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Normal curve

The Standard Normal Curve


One way to analyze a
set of data values is to
graph its frequency curve.
Example: If the frequency
of the lifetime of several
thousand light bulbs were
plotted, the graph would
resemble a bell-shaped curve.
This bell-shaped curve is
the frequency curve of a
normal distribution.

For a set of data with xaand


mean
a standard devia
,
the normal curve is denoted
N( x , 2by
).
The z-scores provide a standard measure where N(0, 1) represents
the standard normal curve. The area under the curve relates to
the probability of an event occurring with the total area equaling one.
9.3.4

Normal curve
The

curve is symmetric
about the mean.
Each half represents
50% of the total area.
The total area is 1.0000
Areas can be thought of
as probabilities.
Areas could be written
as percents.
Areas can not be
negative.

Standard Normal curve

The

The

mean is 0.

standard
deviation is 1.

Format of the table


The

table has 2 halves one for


negative values of z and one for
positive values of z.
The left column tells the first
decimal place for the z; the top row
tells the second decimal place for z.
We find the intersection of the row
and column to find the area to the
LEFT of z.

Special notes
For

Z scores above 3.50, use the


area of 0.9999

For

Z scores below -3.50, use the


area of 0.0001

The Z Score
What

we need is a standardized
normal curve which can be used
for any normally distributed
variable. Such a curve is called
the Standard Normal Curve.

X
z
S
7

Reminder!
Areas

can never be negative.

scores can be negative.

Area under the Standard Normal


Distribution Curve
1. To the left of any z value:
Look up the z value in the table and use
the area given.

Bluman, Chapter 6

Area under the Standard Normal


Distribution Curve
2. To the right of any z value:
Look up the z value and subtract the
area from 1.

Bluman, Chapter 6

10

Area under the Standard Normal


Distribution Curve
3. Between two z values:
Look up both z values and subtract the
corresponding areas.

Bluman, Chapter 6

11

Example 1
Find

the area to
the left of z = 2.25

Example 2
Find

the area to
the right of z =
1.50

Example 3
Find

the area
between z = -1.35
and z = 2.15

Your Turn
Find

the area for each:


1. area to the left of z = -1.04

2. area to the right of z = 1.07

Your turn continued


3.

area between z = 0 and z = 2.75

4.

area between z = -1.00 and z =


1.00

Finding z given area


Make

sure the diagram shows the


area to the left of the desired z
score.

Look

in the body of the chart for


the closest area, except for the
special z scores.

Read

the z score.

Example 4
The

area to the
right of z is 0.0250

Example 5
The

area from the


mean to a positive
z is 0.1628

Example 6
The

area from
some negative z to
the mean is 0.4772

Your turn
Find

the z score for each:


1. 5% is to the left of z

2. the top 15%

Finding the Area Under the Curve


1. Find the area between z-scores -1.22 and 1.44.
The area for z-score -1.22
is 0.1112.
-1.22

1.44

-1.22

1.44

The area for z-score 1.44


is 0.9251.
Therefore, the area
between z-scores
-1.22 and 1.44 is
0.9251 - 0.1112 = 0.8139.

9.3.9

Finding the Area Under the Curve


2. Find the area between the mean and z-score -1.78.
The area for z-score -1.78
is 0.0375.

Therefore, the area between


the mean and z-score -1.78 is
0.5 - 0.0375 = 0.4625.

-1.78

3. Find the area between the mean and z-score 1.78.


The area for z-score 1.78
is 0.9625.
Therefore, the area between
the mean and z-score 1.78 is
1.78

0.9625 - 0.5 = 0.4625.

9.3.10

Finding a Z-Score Given the Area


1. Find the z-score for an area of 0.4901 that is left of the mean.
Find the area to the left of the z-score:
0.5 - 0.4901 = 0.0099
The z-score for an area of 0.0099
is -2.33.

2. Find the z-score for an area of 0.2177 greater than the z-score.
Find the area to the left of the z-score:
1 - 0.2177 = 0.7823
The z-score for an area of 0.7823
is 0.78.

3. Find the z-scores when approximately 80% of the data is evenly


distributed about the mean.
Find the area to the left of the z-score:
0.5 - 0.4 = 0.1
The z-scores for 80% of the area are
-1.29 and 1.29.
9.3.12

Using Normal Distribution - Applications


1. A television manufacturing company found that the life
expectancy of their televisions was normally distributed with
a mean of 15 000 h and a standard deviation of 1100 h.
a) What percent of the televisions last longer than 17 000 h?
b) What percent last between 12 600 h and 16 200 h?
c ) In a shipment of 500 televisions, how many would you expect
to last less than 13 000 h?
a) Calculate the z-score for 17 000 h:
xx

17 000 15 000
z
1100
z 1.82
z

1.82

The area greater than z-score 1.82 is 1 - 0.9656 = 0.0344.


Therefore, 3.44% of televisions last longer than 17 000 h.
9.3.13

Using Normal Distribution - Applications [contd]


b) What percent last between 12 600 h and 16 200 h?
Find the z-scores for 12 600 h and 16 200 h:
xx
z

126 00 15 000
z
1100

xx
z

16 200 15 000
z
1100

z 2.18

z 1.09

-2.18

1.09

The area for z-score -2.18 is 0.0146.


The area for z-score 1.09 is 0.8621.
Therefore, the area between z-scores
-2.18 and 1.09 is 0.8621 - 0.0146 = 0.8475.
Therefore, 84.75% of the televisions
would last between 12 600 h and 16 200 h.
9.3.14

Using Normal Distribution - Applications [contd]


c) In a shipment of 500 televisions, how many
would you expect to last less than 13 000 h?
Find the z-scores for 13 000 h:
xx

13 000 15 000
z
1100
z

z 1.82

-1.82

The area for z-score -1.82 is 0.0344.


Therefore, 3.44% of the televisions
would last less than 13 000.
Therefore, you would expect
500 x 0.0344 = 17 televisions
to last less than 13 000 h.
9.3.15

Using Normal Distribution - Applications


2.

A staple machine holds 400 staples when loaded. The


mean number of misfires per load is 8 with a standard
deviation of 2.8. Assuming normal distribution, what is the
probability that there will be fewer than 11 but more than 7 misfires per load?

xx
z

78
z
2.8
z 0.36
Area = 0.3594

xx

11 8
z
2.8
z 1.07
z

-0.36

1.07

Area = 0.8577

P(-0.36 z 1.07) = 0.8577 - 0.3594


= 0.4983
Therefore, the probability that there will be
fewer than 11 but more than 7 misfires per
load is 0.4983.
9.3.17

Using Normal Distribution - Applications


3. A brush manufacturer determines the mean life of his brushes
to be five years with a standard deviation of two years. If he
guarantees his brushes for three years, what percent of his brushes
will he have to replace?

xx
z

35
2

z 1
Area = 0.1587

-1
Therefore, 15.87% of the brushes
will have to be replaced.

9.3.18