


61,526 bags

Fine Aggregates

3,419 cu.m.

Q = 31_ _ _ For every 2000 bags or fraction thereof


Q = 3 _ _ _ For every 1500 cu.m. or fraction thereof
G = 46 _ _ _For every 75 cu.m. Or fraction thereof

Course Aggregate 5,264 cu.m.

Q = 4 _ _ _ For every 1500 cu.m. or fraction thereof


G = 71 _ _ _ For every 75 cu.m. or fraction thereof

RSB, 16 mm dia.

3,000 kgs.

Concrete

34,181 sq.m.

Q = 1 _ _ _ For every 10,000 kgs. or fraction thereof


FS = 92 sets of Concrete Beam
( 34,181 x 0.20 / 75 = 91.15 sets say 92
For every 75 cu.m. or fraction thereof )

ITEM 500

PIPE CULVERT

Pipe, 910 mm. dia.

Quantity : 45 pcs. 910 mm. dia.


Q = 1, ( 1 Q, for every 50 pcs. of delivered
pipes
Alternative: 2 sets of concrete cylinder & 2 - Inspection Report for
pipe casting
( 1 set of conc. cyl. & 1- I.R for every 25 pcs. or fraction
thereof of casted pipe )

ITEM 505

GROUTED RIPRAP

Cement :

Fine Agg.

Stone

2,500 bags

3,450 cu.m.

Q = 2 _ _For every 2000 bags or


fraction thereof
Q = 3_ _ For every 1500 cu.m. or
fraction thereof
Inspection Re[port

TESTS ON CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

REDUCING FIELD SAMPLES OF AGGREGATES TO TESTING SIZE


METHOD A - MECHANICAL SPLITTER
Mechanical splitters are commonly available in sizes adequate for coarse
aggregate having the largest particle not over 37.5 mm (1-1/2 in.). For fine
aggregate, a splitter having chutes 13 mm (1/2 in.) wide will be satisfactory
when the entire sample will pass a 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) Sieve.

Mechanical Splitter

METHOD B - QUARTERING
Apparatus:
1. Straightedge
scoop,
2. Shovel or trowel
3. Broom or brush

Straightedge
scoop & broom
brush

Shovel

Flattening

Dividing

Quartered Sample

METHOD C - MINIATURE STOCKPILE SAMPLING


(Damp Fine Aggregate Only)
APPARATUS:
1.Straightedge scoop
2.Shovel, or trowel for mixing the aggregate
3.Small Sampling Thief
4.Small scoop or spoon for sampling

Mixing the Sample

Quartered Sample

Quartering on a Canvass Blanket

TESTS ON SOILS AND


SOIL AGGREGATE MATERIALS

TESTS ON SOILS, SOIL AGGREGATES, ASPHALT &


CONCRETE AGGREGATES
I. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT
II. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOILS
III. AMOUNT FINER THAN 0.075 MM SIEVE
IV. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT
V. DETERMINATION OF PLASTIC LIMIT AND PLASTICITY INDEX
VI. COMPACTION TEST/MOISTURE DENSITY RELATION TEST OF SOIL
VII. DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF SOIL IN-PLACE BY THE
SAND CONE METHOD
VIII. ABRASION TEST
IX. CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST
X. DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN SANDS FOR CONCRETE
XI. EFFECT OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN FINE AGGREGATE ON
STRENGHT OF MORTAR
XII. SOUNDNESS TEST BY THE USE OF SODIUM OR MAGNESIUM
SULFATE

I. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT


SIGNIFICANCE:
Moisture content has an important characteristic in the soil
material where the behaviour of soil is markedly influenced by the
amount of moisture it contains.
Moisture content is the ratio of the weight / mass of water in the soil
to the weight /mass of water in the dry soil after it has been dried to a
constant weight / mass at a temperature of 110 deg. Centigrade.
Size of sample ranges from 25 g 1000 g depending on the maximum
grain size of soil material which is subjected to test.
CALCULATION:
W1 - W2
Moisture Content, MC % = ____________ x 100
W2 - WC
Where:
W1 = weight / mass of container plus wet soil
W2 = weight / mass of container plus dry soil
Wc = weight of container

II. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOILS


SIGNIFICANCE :
Grain size distribution is widely used in the classification and
identification ofsoils. It is an important criteria in the classification of
highway subgrade materials. It is also related to permeability and
capillarity of cohesionless soils.

Particle size analysis is the determination of particle size distribution


in soils by sieve, hydrometer, or a combined analysis. The method
which should be used depends on the size of the soil.

For materials examined for any particular type of work or purpose,


only such fractions shall be reported as are included in the specifications
or other requirements for the work purpose.

III. AMOUNT OF MATERIAL FINER THAN 0.075 MM SIEVE


SIGNIFICANCE :
This test method is used on the sample of soils and soil aggregates
prior to the dry sieving to determine the wash loss or the amount of
finer material than 0.075 mm sieve which is considered dirt on the
tested material.
Material finer than the 0.075 mm ( N0. 200 ) sieve can be separated from
larger particles much more effectively and completely by wet sieving
than through the use of dry sieving.
If the amount of finer material finer than 0.075 mm ( No. 200 ) sieve is
larger as obtained during dry sieving process, the efficiency of the
washing operation should be checked or it could be an indication of
degradation of the aggregate.
CALCULATION:

% Materials Passing 0.075 mm =

Original Dry
- Dry Weight
Wt./ Mass
after Washing
____________________________
Original Dry Weight / Mass

X 100

DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT


SIGNIFICANCE:
The liquid limit gives a certain measure of the shearing resistance of a soil
when mixed with water.
It is a measure of the potential cohesion which in turn depend upon the
Total size of the contact areas, or the fineness and shape of the grains.
Required Soil Sample: Material passing 0.425 mm ( No. 40 ) sieve
weighing 100 g
Required no. of determinations
Ranges of blows
: Four (4) determinations & from 15 to 35
blows
Required amount of water to
be added during mixing
: One (1) to three (3) ml increments
Balance Apparatus required for use : Sensitive to 0.1 g
Liquid Limit is expressed as the moisture content corresponding to
25 blows
W1 - W2
% Moisture = _____________
CALCULATION:
X 100
W2
W1 = weight / mass of wet sample
W2 = weight / mass of oven-dried sample

V. DETERMINATION OF PLASTIC LIMIT AND PLASTICITY INDEX


SIGNIFICANCE :
The limit tests and plasticity index are widely used to control the
characteristics of soil which are to be incorporated in roadways.
The Plastic Limit is defined as the minimum moisture content at which the
soil can be readily molded without breaking or crumbling.
Plasticity Index indicates compressibility of a soil and also related to
permeability; the higher the P.I. The lower the permeability; and vice-versa
Required Soil Sample: Material passing 0.425 mm ( No. 40 ) sieve
weighing 20 g
Required Balance Apparatus for use : Sensitive to 0.1 g
Plastic Limit is expressed as the moisture content in percentage of the
oven-dried weight / mass of the crumbled soil thread.
The Plasticity Index is the difference between the liquid limit and plastic limit
CALCULATION:
Plastic Limit =

Where:
Wa = wt. of crumbled soil thread
Wa
Wb
____________ X 100
Wb = wt. of oven-dried crumbled
Wb
soil thread

Plasticity Index = Liquid Limit - Plastic Limit

VI. COMPACTION TEST / MOISTURE RELATION TEST OF SOIL


SIGNIFICANCE:
Compaction of soil mass involves the application of energy and addition
of water as lubricant It results in reduction of pore spaces and increase
density by rearrangement of particle grains. Thus, the mass becomes
more stable and impermeable which are desirable characteristics of
foundation.
The compaction of soil fills in various engineering operations is of utmost
significance. A properly compacted fill will not settle very much even after
the loads are imposed.
Compaction also makes the fill impervious, thus it reduces the detrimental
effects of infiltrating surface water. Maximum stability is attained by
compaction.

Standard Methods Use for Determining the Moisture Density


Relation of Soil
AASHTO T 99 Method C

AASHTO T 180 Method D

Soil Material

Passing 19.0 mm ( in. )

Passing 19.0 mm ( in. )

Size of Mold

102 mm ( 4 in. )

Volume of Mold

0.000943 m3

0.002125 m3

Rammer

2.5 kg. ( 5.5 lb. )

4.54 kg. ( 10.0 lb. )

Height of Drop

305 mm ( 12 in. )

457 mm ( 18 in. )

152 mm ( 6 in. )

No. of Layers in Molding

3 layers

5 layers

No. of Blows per Layers

25 blows

56 blows

Temperature of Test Sample 60 deg. Centigrade, max. 60 deg. Cent., max.

- The purpose of the laboratory compaction test is to determine


the right amount of mixing water in compacting a soil fill, in order
to obtain the maximum density under the applied energy.It also
serves as reference in checking in-place densities of fills under
construction.
- In the test, the soil is compacted at a number of moisture contents
ranging from slightly dry to wet, by a specified amount of energy
applied in a specified manner. The dry density and moisture content
are determined, then plot is made of dry densities against the
corresponding moisture contents and a smooth curve is drawn
through the points.
- The highest point on the curve indicates the Maximum Dry Density
( MDD ) and the corresponding moisture content is called Optimum
Moisture Content ( OMC ).

Four Distinct Stages In Compaction


1. Wetting
- when the soil particles are relatively dry, the water is
added is absorbed by the soil particles, thus the frictional
resistance to granular rearrangement is high. After the
absorption capacities, the soil is satisfied.

2. Lubrication Stage
- the addition of water replaces some of the entrapped air,
the soil flows more readily under the lubricating effect
of the added water and the soil particles move closer
together, a resulting increase in density. This effect is
continued until the optimum water content is reached, at
which point of maximum density is attained.
- At optimum moisture content the lubricating limit is
reached and at this point, the pressure of the compacting
equipment has overcome the resistance offered by the
cohesive water film and the friction between particles.

3. Swelling
- After the lubrication limit is passed, addition of water
results in increased film thickness and dispersion of
particles. This is the swelling stage, since further
lubrication is not possible the soil grains are forced
apart by the water added , thus the density is reduced.

4. Saturation
- all free air is expelled and replaced by water if further
pressure is applied to the soil mass, tendency is reduced
the volume. This is however is impossible in a saturated
system since the free air has been replaced.

VII. DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF SOIL IN OLACE BY THE


SAND - CONE METHOD
SIGNIFICANCE:
Field density test is widely used as a control test to ensure
adequate compaction of in-placed embankment, subbase,
base and gravel surface courses in a road construction.
The test is conducted in every fill and compacted layer of
soil and the results is used in the acceptance and determination of pay quantity of in-placed materials
Density of soil is defined as the weight/mass per unit
volume. It is a very significant engineering property of soils
as strength is dependent upon density.
Required Size of Sand for Use
in Density Apparatus
: Passing 2.0 mm ( No. 10 ) sieve and
Retained on 0.075 mm ( No. 200 ) sieve
Required Balance Apparatus for use : Sensitive to 0.1 g with 10 kg.
capacity

CALCULATION :
Wet Unit Weight, kg. / m3 =

Total Material taken from hole, kg.


______________________________
Volume of Hole, m3

Wet Unit Weight


Dry Unit Weight, kg. / m3 = ___________________________
Ave. Actual Moisture Content
__________________________
+ 1
100

Degree of Compaction, % :

Dry Unit Wt.


___________________ x 100
* Maximum Dry Density

* Data obtained from Moisture Density Relation or Laboratory Compaction

VIII. ABRASION TEST


SIGNIFICANCE:
Abrasion test evaluates the structural strength of granular aggregates
on soil. It gives an indication of quality as determined by resistance
to impact and wear.
The test also determines the hardness property of course aggregates.
Hard aggregates gives low crushing value; the lower the value of percent
wear on aggregates shows a hard/good quality of soil aggregate materials.
Percentage of wear is express the difference between the original
weight of material coarser than 1.70 mm sieve as a percentage of the
original weight of test sample.
Test Sample : Aggregates shall be dried to a constant weight / mass at
110 deg. centigrade plus-minus 5 deg. centigrade
A total weight / mass of 5,000 grams are required for all
four (4) Grading Test Sample
Abrasive Charge : consist of cast-iron spheres or steel spheres
approximately 46.8 mm in diameter and each weighing
between 390 and 455 grams.

GRADING AND WEIGHT OF TEST SAMPLE FOR ABRASION TEST


Sieve

SIze

Grading & Weight of Test Sample, g

Passing

Retained

37.5 mm

25 mm

1250 + 25

25

19 mm

1250 + 25

mm

12.5 mm

1250 + 10 2500 + 10

12.5 mm

9.5 mm

1250 + 10 2500 + 10

9.5 mm

6.3 mm

2500 + 10

6.3 mm

4.75 mm

2500 + 10

4.75 mm

2.36 mm

5000 +10

11

19

mm

Number of Spheres
Weight of Charge, g

12

5000 + 25 4584 + 25 3330 + 20 2500 + 10

ABRASION TEST

Los Angeles Machine

IX. CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST ( CBR )


SIGNIFICANCE:
The most common method of assessing strength and stiffness
of both subgrade and pavement materials.
The test involves measuring the resistance of soil to penetration
by a cylindrical piston, expressed as a percentage fraction of a
standard resistance which was originally measured in tests on a
good quality crushed rock.
The CBR depends not only on the nature of the material but to a
large extent on its moisture content and its state of compaction.
Loading Device : compression type apparatus capable of applying a
uniformly increasing load up to 44.5 N at a rate of
1.3 mm per min.
Test Sample

: Soil sample weighing approximately 11 kgs. with


material passing the 19.0 mm sieve and retained on
the 4.75 mm sieve

No. of Specimens to be Compacted : Three (3) specimens molded in a


cylindrical mold of 152.4 mm dia. with 10, 30,and
60 blows per layer for compacting specimens 1,2,
and 3, respectively.
Soaking Time of Molded Specimens : 96 hours ( 4 ) days
Rate of Loading required during Penetration Test : 1.3 mm per minute
CBR is generally selected at 2.54 mm penetration. If the ratio at 5.08 mm
Penetration is greater, the test result shall be rerun. If the check test gives
a similar result, the ratio at 5.08 mm penetration shall be used.
The CBR Value of the soil material shall be obtained at the maximum dry
density ( MDD ) as determined by AASTHO T 180, Method D.
CALCULATION :
Corrected Load Value
CBR = ______________________
X 100
Standard Value

X. DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN SANDS


FOR CONCRETE
SIGNIFICANCE :
The test determines the presence of injurious organic compounds in natural
sands which are to be used in cement mortar or concrete.
The purpose of the test is to furnish a warning that further tests of the sand
are necessary before they are approved for use.
Test Sample :

Sample of sand weighing about 450 grams

Chemical Reagents Required : Sodium Hydroxide Solution (3 %) dissolve


3 parts by weight in 97 parts of water
Interpretation of Results : If the color of the supernatant liquid above the
test sample with that of the reference standard color solution
is darker, the sand under test shall be considered to possibly
contain injurious organic compounds and it is advisable to
perform the effect of organic impurities on the strength of
mortar.

DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN SANDS FOR CONCRETE

XI. EFFECT OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN FINE AGGREGATE ON


STRENGHT OF MORTAR
SIGNIFICANCE:
This method is of significance in making a final determination of the
Acceptability of fine aggregates with respect to the requirements of standard
specification for fine aggregates for Portland Cement Concrete.
This test is only conducted only on those samples of fine aggregates for
concrete found to have failed on test on organic impurities to determine
the acceptability of the tested material.
Test Sample : Mold three (3) 50 mm cubes of mortar in 3-batches and test
at 7- days age for compressive strength using the fine
aggregates tested in the organic impurities mix with Portland
Cement Type I that will yield a water cement-ratio of 0.6 by
mass. ( 600 g of cement & 360 ml of water for a 6 cube batch )

EFFECT OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN FINE AGGREGATE ON STRENGTH OF MORTAR

Breaking of cube samples for compressive strength

Molding of Cube Sample

CALCULATION :
Calculate the compressive strength of each specimen by dividing the
maximum load it carried during the test by the cross-sectional area.
Average the strengths of the three specimens from each batch.
Calculate three strength ratios by dividing the average strength for a
batch containing unwashed aggregates by the average strength for
the corresponding batch containing washed aggregate.

REPORT :
Report the average of the three ratios, expressed as a percentage,
as the relative strength for the aggregate under test.

XII. SOUNDNESS TEST BY THE USE OF SODIUM OR


MAGNESIUM SULFATE
SIGNIFICANCE :
The test determines the resistance of aggregates ( Course and Fine ) to
disintegration by saturated solutions of sodium sulfate or magnesium
sulfate which furnishes information helpful in evaluating soundness of
aggregate subject to weathering action.
Test Sample :
Fine Aggregate ( Passing 9.5 mm )
Passing Sieve
9.5 mm
4.75 mm
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
0.600 mm

Retained on Sieve
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.600
0.300

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Weight/Mass of Test Fraction, g


100
100
100
100
100

Course Aggregate ( Retained on 4.75 mm Sieve )


Passing Sieve
63.0
37.5
19.0
9.5

mm
mm
mm
mm

Retained on Sieve
37.5
19.0
1.18
4.75

mm
mm
mm
mm

Weight/Mass of Test Fraction, g


3000
1500
1000
300

Immersion Period of Samples to Saturated Solution of Sodium or


Magnesium Sulfate :
16 to 18 hours at 21 deg. Centigrade plus minus 1 deg. Centigrade
to a depth of at least 12.70 mm
Immersion and Drying of aggregates sample shall be done for
five (5) cycles
CALCULATION :
To determine % Soundness Loss, compute the Loss in Mass between
mass of test fraction before test and after the test and determine the
% Passing Sieve after Test ( Actual Loss ) on all No. of Sieves used then
compute for the Mass Average ( Corrected % Loss )

SOUNDNESS TEST BY THE USE OF SODIUM OR MAGNESIUM SULFATE

Sieve with Pan and Cover

Soaked samples (FA and CA) with sodium sulfate solution

Preparation of Sodium Sulfate Solution

Oven drying of samples

M O D U L E

II

TESTS ON CONCRETE AND CONCRETE PRODUCTS AND


ITS SIGNIFICANCE

TESTS ON ASPHALT CEMENT AND ASPHALT MIX AND ITS


SIGNIFICANCE

TESTS ON CEMENT, REINFORCING STEEL BARS, STRUCTURAL


STEEL AND PAINT MATERIALS

CORE DRILLING ON COMPLETED ASPHALT AND CONCRETE


PAVEMENTS AND TESTS ON DRILLED CORES

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS ON DPWH ITEM OF WORKS

TEST REPORTS EVALUATION, INTERPRETATION AND FIELD


APPLICATION

TESTS ON CONCRETE AND CONCRETE PRODUCTS


I. DETERMINATION OF SLUMP OF PORTLAND CEMENT
AND CONCRETE
II. SAMPLING FRESH CONCRETE
III.

MAKING AND CURING CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE AND


FLEXURAL TESTS SPECIMENS

IV. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF


CYLINDRICAL CONCRETE SPECIMENS
V. DETERMINATION OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
VI. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF
CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
VII. EXTERNAL LOAD CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST OF
CONCRETE PIPE BY THREEE EDGE BEARING METHOD

I. DETERMINATION OF SLUMP OF PORTLAND CEMENT


AND CONCRETE
SIGNIFICANCE :
This test determines the workability of fresh concrete mix during pouring
of the structure. It also has a relation to the water-cement ratio that affect
the designed strength of concrete.
Standard Size of Slump Mold : In the form of lateral surface of the
frustum of a cone with a base measuring 203 mm ( 8 in. )
in diameter, the top with 102 mm ( 4 in. ) in diameter and
height of 305 mm ( 12 in. )
Molding of Specimen : Fill the mold in three (3) layers, each layers
approximately one third the volume of the mold and rod
with 25 strokes by using 16 mm dia. tamping rod.
CALCULATION :
Slump = 305 mm - millimeter of height after subsidence
Record the slump in terms of millimeters to the nearest 6 mm
( in. ) of subsidence of the specimen during the test.

Slump Test on Concrete Mix

Slump Mold

Slump

II. SAMPLING FRESH CONCRETE


SIGNIFICANCE :
Sampling of fresh concrete in obtaining a representative sample for
determination and verification of the desired properties shall needs the use
of every precaution that will assist in obtaining samples that are truly
representative of the nature and condition of the batched concrete mixture.
Poor sampling procedures employed in obtaining the representative
samples will greatly affect the result of tests on various properties of the
concrete and will lead to the rejection of the batched mix which is costly
and waste of time.
Required Elapsed Time Between Obtaining the 1st & Final
Portions of the Composite Samples : 15 minutes, maximum
Required Time for Slump and Air Content Tests : Start tests within 5 min.
after obtaining the final portion of the composite sample.
Required Time for Molding Specimens for Strength Tests : Start molding
within 15 min. after fabricating the composite sample.
Size of Sample for Strength Tests : 28 liters ( 1 cu. ft. ), min.

Sampling from Stationary Mixers


Sample the concrete at two or more regularly spaced intervals during
discharged of middle portion of the batch. Do not obtain samples from
the very first or last portion of the batch discharge.
Sampling from Paving Mixers
Sample the concrete after the contents of the paving mixer have been
discharge. Obtain samples from at least five (5) different portions
of the pile and then composite into one sample for test purposes.
Sampling from Revolving Drum Trucks Mixers or Agitators
Sample the concrete at two (2) or more regularly spaced intervals
during discharged of the middle portion of the batch. In any case
do not obtain samples until after all of the water has been added to
the mixer; also do not obtain samples from the very first or last
portions of the batch discharged.

III.

MAKING AND CURING CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE AND


FLEXURAL TESTS SPECIMENS

SIGNIFICANCE :
This method provides standard requirements for making, curing, protecting
and transporting concrete test specimens under field conditions.
Standard Size of Molds for Concrete Specimens :
Cylinder Molds : Right Circular Cylinder in shape having 152 mm ( 6 in. )
in diameter and 305 mm ( 12 in. ) in height
Beam Molds

: Rectangular in shape having 152 mm x 152 mm x 533 mm


( 6 in. x 6 in. x 21 in. )

Molding of Concrete Specimens for Cylinder and Beam


No. of Layers
Cylinder

3 equal

Beam

2 equal

No. of Strokes/Layer
25

Diameter of Rod
16 mm ( 5/8 in. )

one (1) for each 2 in.2 16 mm ( 5/8 in. )


( 13 cm2 ) top surface area

SAMPLING AND CURING OF CONCRETE TEST


SPECIMENS IN THE FIELD

Sampling of concrete cylinder

Curing of Cylinder Sample in Water Storage Tank

IV. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF


CYLINDRICAL CONCRETE SPECIMENS
SIGNIFICANCE :
The results of this test may be used as basis for quality control of concrete
proportioning, mixing and placing operations; determination of compliance
with specification.
Rate of Loading of Compression Machine : At a constant rate within the
range of 0.14 to 0.34 Mpa per second ( 20 to 50 psi
per second ).

CALCULATION :
Calculate the Compressive Strength of the specimen by dividing the
maximum load carried by the specimen during the test by the average
cross-sectional area and express the result to the nearest 69 kPa (10 psi ).

DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CYLINDRICAL


CONCRETE SPECIMENS

Compression Machine

Breaking of Cylinder Samples

V. DETERMINATION OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE


SIGNIFICANCE :
The results of this test may be used as basis for quality control of concrete
proportioning, mixing and placing operations; determination of compliance
with specification.
Rate of Loading of Flexural Beam Tester :
Between 861 kPa and 1207 kPa ( 125 psi and 175 psi ) per minute
CALCULATION :
1. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface within the middle third of the
span length, calculate the modulus of rupture by the formula :
PL
R = ______
Bd 2
2. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside of the middle third of
the span length by not more than 5 percent of the span length, calculate
the modulus of rupture by the formula :
3 Pa
R = ________
Bd 2

3.

4.

If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside of cases 1 and 2,


discard the results of the test.
If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside the middle third
of the span length by more than 5 percent of the span length, discard
the result of the test.

where: R = modulus of rupture, kPa, ( or psi )


P = maximum applied load indicated by the testing machine,
N ( or LBf )
L = span length, mm ( or in. )
a = average distance between line of fracture and the nearest
support on the tension surface of the beam, mm., ( or in. )
b = average width of specimen, mm, ( or in. )
d = average depth of specimen, mm, ( or in. )

VI. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF


CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
SIGNIFICANCE :
Compression test is performed on concrete masonry units such as
solid load, hollow load, and non-load bearing blocks in order to
determine its strength properties. The test is important for the
evaluation of compressive strength as a basis of acceptance.
Test Sample : 3 full-size units taken from each lot of 10,000 units
or fraction thereof
Thickness of Steel Plates as Bearing Block : 12.7 mm; min.
CALCULATION :
Maximum Load, newtons ( or pound-force )
Compressive Strength = _________________________________________
Gross Cross Sectional Area of the Unit, mm2
Gross Cross Sectional Area of the Unit, mm2 = is the total area of a
section perpendicular to the direction of the load,
including areas within cells.
Report the results to the nearest 69 Kpa ( 10 psi ) separately for each
unit and as average for the three units.

Dimension measurement of Concrete Hollow Block (CHB)

Compression test of Concrete Hollow Block (CHB)

DETERMINATION OF ABSORPTION AND MOISTURE CONTENT


OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
Significance
Absorption and moisture content tests of concrete masonry units are
performed so as to determine the actual percentage of water and the
absorption characteristic of the concrete when subjected in a saturated
condition. The values of this are necessary in the evaluation relative to its
permissible value of acceptance.
Apparatus
1. Oven with temperature control up to 115 C
2. Balance sensitive within 0.5 % of the weight
3. Container for saturating samples
Test Specimen
1. Three (3) full size units shall be used and taken from six (6) units
selected from each lot of 10,000 units or fraction thereof.

Calculation
1. Calculate the absorption by the following formulas:
Absorption, kg / m3 =

Absorption, % =

( Wet Weight Dry Weight )


x 100
( Wet Weight Suspended Immerse Wt.)

(Wet Weight Dry Weight )


Dry Weight

x 100

2. Calculate the moisture content of the units at time of sampling, expressed


as percentage of the total absorption, by dividing the difference between
the average weight as sampled and the average dry weight by the difference
the average dry weight, multiplied by 100, or
Moisture Content, % =

( Weight as sampled dry weight ) x 100


( Weight as sampled dry weight )

Weighing and soaking of CHB specimen for Absorption test

Absorption test of Concrete Hollow


Block (CHB)

VII. EXTERNAL LOAD CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST OF CONCRETE


PIPE BY THREEE EDGE BEARING METHOD
SIGNIFICANCE :
The crushing test can be either a quality control test performed to
establish that the finished pipe has sufficient strength to withstand
the crushing loads stated in the specifications or a proof of design
testing performed to prove the adequacy of design.
Rate of Loading required for Concrete Pipe Tester:
A minimum uniform rate of 120 N/ linear meter of pipe per
second and a maximum uniform rate of 610 N / linear meter
of pipe per second.
Record the load to produce a 0.3 mm crack. The 0.3 mm crack load is the
maximum load applied to the pipe before a crack having a width
of 0.3 mm occurs throughout a continuous length of 300 mm or
more measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of pipe barrel.

CALCULATION :
The load in kilo-newtons per linear meter required to produced
the 0.3 mm crack shall be calculated by dividing the total load on
the specimen at the time the indicated crack occurs by the laying
length of the pipe.
The crushing strength , or ultimate load in kilo-newtons per linear
meter shall be calculated by dividing the maximum load applied to the
specimen by the laying length.

Concrete Pipe Tester

Measurement of thickness, inner


diameter and laying length of
Reinforced Concrete Pipe

Verification of in-place reinforcement on concrete pipe

TESTS ON ASPHALT CEMENT AND ASPHALT MIX


AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE
TESTS ON ASPHALT CEMENT
I. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY
II. DETERMINATION OF SOLUBILITY OF ASPHALT MATERIALS
III. DETERMINATION OF PENETRATION OF BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
IV. DETERMINATION OF DUCTILITY OF BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
V. DETERMINATION OF FLASH POINT BY CLEVELAND OPEN CUP

TESTS ON CUTBACK ASPHALT


I. DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITY
II. DETERMINATION OF DISTILLATION

TESTS ON EMULSIFIED ASPHALT

I. DETERMINATION OF STORAGE STABILITY OF ASPHALT EMULSION


II. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUE BY DISTILLATION

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXTURES


I.

DETERMINATION OF QUANTITATIVE EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN


FROM BITUMINOUS PAVING MIXTURES

II. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST ( COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH )


III. DETERMINATION OF BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF COMPACTED
BITUMINOUS MIXTURES

TEST ON CONCRETE JOINT SEALERS

TESTS ON ASPHALT CEMENT


I. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY
SIGNIFICANCE :
Values of specific gravity are used for converting volumes to units
Of mass as required in ASTM Standards and in sales transactions.
Water Bath Apparatus : Capable of maintaining temperature within
0.1 deg. centigrade ( 0.2 deg. Fahrenheit ) of
test temperature.
CALCULATION :
Specific Gravity = ( c a ) / ( ( b a ) - ( d c ) )
Where :
a = mass of pycnometer ( plus stopper )
b = mass of pycnometer filled with water
c = mass of pycnometer partially filled with asphalt
d = mass of pycnometer plus asphalt plus water

II. DETERMINATION OF SOLUBILITY OF ASPHALT MATERIALS


SIGNIFICANCE :
This test is a measure of the solubility of asphalt in trichloroethylene.
The portion that is soluble in trichlorethylene represents the active
cementing constituents.
Test Sample : 2 grams of asphalt sample in a fluid condition. In case
asphalt sample is not fluid, heat to any convenient temperature,
but not in any case not more than 100 deg. Centigrade above the
softening point.
CALCULATION :
Insoluble, % =

Soluble, %
Where :

A
____________
x 100
B
A
100 ( __ ) x 100
B

A = Total weight insoluble


B = Total weight of sample

III. DETERMINATION OF PENETRATION OF BITUMINOUS


MATERIALS
SIGNIFICANCE :
The penetration test is used as a measure of consistency. Higher values
of penetration indicate softer consistency.
Normal Test Condition of the Sample :
Temperature : 25 deg. Centigrade
Load

: 100 grams

Time

: 5 seconds

No. of Test Determinations: At least three (3) determinations at points


on the surface of the sample not less than 10 mm from the
side of the container and not less than 10 mm apart.
For Referee Tests : Penetrations at temperature other than 25 deg.
Centigrade should be made without removing the
sample from the bath.

IV. DETERMINATION OF DUCTILITY OF BITUMINOUS MATERIALS


SIGNIFICANCE :
The ductility of the bituminous material is measured by the distance
to which it will elongate before breaking when two ends of a briquet
specimen of the material are pulled apart at a specified speed and at a
specified temperature.
The test shall be made at a temperature of 25 plus or minus 0.5 deg.
centigrade with a speed of 50 mm per minute plus or minus 5 %.
Period of Keeping Specimen at Standard Temperature in the Water
Bath : From 85 to 95 min.
Report the average of three normal tests as the Ductility of the sample.
Normal Test : is one which the material between the two clips pulls out
to a point or thread until rupture occurs at the point where
the thread has practically no cross-sectional area.
Abnormal Test : if the bituminous comes in contact with the surface
of the water or the bottom of the bath.
If a normal test is not obtainable on three tests, report the ductility as
being un-obtainable under the conditions of the test.

V. DETERMINATION OF FLASH POINT BY CLEVELAND OPEN CUP


SIGNIFICANCE :
Flash Point measures the tendency of the sample to form a flammable
mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions.
The test indicates the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable
materials in a relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable material.
It is only one of a number of properties that must be considered in
assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.
Apparatus Used : Cleveland Open Cup Apparatus
Thermometer : with temperature range of (-) 6 to
400 deg. centigrade
Temperature of the Flash Point : Record the temperature when a flash
or fire point appears at any point on the surface of
the oil. Report the temperature of flash or fire point
to the nearest 2 deg. centigrade.

TESTS ON CUTBACK ASPHALT


I. DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITY ( KINEMATIC )
SIGNIFICANCE :
The test measures the resistance to flow of a liquid under gravity or
its consistency.
Test Sample : 20 ml. Of cut-back asphalt
CALCULATION :
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt = c x t
Where:

c = calibration constant of viscometer, cSt / second


t = Efflux time, seconds

II. DETERMINATION OF DISTILLATION


SIGNIFICANCE :
The test measures the amount of the more volatile constituents in the cutback asphaltic products. The properties of the residue after distillation are
not necessarily characteristic of the bitumen used in the original mixture
nor of the residue which may be left at any particular time after application
of the cut-back asphaltic product.
Total Distillate = the total volume of distillate collected during heating
of the sample from 316 to 360 deg. centigrade for a period
of not over 10 min.
CALCULATION :
Asphaltic Residue, R = ( ( 200 - TD ) / 200 ) x 100
Where : R = residue content, in volume percent
TD = total distillate recovered to 360 deg. Centigrade, ml.
Total Distillate,

TD % = ( TD / 200 ) X 100

TESTS ON EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


I. DETERMINATION OF STORAGE STABILITY OF ASPHALT EMULSION
SIGNIFICANCE :
The test is useful for determining in a comparatively short time storage
stability of an asphalt emulsion.
It is a measure of the permanence of the dispersion as related to time,
but it is not to be construed to have significance as a measure of other
stability aspects involved in use.
Test Sample : Two (2) 500 ml. representative of asphalt emulsion
CALCULATION :
Calculate the storage stability as the numerical difference between the
average percentage of asphaltic residue found in the two top samples
and that found in the two bottom samples.

II. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUE BY DISTILLATION


SIGNIFICANCE :
The test can be used for quantitative determination of residue in asphalt
emulsions for specification acceptance, service evaluation, control and
research.
Test Sample :

200 grams of a representative sample of emulsion

Total Distillation Time shall be completed in 60 plus minus 15 minutes


Temperature to maintain during the distillation process of
the sample : 260 plus-minus 5 deg. centigrade
CALCULATION :
Calculate and report the percentage residue by distillation after the
expiration of the heating period.
Calculate and report oil distillate as a volume percentage of the total
emulsion.

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXTURES


I.

DETERMINATION OF QUANTITATIVE EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN


FROM BITUMINOUS PAVING MIXTURES
SIGNIFICANCE :
The test can be used for quantitative determination of bitumen in hot-paving
mixtures and pavement samples for specification acceptance, service
evaluation, control and research.
Main Apparatus : Extraction Apparatus an apparatus in which the bowl
may be revolved at controlled variable speeds up to
3600 rpm.
Test Sample : 850 grams to 1000 grams of bituminous mix
CALCULATION :
W1 W2
Bitumen Content, % by Mass of Aggregate = ________________
X 100
W2
Where :

W1 = mass of the test portion ( sample )


W2 = mass of sample after extraction

II. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST ( COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH )


SIGNIFICANCE :
The compressive strength of specimens prepared and tested by this test
along with the density and voids properties are used for laboratory mix
design of bituminous mixtures.
The test also may contribute to the overall mixture characterization and also
one factor in determining the suitability of the mixture for use under given
loading conditions.
Test Sample : weigh at least 2000 grams to 2060 grams of sample
Molding temperature of Sample :
124 plus-minus 3 deg. centigrade for hot mixtures containing asphalt
104 plus-minus 3 deg. Centigrade for mixtures containing road tar
Required Loading for Compressing the Specimen :
Initial Load : 1.0 Mpa ( 150 psi )
Entire Molding Load : 20.7 Mpa ( 3000 psi ) applied for 120 seconds

Period of Curing of Specimens after Compression :


Specimens shall be oven cured 24 hours at 60 deg. Centigrade
Standard Rate of Loading of Testing Machine during Compression :
A uniform rate of vertical deformations of 1.3 mm ( 0.05 in. )
per minute per 25 mm ( 1 in. ) of height.
For a specimens with 100 mm ( 4 in. ) in height, use a rate of
5.1 mm per minute ( 0.2 in / min. )
CALCULATION :
Maximum vertical load during deformation
Compressive Strength = ___________________________________________
Original cross-sectional area of the test specimen
Not less than three (3) specimens shall be prepared for each asphalt
increment and the average of the three shall be reported as the
compressive strength.

DETERMINATION OF BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF


COMPACTED BITUMINOUS MIXTURES
SIGNIFICANCE :
Bulk Specific Gravity of the compacted bituminous mixture is determine
either from the laboratory-molded specimens or from bituminous pavement
by core drilled specimens.
The test may be used in calculating the unit weight of the bituminous
mixture and as basis for payment for the density specifications of the
completed asphalt pavement.
Test Specimens :
The diameter of cylindrically molded or cored specimens, or the lengths
of the sides of sawed specimens, be at least equal to four times the
maximum size of aggregate.
The thickness of specimens be at least one and one-half times the
maximum size of aggregate

Required Temperature of Water and Time to Immerse the Specimens


in Water : 25 deg. Centigrade plus-minus 1 % C / 3 to 5 minutes

CALCULATION :

Bulk Specific Gravity =

A
__________
B - C

Where :
A = mass in grams of sample in air
B = mass in grams of surface dry specimen in air
C = mass in grams in water

TESTS ON PORTLAND CEMENT,


REINFORCING STEEL BARS,
STRUCTURAL

STEEL

AND PAINT MATERIALS

TESTS ON PORTLAND CEMENT


I.

DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF CEMENT

II. DETERMINATION OF FINENESS OF CEMENT


III. DETERMINATION OF NORMAL CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT
IV. DETERMINATION OF TIME OF SETTING ( BY GILLMORE NEEDLE )
V. SOUNDNESS DETERMINATION BY AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION
VI. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT MORTARS
VII. DETERMINATION OF LOSS ON IGNITION
VIII. DETERMINATION OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUE

I. DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF CEMENT


SIGNIFICANCE :
The value of specific gravity of cement is used in the design mix
and control of concrete mixtures.
Test Sample : At least 64 grams of cement sample
Main Apparatus Required for Test : Le Chatelier Flask
CALCULATION :
64
Density, g / cm3 = ___________________________
Final reading - Initial reading
The density in g / cm3 is numerically equal to specific gravity

DETERMINATION OF DENSITY HYDRAULIC CEMENT

Le Chatelier Flask

II.

DETERMINATION OF FINENESS OF CEMENT BY THE NO.


200 SIEVES
SIGNIFICANCE :
The test determines the proper condition of cement as to fineness
of its texture and where there should be no appreciable amount of
dust contain in the cement.
Necessary Apparatus Required :
Standard Sieve No. 200 ( 0.075 mm ) and Analytical Balance
Test Sample : 50 grams of cement
CALCULATION :
Wt. Of residue (g) x 100
% Fineness = 100 - ________________________
Wt. Of original sample (g)

DETERMINATION OF FINENESS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT


BY THE NO. 200 (0.075-MM) SIEVES

Analytical Balance

Pan and No. 200 sieve

III. DETERMINATION OF NORMAL CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT


SIGNIFICANCE :
The test determines the amount of water required to prepare hydraulic
cement pastes for testing

Test Sample : 650 grams of cement


Main Apparatus Required : Vicat Apparatus with a removable needle
having a 1 mm in diameter and 50 mm in
length
CALCULATION :
Volume of water required ( cm3 )
Normal Consistency, N.C. = _________________________________
Wt. Of cement sample ( 650 g )

DETERMINATION OF NORMAL CONSISTENCY


OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT

VICAT APPARATUS

IV. DETERMINATION OF TIME OF SETTING


( BY GILLMORE NEEDLE )
SIGNIFICANCE :
The purpose of this test is to establish whether a cement complies with
a specification limit on setting time.
The time of setting is affected not only by the percentage and temperature
of the water used, and the amount of kneading the paste received, but also
by the temperature and humidity of the air.
Gillmore Needle shall conform to the following :
a.

The initial setting-time needle shall have a weight of 113.4 + 0.5 g


and a tip diameter of 2.12 + 0.05 mm

b.

The final setting time needle shall have a weight of 453.6 + 0.5_ g
and a tip diameter of 1.06 + 0.05 mm

Test Sample : 650 grams of cement

Initial Setting Time, min. = the difference in minutes between the time of
contact of cement and mixing water and the
time the cement paste acquires its initial set.
Final Setting Time, min. = the difference in minutes between the time of
contact of cement and mixing water and the
time the cement paste acquires its final set.

GILLMORE APPARATUS

V. SOUNDNESS DETERMINATION BY AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION


SIGNIFICANCE :
The test provides an index of potential delayed expansion caused
by the hydration of calcium oxide or magnesium oxide or both.
Test Sample : 650 grams of cement
Initial Temperature Required for the Specimens in the
Autoclave Apparatus : 20 to 28 deg. Centigrade
Required Gage Pressure to maintain in the Autoclave Apparatus :
2 + 0.07 Mpa ( 295 + 10 psi ) for 3 hours
CALCULATION :
Calculate the difference in length of the test specimens before and after
Autoclaving as percent of the effective gage length and report to the
Nearest 0.01 percent.
Report the percentage of increase in length as the autoclave expansion.

Autoclave Apparatus

IV. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF


CEMENT MORTARS ( USING 50 MM CUBE SPECIMENS )
SIGNIFICANCE :
This test is used to determine the compressive strength of cement that
will be used to determine compliance with specifications. The test is one
of the significant properties as basis for the acceptance of cement material.
Test Sample : Standard Mortar using a proportion of one (1) part of
cement to 2.75 parts of graded standard sand by
weight.
Quantities of Materials for Use in One Batch of Mortar as Test Specimens:
Number of Specimens
Cement, grams
Sand, grams
Water, ml

500
1375

740
2035

To produce a flow of 110 + 5


( as determine by flow test using Flow Table )
-

( The flow is the resulting increase in average diameter of the base of the
mortar mass, measured on at least four diameters, expressed as
percentage of the original diameter.

Cube Mortar Specimens shall be tested for Compressive Strength for


the ages of 3, 7, and 28 days
Standard Rate of Loading of the Compression Machine for the
Compressive Strength Test of Mortar Specimens : 3000 lbf and
loading time shall not be less than 20 nor more than 80 seconds from the
start of loading.

CALCULATION :
Record the maximum load indicated by the testing machine and calculate
the compressive strength in kPa by dividing the cross-sectional area of the
specimen.
The compressive strength of all acceptable test specimens made from
the same sample and tested at the same period shall be averaged and
reported to the nearest 70 kPa ( 10 psi )

DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF HYDRAULIC


CEMENT MORTARS (Using 50mm Cube Specimens)

Preparation of Sample for Molding Test Specimen (Molding Cubes)

Breaking of Cube Samples for Compressive Strength

VII. DETERMINATION OF LOSS ON IGNITION


SIGNIFICANCE :
It determines the freshness of cement and the presence/accumulated
moisture content in the cement cause by free hydration and carbonation
of cement.
Analytical Balance shall have a sensitivity of 0.0001 gram
Muffle Furnace shall have a heating temperature capable of continous
operation up to 1200 deg. Centigrade
Test Sample : 1 gram of cement
Required Heating Temperature of Mufflle Furnace and Heating Period
for the Sample : 950 deg. Centigrade + 50 deg. Centigrade and
15 min.
CALCULATION :
Wt. of Sample _ Wt. of Sample
after Ignition
before Ignition
% Loss on Ignition = _________________________________
x 100
Wt. of Sample

DETERMINATION OF LOSS ON IGNITION

Weigh 1g of sample using Balance Analytical

Place sample inside the Muffle Furnace

Cool to room temperature in the dessicator and


crucible

VIII. DETERMINATION OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUE


SIGNIFICANCE :
The test determines the acid-insoluble materials ( inert ) present in cement.
when large amount is present in the cement, it affects the setting time and
the strength of concrete.
Analytical Balance shall have a sensitivity of 0.0001 gram
Muffle Furnace shall have a heating temperature capable of continous
operation up to 1200 deg. Centigrade
Reagents : Sodium hydroxide solution ( 10 g / liter )
Hydrochloric Acid ( w / Sp. Gr. = 1.19 )
Methyl Red Indicator 2 g / liter with 95 % ethyl
Test Sample : 1 gram of cement
Required Heating Temperature of Mufflle Furnace for the Sample :
900 to 1000 deg. Centigrade
CALCULATION :
Calculate the percentage of Insoluble Residue to the nearest 0.01
by multiplying the weight in grams of the residue by 100

DETERMINATION OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUE

Weighing 1g of cement sample


using Balance Analytical

Filtering the solution

Ignite the residue in a weighed crucible to


900-1000C using the Muffle Furnace

Cool the crucible in the dessicator

TESTS ON REINFORCING STEEL BARS


I. DETERMINATION OF THE TENSILE PROPERTIES
II. DETERMINATION OF THE BENDING PROPERTIES
TEST ON METALLIC MATERIALS ( STRUCTURAL STEEL )
TEST ON GALVANIZED STEEL SHEETS AND COILS

TESTS ON PAINTS

TESTS ON REINFORCING STEEL BARS


I. DETERMINATION OF THE TENSILE PROPERTIES
SIGNIFICANCE :
This test is intended to determine the yield and tensile strength of the
Bar as well as its elongation, and is used to classify the bars into grade.
Universal Machine - main equipment having 100 tons or 200,000 lbs.
capacity
Test Sample : 1 meter representative of the size of steel bar intended
for test. Mark in the center of the test specimen a
200 mm ( 8 ) gage length.
CALCULATION :
Load the Specimen sustains during test
Tensile Strength = Maximum
____________________________________________
Nominal cross-sectional Area of the Specimen
Yield Point =

Load sustain by the Specimen by the sudden halt of Load


__________________________________________________
Nominal cross-sectional Area of the Specimen

Elongation : express as the increase in length of the gage length as a


percentage of the original gage length.

* REINFORCING STEEL BARS

II. DETERMINATION OF THE BENDING PROPERTIES


SIGNIFICANCE :
The test is one of the methods in evaluating the ductile properties
of the reinforcing steel bars.

Universal Machine - main equipment having 100 tons or 200,000 lbs.


capacity with accessories for bending test and
suitable pins.
REPORTING :
Examine carefully the bent portion for any sign of cracking on the
outside bend and report with satisfactory when no cracks appears
and unsatisfactory when sign of crack occurs.

DETERMINATION OF THE BENDING PROPERTIES


OF REINFORCING STEEL BARS/STRUCTURAL STEEL

Set cold bend apparatus then


place sample for bending test

Start the bending operation


using Universal Testing
Machine (UTM)

Examine the bend portion if crack appears using


magnifying glass

Acceptance and Rejection:


Insufficient height, insufficient circumferential coverage, or excessive
spacing of deformations shall not constitute cause for rejection.
No rejection shall be made on the basis of measurements if fewer
than ten adjacent deformations of each side of the bar are measured
In no case shall overweight ( excess mass ) of any deformed bar
be the cause for rejection

Retests
If any tensile property of any tension test specimen is less than
that specified, and any part of the fracture is outside the middle
third of the gage length, as indicated by scribe scratches marked
on the specimen after testing, a retest shall be allowed.

If the results of an original tension specimen fail to meet the specified


minimum requirements and are within 14 MPa ( 2000 psi ) of the
required tensile strength, within 7 MPa ( 1000 psi ) of the required yield
point, or within two percentage units of the required elongation, a
retest shall be permitted on two random specimens for each original
tension specimen failure from the lot. Both retest specimens shall
meet the requirements of the specification.
If a weight ( mass ) test fails for reasons other than flaws in the
specimen, a retest shall be permitted on two random specimens from
the same lot. Both retest specimens shall meet
the requirements of the specification.

TEST ON METALLIC MATERIALS ( STRUCTURAL STEEL )


Metallic materials are subjected to different tests in order to obtain
quantitative measurements of their mechanical properties.
TESTS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE :
Tension Test : Provide information on the strength and ductility of
material and are useful in comparisons of materials,
quality control and design under certain circumstances.
Ductility Test : is evaluated by the tension test, by determination
of the percent elongation and sometimes the percent
reduction in area.
Hardness Test : is determined by measuring the resistance to indention
by the use of hardened steel ball or diamond conical
penetrator. Brinell Hardness and Rockwell Hardness
are the two tests commonly performed in determining
the hardness of metallic materials.
Impact Test : is to determined the resistance to failure due to brittleness
by a suddenly applied load. It is also a control test on all
metallic materials.

Figure 1

Rectangular Tension Test Specimen

Figure 2 Standard 0.500 in. (12.5mm) Round Tension Test Specimen


w/2 in. (50mm) Gage Length

Standard Specimen
Plate Type

Sheet Type

mm
G
W
T

mm

200 + 0.25
40 + 3

50 + 0.10
12.5 + 0.25

Thickness of Material

13

13

450

200

225

60

75

50

50

20

TEST ON GALVANIZED STEEL SHEETS AND COILS (ZINC COATING)


Significance :
The test provides a standard method for determining the weight of coating
for comparison with specification requirements.
A coating of zinc on iron or steel materials provides protection against
corrosion.
Test Specimen : Cut from each sheet three specimens, one from the center
and the other two from diagonally opposite corners,
adjacent to and within the boundary formed by lines not
less than 50 mm from sides and 100 mm from ends.

CALCULATION :

Size of Specimen : 60 mm + 0.25 mm or


64.52 mm + 0.25 mm

M1 - M2 ) G K
C = (______________
M2

where : C = mass of coating, g/m2 of sheet


M1 = original mass of specimen, g
M2 = mass of stripped sheet, g
G = thickness of stripped sheet, mm
K = a constant equal to 7850 g/m2,mm

Specimens for Zinc Coating test of galvanized metal

PAINTS

TESTS ON PAINTS
Paints is a mixture of a finely divided insoluble solid called the pigment
and a liquid portion called vehicle which dries upon exposure to air or
heat and forms a tough coating when spread in thin layer.

There are different types of paints differing from one another in


Composition and properties, namely : Exterior House Paints, Interior
Flat Paints, Metal Protective Paints, Traffic Paints, Roof Paints and
Chemical Resistant Paints.

Testing of paints are conducted in order to determine its physical and


chemical characteristics and to check whether the materials meet the
necessary conditionsand requirements for which they are intended for.

CLASSIFICATION OF PAINTS
1. Latex Paint - intended for use on concrete or other masonry surfaces loss
Gloss/Semi-Gloss Latex - paints that are made from emulsions of
polymer in water as binder with suitable pigment which has
sheen, shine or luster.
Flat Latex Paint - a paint made from emulsions of polymer in water
as binder with suitable pigment which is substantially free
from gloss ( lusterless finish ).
2. Enamel Paint - intended for use on wood surfaces, a special type of
paint made with varnish as the vehicle.
Gloss/Semi-Gloss Enamel - for interior use, a paint made from alkyd
resin as binder with suitable pigment which has sheen,
shine or luster.
Flat Wall Paint - intended for interior use, a paint made from alkyd
resin as binder with suitable pigment which is
substantially free from gloss.

3. Red Lead Oxide Paint - is metal primers, for exterior and interior use.
Use as a prime or shop coat of for maintenance coats
which are place on bridges, similar structural steel and
other ferrous metal surfaces.
Read Lead - a bright orange red tetroxide used as primary
constituents of anti-corrosive primers for iron and steel.
Red Oxide - a pigment mainly of ferric oxide
4. Aluminum Paint - a paint primarily intended for use on steel structures.
5. Reflectorized Traffic Paint
- For zone marking, traffic lanes and parking spaces. It should be
rapid drying, resistant to abrasion & weather conditions and
should possess improve visibility at night.
- Pavement marking materials that can be applied uniformly by
means of a standard application and when properly applied will
provide a retro-directive reflective marking for concrete & asphalt
highway surfaces.

TESTS ON PAINTS
FOR LATEX, ENAMEL, RED LEAD, RED OXIDE AND ALUMINUM PAINTS
I. Physical Tests:
1. Density/Specific Gravity ( ASTM D 1475 )
2. Drying Time ( ASTM D 1640 )
3. Total Solids ( Non Volatile Matter ) - ( ASTM 1644/ ISO 1515 )
4. Extraction of Pigment

( ASTM D 2371 )

5. Course Particles ( ASTM D 185 ) , for Red Lead


II. Chemical Tests:
For White Paint - % Titanium Dioxide ( % TiO2 )
For Red Lead

- % True Red Lead ( % Pb3O4 )


% Iron Oxide ( % Fe2O3 )

For Red Oxide - % Iron Oxide ( % Fe2O3 )

TESTS ON REFLECTORIZED TRAFFIC PAINT


( White and Yellow )
I. Physical Tests:
1. Density / Specific Gravity ( ASTM D 1475 )
2. No Pick-up Time ( ASTM D 711 )
3. Total Solids ( Non Volatile Matter ) , ( ASTM 1644 / ISO 1515 )
4. Extraction of Pigment ( ASTM D 2371 )
5. Extraction of Glass Beads ( Decantation )
6. Grading of Beads ( ASTM 1214 )
7. Amount of True Spheres ( ASTM B - Roundness )

II. Chemical Tests:


For White Reflectorized Traffic Paint - % Titanium Dioxide
For Yellow Reflectorized Traffic Paint - % Medium Chrome Yellow
% Lead Chromate

CORE DRILLING ON COMPLETED ASPHALT AND CONCRETE


PAVEMENT AND TESTS ON DRILLED CORES
SIGNIFICANCE :
Core drilling on the completed asphalt and concrete pavements is conducted
to determine the compliance of both pavement construction with design
specifications.
It is especially important in determining the in-place thickness, the strength
and density of the completed structures whichever is desired as basis for the
acceptance and payment of the completed works.
Requirements for Obtaining of Cores in the Completed Pavement
Asphalt Pavement

Concrete Pavement

Thickness determination One-core for every


100 lm / lane

Five-cores for every


km /lane

Diameter of core, mm

100 mm ( 4 in. )

100 mm ( 4 in. )

Asphalt Pavement
Strength Determination

Diameter of core

Density of Compacted
Pavement
No. of measurement for
determining the average
thickness of core

one-core per
100 lm / lane

four ( 4 )

Concrete Pavement
three-cores representing area
of concrete with strength
deficiency in control specimens
150 mm ( 6 in. )
-

nine (9)

TEST REPORTS EVALUATION,


INTERPRETATION AND
FIELD APPLICATION

EVALUATION OF MATERIALS TEST REPORTS


The composition and properties of a material is individually
verified when it is subjected to a quality test to verify if it
meets or fails the specification requirement prior to
incorporation into the work
Construction materials are subjected to physical and chemical tests
to determine the compliance of its properties to the standard
specifications.
The contents of the test reports of materials will be the
basis of an engineer for the acceptance or rejection of the
delivered materials in the project site. It is the documented proof
that determined the quality of materials
When the contents of the test reports after proper evaluation
shows that it fails or meets the specifications requirement, the
Project Engineer thru the advise of the Materials Engineer shall
immediately act to whether
utilized or not the delivered
materials to avoid delay in the project implementation

INTERPRETATION OF MATERIALS TEST RESULTS


Who will interprete the materials test results?
-

It is the responsibility of the Materials Engineer assigned in


the project either from the contractor, consultant or from the
owner to interpret the test results correctly and accurately

Interpretation of materials test reports needs familiarization


of materials specifications and a lot of experienced in
materials testing and quality control works

Project Engineers/Inspectors must also have the ability to


interpret and evaluate test reports of materials and must not
always depend in their Materials Engineer, hence, they have
the great responsibility in the implementation of the project

The rejection or utilization of a material depends on the


outcome of test results. A material may fail in one or more of its
properties but still can be utilized into the work thru the
application of alternative measures and Engineers should have good
judgment and in-depth knowledge on the properties of the
materials

Engineers should familiarize in the significant properties of


materials so that they can immediately decide in the acceptance or
rejection. Incorrect interpretation of material test reports can
cause delay in the project interpretation, additional cost and
failure of the structure

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Public Work s and Highways

BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS


EDS A, Diliman, Quezon City

Lab. Re port No.:


TEST REPORT ON REINFORCING STEEL
Project
Kind of material
Sample identification
Quantity represented
Sampled at
Original source
Supplied by
Proposed use
Spec's Item No.
Sampled by
Submitted by
Lab. No. :

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Date

Construction of Curb & Gutter Brgy. Poblacion, Ibaan, Batangas

Reinforcing Steel Bar (12 mm dia., deformed )


Q-405-01
7808.45 kgs.
Jobsite
Steel Asia
MelJean Construction Corporation
For Concrete Reinforcement ( Dowels )
AASHTO M-31 Grade 40
P. B. Suarez,Prec. Inst. Tech. II DPWH-Bats. 4th DEO,Lipa City
4-03-06
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date)
: B. B. Villanueva,Eng'r. II
- do 4-19-06
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date Received)

1301-06 ( Paid under OR #2595063 )


TESTS

REQUIREMENTS

RESULTS

Tensile Properties:
Yield Point, Mpa
276 Min.
Tensile Strength, Mpa
483 Min.
Elongation, %
12 Min.
Bending Properties:
No cracking on outside
Degree bent, 180 degrees
bent portion
Actual Unit mass, kg/m
Variation in mass, %
6.0 Max. under nominal mass
Deformation, mm
Spacing, average
8.9 Max.
Height, average
0.51 Min.
Gap
4.9 Max
Phosphorous Content, %
0.06 Max.
REMARKS : * Sample fails to meet variation in mass requirement.
Te s te d by
:
Che cke d by:
T. Urmaza
S. Orate
J. Tagalo
J. B e rgonio
C. de la Cruz
Witnessed by:
B ASILIA S. VILLANUEVA
Engine e r IV

345
483
12
Satisfactory
0.868
13.0 under nominal mass *
7.9
0.60
4.0
0.01

CLARITA C. FLORES
Engine e r V
ATTESTED :

ANTONIO V. MOLANO, JR.


Dire ctor IV

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Public Works and Highways
BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS
EDSA, Diliman, Quezon City
Lab. Re port No.:
TEST REPORT ON REINFORCING STEEL

Project
Kind of material
Sample identification
Quantity represented
Sampled at
Original source
Supplied by
Proposed use
Spec's Item No.
Sampled by
Submitted by
Lab. No. :

6-84-06
27 June 2006
Date

Const. Of 2 Storey RGR Type Sch. Bldg. At Dona Ma. Platon Laurel, Aya, Talisay, Bats.
: Const. Of Circumferential Road Around Lake Taal, Agoncillo, Bats.
Completion of Aya-Tranca-Talisay Road, Talisay, Bats.
: Reinforcing Steel Bar ( 16 mm dia., deformed )
: DMP- 5
: 10,000 kgs.
: Stockpile at jobsite
: Top Steel
: Revere Construction & Supply
: for concrete reinforcement
: PNS 49 Grade 275 NW
: F. Opena,Lab. Tech. II
DPWH-Bats. 3rd DEO
06-08-06
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date)
: Ma. B. M. Marquez
- do 6-14-06
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date Received)

1718-06 ( Paid under OR No. 2595342 )


TESTS

REQUIREM ENTS

RESULTS

275 Min.
480 Min,
10 Min.
No cracking on outside
bent portion
6 Max. under nominal mass

277
410 *
27
Satisfactory
1.508
4.0 under nominal mass

11.1 Max.
0.7 - 1.4
12.6
Max
0.06 Max.

10.5
1.15
12.2
0.01

Tensile Properties:
Yield Point, Mpa
Tensile Strength, Mpa
Elongation, %
Bending Properties:
Degree bent, 180 degrees
Actual Unit mass, kg/m
Variation in mass, %
Deformation, mm
Spacing, average
Height, average
Gap
Phosphorous Content, %
REM ARKS : Sample fails to meet specification
Te s te d by

Che cke d by:


T. Urmaza
A. Empe rador
J. B e rgonio
J. Tagalo
C. de la Cruz

CLARITA C. FLORES
Engine e r V
ATTESTED :

Witnessed by:
B ASILIA S. VILLANUEVA
Engine e r IV

ANTONIO V. MOLANO, JR.


Dire ctor IV

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Public Works And Highways

BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS


EDSA, Diliman, Quezon City
Lab. Report No.:
(Date)

TEST REPORT ON CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


Project
Type of Unit
Quantity represented
Sampled at
Original source
Supplied by
Proposed use
Spec's Item No.
Sampled by
Submitted by

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Construction of 2 Storey RGR Type Sch. Bldg. At Dona Ma. Platon Laurel, Aya, Talisay, Bats.
Concrete Hollow Blocks (Non Load Bearing) 4" thick
10,000 pcs.
Stockpile at jobsite
Allied
REVERE Construction & Supply
for walling
ASTM C-129 ( Non- Load Bearing )
N. Magnaye
Revere Cons't. & Supply
06-08-06
F. Opena,Lab. Tech. II
DPWH-Bats. 3rd DEO
06-08-06
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date)
: Ma. B. M. Marquez
- do 6-16-06
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date received)

Lab. No.
: 1720- 06 ( Paid under OR No. 2595342 )
SAMPLE I.D.
TESTS
DMP-9

REM ARKS :

Dimension Measurement, mm
Width
1
2
3
Length
1
2
3
Height
1
2
3
Compressive Strength, MN/m 2
Individual Unit
1
2
3
Average of three(3) units
Water Absorption,kg/m 3 (Avg. of 3 units)
Moisture Content, %(Avg .of 3 units)

REQUIREMENTS

RESULTS

96
96
98

400
408
410

195
190
195

3.45 Min.
3.45 Min.
3.45 Min.

1.89
1.98
1.88

4.14 Min.
-

1.92
128
19

Sample fails to meets specification requirements.


Che cke d by:

Te s te d by :
T. Urmaza
A. Emperador
J. Tagalo
J. Bergonio

CLARITA C. FLORES
Engine e r V
ATTESTED:

Witne s s e d by :
B ASILIA S. VILLANUEVA
Engineer IV

ANTONIO V. MOLANO, JR.


Dire ctor IV

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Public Works And Highways
BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS
EDSA, Diliman, Quezon City

Lab. Report No. :

8-29-06
04 August 2006
Date

TEST REPORT ON PORTLAND CEMENT


Project
Sample identification
Quantity represented
Sampled at
Manufactured by
Brand
Supplied by
Spec's Item No.
Sampled by

: Concreting of Road, Barangay II, San Carlos City, Negros Occidental


: CRBII-01
: 2000 bags
: Jobsite
: Taiheiyo Cement Phils., Inc., San Fernando, Cebu City
: Grand Portland Cement
: Kuntel Construction
: ASTM C-150
: R.dela Cruz/J.Yanson DPWH-Neg. 1st EDO/Kuntel Const.
6-16-06
:
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date)
Submitted by
: N.A. Noble-Engr. III
DPWH-Neg. 1st EDO Neg. Occ.
6-20-06
:
(Name & designation)
(Office)
(Date
received)
Lab. No.
: 1741-06 (Paid under OR # 2595384)
TESTS
REQUIREMENTS
RESULTS
Magnesium Oxide (MgO), %
6.0 Max.
1.30
Sulfur Trioxide (SO 3), %
3.0 Max.
2.47
Loss on Ignition, %
3.0 Max.
4.70*
Insoluble Residue, %
0.75 Max.
1.10*
Air Content of Mortar, %
12.0 Max.
Fineness : Amount Passing
No. 0.075 mm Sieve, %
99
Autoclave Expansion, %
0.8 Max.
0.03
Time of Setting : Gilmore Test
Initial set, min.
60 Min.
120
Final set, min.
600 Max.
253
Compressive Strength, Avg. mortar
cubes, Mpa:
3 days
12.0 Min.
19.0
7 days
19.0 Min.
17.5
28 days
28.0 Min.
23.0
Specific Gravity
3.09
REMARKS:
* Sample fails to meet Specification requirements.
Tested by:

Checked by:
P. Malonzo
B.A. Minano
E. Cruz
E. Flores
M. S. Gianan

CLARITA C. FLORES
Engineer V
ATTESTED :

Witnessed by:
EUGENIO P. ELERIA
Engineer IV

ANTONIO V. MOLANO, JR.


Director IV

Re public of the Philippine s


De partme nt of Public Works And Highways
BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS
EDSA, Diliman, Que zon City

Lab. Re port No. :

8-30-06
04 Augus t 2006
Date

TEST REPORT ON PORTLAND CEMENT


Proje ct
Sample ide ntification
Quantity re pre s e nte d
Sample d at
M anufacture d by
B rand
Supplie d by
Spe c's Ite m No.
Sample d by
Submitte d by

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Concreting/Improvement of Matulatula-Sitio Bahid Farm to Market Road


Q.T.-1; Code: 05100049002
2000 bags
Jobsite
Iligan Cement Corp.
Fortune Portland Cement
Sixteen Enterprises - Calapan City, Or. Mindoro
ASTM C-150
M.V. Mendoza-Lab. Tech. I
DPWH-Calapan City
6-20-06
(Name & de s ignation)
(Office )
(Date )
A. Mahia- Engr. III
-do6-21-06
(Name & de s ignation)
(Office )
(Date
re ce ive d)

Lab. No.
: 1742-06 (Paid under OR # 2595386)
TESTS
REQUIREMENTS
M agne s ium Oxide (M gO), %
6.0 Max.
Sulfur Trioxide (SO 3), %
3.0 Max.
Los s on Ignition, %
3.0 Max.
Ins oluble Re s idue , %
0.75 Max.
Air Conte nt of Mortar, %
12.0 Max.
Fine ne s s : Amount Pas s ing
No. 0.075 mm Sie ve , %
Autoclave Expans ion, %
0.8 Max.
Time of Se tting : Gilmore Te s t
Initial s e t, min.
60 Min.
Final s e t, min.
600 Max.
Compre s s ive Stre ngth, Avg. mortar
cube s , Mpa:
3 days
12.0 Min.
7 days
19.0 Min.
28 days
28.0 Min.
Spe cific Gravity
REM ARKS:
Sample meets Specification
Te s te d by:

RESULTS
1.52
2.06
2.80
0.70
98
0.04
120
213

21.7
27.7
3.11

Che cke d by:


P. M alonzo
B .A. Minano
E. Cruz
E. Flore s
M . S. Gianan

CLARITA C. FLORES
Engine e r V
ATTESTED :

Witne s s e d by:
EUGENIO P. ELERIA
Engine e r IV

ANTONIO V. MOLANO, JR.


Director IV

Republic of the Philippine s


Departme nt of Public Works And Highways
BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS
EDSA, Diliman, Quezon City

Lab. Re port No. :

8-77-06
14 Augus t 2006
Date

TEST REPORT ON PORTLAND CEMENT


Proje ct
Sample ide ntification
Quantity re pre s e nte d
Sample d at
Manufacture d by
B rand
Supplie d by
Spe c's Ite m No.
Sample d by
Submitte d by

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Const.of Water Supply/Spring development @Taysan Bats./San Jose Bats.


and Brgy. Talisay, Lipa City
Q-405-01
2000 bags
Jobsite
Fortune Cement Corp.
Fortune Portland Cement
Nermar Lumber and Hardware Corp.
ASTM C-150
P.B.Suarez-Prec.Inst.Tech.II
Bats.4th DEO
7-07-06
(Name & de s ignation)
(Office )
(Date )
B.B.Villanueva-Engr.II
-do7-07-06
(Name & de s ignation)
(Office )
(Date
re ce ive d)

Lab. No.
: 1976-06 (Paid under OR # 2596013)
TESTS
REQUIREMENTS
RESULTS
Magne s ium Oxide (MgO), %
6.0 Max.
1.66
Sulfur Trioxide (SO 3), %
3.0 Max.
2.37
Los s on Ignition, %
3.0 Max.
3.50*
Ins oluble Re s idue , %
0.75 Max.
0.90*
Air Conte nt of Mortar, %
12.0 Max.
Fine ne s s : Amount Pas s ing
No. 0.075 mm Sie ve , %
98
Autoclave Expans ion, %
0.8 Max.
0.03
Time of Se tting : Gilmore Te s t
Initial s e t, min.
60 Min.
134
Final s e t, min.
600 Max.
254
Compre s s ive Stre ngth, Avg. mortar
cube s , Mpa:
3 days
12.0 Min.
20.5
7 days
19.0 Min.
21.7
28 days
28.0 Min.
Spe cific Gravity
3.12
Strength of mortar samples tested at 3 days and 7 days can be considered for acceptance,
provided that the strength of sample at 7 days is not less than 23.46 MPA w/c is 85%
of the compressive strength requirement for 28 days (27.6 MPA) D.O. No.57
REMARKS:
* Sample fails to meet Loss on Ignition & Insoluble residue requirement.