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Applied Nutrition

(Obesity)

Taif University
Department of Nursing

Obesity
Usually, we use body mass index (BMI) to

define underweight, overweight, normal


weight and obesity.
BMI: is a specific value calculated through

dividing weight in kilograms by height in


square meters (kg/m2).
If BMI is less than 18.5 kg/m2

underweight.
If BMI is 18.5 -25 kg/m2 normal weight.
If BMI is 25 30 kg/m2 . Overweight.

Understanding obesity
amount of
food
(calories)

Energy we
expend

Overweight and obesity develop when the

energy on the intake side is more than on


the expenditure side

An Epidemiological model
of obesity
Food, drugs, viruses, and toxins, and low

physical activity are the environmental


agents that facilitate the development of
obesity.

Environmental factors
(Food)
The first food factor in determining whether or not

obesity develops is the portion of size of packages


and servings.
When larger portion sizes are provided, more food

is eaten.
Many food lists the calories per serving, but the
package often contains more than one serving.
The intake of calorically sweetened beverages has

been related to the epidemic of obesity.


It has been reported that the intake of soft drinks
was a predictor of initial BMI in children .

Environmental factors
(Food)
Dietary fat is another component that may be

related to the epidemic of obesity.


Food combining sugars and fats are often
palatable and inexpensive, so that they are
more preferable by children, and this may
increase the incidence of obesity among
them.
The level of calcium intake in population

studies is inversely correlated with the risk of


being overweight. Higher dietary calcium is

Environmental factors
(Food)
The cost of food is another factor in the

cause of obesity.
In the most of countries in the world, the

price of food containing sugars and fats


rose in percentages bigger than foods
containing fruits, vegetables, fishes, and
dairy products. This will make people
increase their consumption of food
containing fats and sugars, leading to
increased incidence of obesity.

Environmental factors
(Low levels of physical
activity)
Epidemiological data show that low levels

of physical activity and watching TV predict


higher body weight.
Low levels of activity also increase the risk

of early mortality.
It is thus better to be thin than fat and to

be physically active rather than inactive.

Environmental factors
(Drugs and Chemicals)
High-dose corticosteroids, some

psychoactive drugs, or valporate are


most common drugs that may cause
obesity.
Cessation of smoking is another

environmental factor that will affect


body fat stores. A weight gain of 1 to 2
kg is seen in the first weeks after
cessation of smoking.

Environmental factors
(Viruses)
Recent findings of antibodies to one of the

adenoviruses in larger amounts in obese


humans raises the possibility that viruses
are in involved in some cases.
The adenoviral syndrome can be replicated

in nonhuman primates and is characterized


by modest obesity and low circulating
cholesterol.

The Host Factors of


Obesity
Genetic factors.
Intrauterine imprinting:

- The infants of mother who smoked during


pregnancy, are at
increased risk of developing obesity.
- The infants of mothers who have diabetes
are at high risk of
developing obesity.
- Infants who are small for their birth dates are
at higher risk

Treatment of Obesity
Prevention of the current epidemic:

- Education in the school curriculum about


good nutrition,
and healthy weight.
- Regulating an improved food label.
Regulations on
appropriate serving sizes might be part
of the information
provided by restaurants when
requested.
- Modification of our food system, to

Treatment of Obesity
(Diet)
The popular diet groups for treatment of

obese persons:
- Low-energy diet:
- Low fat diet:
- Low carbohydrate diet.
- High protein diet.
focus on foods like fruits and vegetables,

whole grains, legumes, eggs, lean meat,


and low fat dairy products.

Treatment of Obesity
(Exercise)
Increased movement, both modest

and vigorous, is a way to increase


energy expenditure that will burn
fat deposits.
The best exercise for obese

persons is walking.

Treatment of Obesity
(Medications)
Four medications which are approved by

the U.S. Food and Drug /Administration for


the treatment of obesity:
- Benzphetamine.
- Diethylpropion.
- Phendimetrazine.
- Phentermine.

Treatment of Obesity
(Surgery)

Vagotomy