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You are on page 1of 29

One way to analyze a

set of data values is to

graph its frequency curve.

Example: If the frequency

of the lifetime of several

thousand light bulbs were

plotted, the graph would

resemble a bell-shaped curve.

This bell-shaped curve is

the frequency curve of a

normal distribution.

mean

a standard devia

,

the normal curve is denoted

N( x , 2by

).

The z-scores provide a standard measure where N(0, 1) represents

the standard normal curve. The area under the curve relates to

the probability of an event occurring with the total area equaling one.

9.3.4

Normal curve

The

curve is symmetric

about the mean.

Each half represents

50% of the total area.

The total area is 1.0000

Areas can be thought of

as probabilities.

Areas could be written

as percents.

Areas can not be

negative.

The

The

mean is 0.

standard

deviation is 1.

The

negative values of z and one for

positive values of z.

The left column tells the first

decimal place for the z; the top row

tells the second decimal place for z.

We find the intersection of the row

and column to find the area to the

LEFT of z.

Special notes

For

area of 0.9999

For

area of 0.0001

The Z Score

What

we need is a standardized

normal curve which can be used

for any normally distributed

variable. Such a curve is called

the Standard Normal Curve.

X

z

S

7

Reminder!

Areas

Distribution Curve

1. To the left of any z value:

Look up the z value in the table and use

the area given.

Bluman, Chapter 6

Distribution Curve

2. To the right of any z value:

Look up the z value and subtract the

area from 1.

Bluman, Chapter 6

10

Distribution Curve

3. Between two z values:

Look up both z values and subtract the

corresponding areas.

Bluman, Chapter 6

11

Example 1

Find

the area to

the left of z = 2.25

Example 2

Find

the area to

the right of z =

1.50

Example 3

Find

the area

between z = -1.35

and z = 2.15

Your Turn

Find

1. area to the left of z = -1.04

3.

4.

1.00

Make

area to the left of the desired z

score.

Look

the closest area, except for the

special z scores.

Read

the z score.

Example 4

The

area to the

right of z is 0.0250

Example 5

The

mean to a positive

z is 0.1628

Example 6

The

area from

some negative z to

the mean is 0.4772

Your turn

Find

1. 5% is to the left of z

1. Find the area between z-scores -1.22 and 1.44.

The area for z-score -1.22

is 0.1112.

-1.22

1.44

-1.22

1.44

is 0.9251.

Therefore, the area

between z-scores

-1.22 and 1.44 is

0.9251 - 0.1112 = 0.8139.

9.3.9

2. Find the area between the mean and z-score -1.78.

The area for z-score -1.78

is 0.0375.

the mean and z-score -1.78 is

0.5 - 0.0375 = 0.4625.

-1.78

The area for z-score 1.78

is 0.9625.

Therefore, the area between

the mean and z-score 1.78 is

1.78

9.3.10

1. Find the z-score for an area of 0.4901 that is left of the mean.

Find the area to the left of the z-score:

0.5 - 0.4901 = 0.0099

The z-score for an area of 0.0099

is -2.33.

2. Find the z-score for an area of 0.2177 greater than the z-score.

Find the area to the left of the z-score:

1 - 0.2177 = 0.7823

The z-score for an area of 0.7823

is 0.78.

distributed about the mean.

Find the area to the left of the z-score:

0.5 - 0.4 = 0.1

The z-scores for 80% of the area are

-1.29 and 1.29.

9.3.12

1. A television manufacturing company found that the life

expectancy of their televisions was normally distributed with

a mean of 15 000 h and a standard deviation of 1100 h.

a) What percent of the televisions last longer than 17 000 h?

b) What percent last between 12 600 h and 16 200 h?

c ) In a shipment of 500 televisions, how many would you expect

to last less than 13 000 h?

a) Calculate the z-score for 17 000 h:

xx

17 000 15 000

z

1100

z 1.82

z

1.82

Therefore, 3.44% of televisions last longer than 17 000 h.

9.3.13

b) What percent last between 12 600 h and 16 200 h?

Find the z-scores for 12 600 h and 16 200 h:

xx

z

126 00 15 000

z

1100

xx

z

16 200 15 000

z

1100

z 2.18

z 1.09

-2.18

1.09

The area for z-score 1.09 is 0.8621.

Therefore, the area between z-scores

-2.18 and 1.09 is 0.8621 - 0.0146 = 0.8475.

Therefore, 84.75% of the televisions

would last between 12 600 h and 16 200 h.

9.3.14

c) In a shipment of 500 televisions, how many

would you expect to last less than 13 000 h?

Find the z-scores for 13 000 h:

xx

13 000 15 000

z

1100

z

z 1.82

-1.82

Therefore, 3.44% of the televisions

would last less than 13 000.

Therefore, you would expect

500 x 0.0344 = 17 televisions

to last less than 13 000 h.

9.3.15

2.

mean number of misfires per load is 8 with a standard

deviation of 2.8. Assuming normal distribution, what is the

probability that there will be fewer than 11 but more than 7 misfires per load?

xx

z

78

z

2.8

z 0.36

Area = 0.3594

xx

11 8

z

2.8

z 1.07

z

-0.36

1.07

Area = 0.8577

= 0.4983

Therefore, the probability that there will be

fewer than 11 but more than 7 misfires per

load is 0.4983.

9.3.17

3. A brush manufacturer determines the mean life of his brushes

to be five years with a standard deviation of two years. If he

guarantees his brushes for three years, what percent of his brushes

will he have to replace?

xx

z

35

2

z 1

Area = 0.1587

-1

Therefore, 15.87% of the brushes

will have to be replaced.

9.3.18

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