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Prof. R. N.

Former VC- KVAFSU, Bidar .

Infectious bursal diseaseis a viral

infection, affecting the immune system

of poultry.
The disease is highly contagious,
affects young chickens, and is
characterised by the destruction of the
lymphoid organs, and in particular the
bursa of Fabricius, where B lymphocytes
mature and differentiate.

Why it is called Gumboro


Infectious bursal disease(also

known as IBD, Gumboro Disease,
Infectious Bursitis and Infectious
Avian Nephrosis)
The disease was first discovered
inGumboro,a place in Delaware,
USAin 1962, hence the name
Gumboro Disease

IBD is a highly contagious disease of

youngchickenscaused byinfectious bursal

disease virus(IBDV),characterized
byimmunosuppressionand mortality
generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age.
B- Lymphocytes are the primary target cells.
It primarily affects the bursa of fabricius, an
important organ responsible for immunity.

Why it is Economically

Economically significant, because heavy

mortality in 3 6 wks old chickens and older

and severe prolonged immunosuppression of
chickens infected at an early age.
This disease breakdowns the immunity,
leading to the outbreak of other diseases.
Immunosuppression leads to vaccination
failures, Escherichia coli infection, and
Gangrenous dermatitis and Inclusion
Body hepatitis anaemia syndrome.

Economic impact of
The economic impact of an Infectious Bursal
Disease Virus (IBDV) infection is two fold:
1.Direct mortality that can reach levels in
excess of 40% to 100%
2.Secondary infections, due to a suboptimal
immune system, having a negative impact on
production efficiency.

The Cause ? - VIRUS

Small, non-enveloped double

stranded RNA virus that has a bisegmentedgenome belongs to

Genus; Arbirnavirus
Very stable hardy virus.
Able to withstand a wide pH
range (pH 2-12).
Heat stable (still viable after 30
minutes at 60C).
High level of resistance to most
commonly used disinfectants.
Survives in the poultry house
environment for extended
periods of time.

IBD- Variants vvIBD ?

There are two
distinct serotypes of
the virus, but only
serotype 1 viruses
cause disease in

At least

sixantigenicsubtypes of
IBDV serotype 1 have been
identified byin vitrocrossneutralization assay.
Viruses belonging to one of
these antigenic subtypes
are commonly known as
variants, which were
reported to break through
high levels of maternal
antibodies in commercial
flocks, causing up to 60 to
100 percent mortality rates
vvIBD in chickens.

In recent years, very virulent strains

of IBDV (vvIBDV), causing severe

mortality in chicken, have emerged.
Infection is via the oro-fecal route,
with affected bird excreting high
levels of the virus for approximately 2
weeks after infection.

This virus is highly contagious and persistent in the environment of

poultry houses.
Affected birds excrete the virus in faeces for 10-14 days.
Virus survives upto 120 days in poultry sheds.
Water, feed, droppings from infected birds are viable for 52 days in the
poultry houses.
Hardy nature of this virus survives heat, cleaning and disinfectant
Survives in the environment between outbreaks.
Meal worm, Aedes vexan (Mosquito) and litter mites appear to act as
carriers and remains infective for up to 8 weeks.
Egg trays, vehicles used in the transport of birds, eggs and personal
handling of birds in sheds and elsewhere are very important source of
carriers of infection.
Role of mechanical vectors (Human, wild birds, insects).
No vertical transmission and carriers. (Disease is not transmitted
through eggs).
Older birds (due to Bursal regression) are more resistant to infection.

Clinical signs
Disease may appear

suddenly and morbidity

typically reaches 100%.
In theacute formbirds are
prostrated, debilitated and
They produce a watery
diarrhoea and may have
swollen faeces-stained vent.
Most of the flock is
recumbent and have ruffled

Field Expression of IBD

Sudden onset of disease.
Infected birds are depressed,

have ruffled feathers, droopy

appearance and may be seen
pecking at the vent.
Morbidity and mortality begins 3
days post infection, peaks and
recedes in a period of 5 -7 days.
Mortality may be negligible or as
high as 90% in case of very
virulent IBDV. The more common
scenario is mortality of 10 20%.
In the field situation the mortality
in layer type birds is generally
higher than in meat type birds.

Characterised by bursal

atrophy, immunosuppression
and resultant increased
susceptibility to secondary
infections (such asE. coli).
No peak mortality as
evidenced with clinical IBD.
Secondary infections in
broilers, mainlyE. coli, result
in a continuous above
standard daily mortality and
poorer feed conversions.
Due to immunosuppression
there can be a poor response
to subsequent vaccinations.

Mortality & Morbidity

This is acute and highly contagious

infection of chickens..
Young chicks up to 0-6 weeks are more
Incubation period is short and clinical signs
observed in 2-3 days following infection.
Morbidity is 100% and mortality is 80-90%.

Clinical signs
Self vent pecking.
Depression and trembling
Watery and whitish

Soiled vents
Ruffled feathers
Reluctant to move
Closed eyes and death.

Gross lesions
Dehydration of carcass.
Petechial / paint brush haemorrhages on

the leg, thigh and pectoral muscles.

Hemorrhage in the Proventriculus and
Gizzard junction.
Enlargement of bursa fabricius to almost
double its normal size.
Haemorrhage on the internal and serosal
surfaces of the bursa fabricius.
Intestine with excess mucus.

Gross lesions in IBD

Hemorrhages on the and thigh muscle

keel muscle

Enlarged Bursa

Enlarged and
hemorrhgic BF

Hemorrhages at the junction of

proventriculus and gizzard

Enlarged BF &
congested kidney

Kidney Lesions


Flock History
A sudden onset of mortality in chickens between 2 and 8 weeks of
age could indicate an IBDV infection. The presence of distinctive
lesions in the bursa of Fabricus and accompanying blood spots in the
musculature of the breast and thigh of affected chickens are strong
Molecular diagnostic assays are most often used to identify IBDV in
diagnostic samples.
They use reverse-transcriptase PCR to identify the viral genome in
bursa tissue.
analysis of the VP2 coding region has been used to further
characterize the viruses.
Viral Isolation
IBDV may be isolated in 8- to 11-day-old, antibody-free chicken
embryos with inocula from birds in the early stages of disease.

Vaccine for IBD

Primary vaccination with mild or intermediate strain at 2

weeks of age.
Booster vaccination with intermediate strain (live) after 3
weeks of age.
Recommended vaccination schedule for layer
Age in Days

Name of the






IBD live


Vaccination of Breeders
Vaccination of breeder stock and seromonitoring by

hatcheries to ensure adequate levels of maternal

antibodies in the chicks.
To obtain high levels of MDA in progeny, parent
stocks are vaccinated between 4 and 10 weeks of age
with live vaccine and again at approximately 16 weeks
with inactivated oil-adjuvant vaccine.

Since it is a viral disease better to have good

vaccination programme for breeders, and


Include immuno-stimulants like Vitamin E in the

A pinch of salt in a liter of water with vitamin
E- is beneficial
Give Mycotoxin free feed

Prevention and control

Proper disposable of dead birds
Burry in deep soil layered with lime
Disposal of litter, dead birds, used gunny bags,

curtains and other disposables by incineration or

deep burial with slaked lime.
Restricting vehicular movements with crates, egg
trays and culled birds.
Soaking feeders and waterers with 5% formalin.
Fumigating new poultry sheds with formalin fumes.
Restricting personnel to their sheds for work

Keep watch on movement of

Men and Material
Vectors- Dark beetles &
Used Egg filler flats