Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Real gases

Real gases do not obey the perfect gas


law exactly because molecules interact
with each other.
Two important inter-molecular forces
exist: repulsive forces and attractive
forces.

1.5 The van der Waals equation

For the perfect


gas:
1). The size of
molecules
is negligible;
2). Molecules do not
interact;
pV=nRT

For real gases:


1). The molecule itself
occupies a
volume;
2). There are
interactions
among molecules;

(p+p) (V -V ) =nRT

Molecular interactions
Repulsive forces between molecules assist
expansion and attractive forces assist
compression.

Attractive forces are effective over several


molecular diameters. They are important when
the molecules are fairly close together.
Attractive forces are ineffective when the
molecules are far apart.

The compression factor


The compression factor, Z, is defined as
pVm ZRT

pVm
Z
RT

For a perfect gas, Z = 1 under all conditions;


the deviation of Z from 1 is a measure of
departure from perfect behaviour.

At very low pressures: Z < 1.


At high pressures: Z> 1.
Repulsive forces are now
dominant.

At intermediate pressures: Z<1


For most gases have, the
attractive forces are dominant. .
Results by plotting
the compression
factor, Z, against
pressure for several
gases at 0 .

A perfect gas has Z = 1 at all


pressures.

Penyimpangan Perilaku Ideal

1 mol gas ideal


PV = nRT
PV = 1,0
n=
RT

Gaya Tolak-menolak

Gaya Tarik-menarik

5.8

In the van der Waals equation,

P becomes ( P
where n2a/V2 represents the effect on pressure to
intermolecular attractions or repulsions.

Table 5.4 gives values of van der Waals constants for


various gases.

n 2a
2 )
V

Also, in the van der Waals equation,

V becomes ( V - nb)
where nb represents the volume occupied
by n moles of molecules.

The van der Waals equation

(p+p) (V -V ) =nRT

a
p 2 (Vm b ) RT
Vm

n 2a
p 2 (V nb ) nRT
V

a
p 2
Vm

V b

Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal


Behavior
The van der Waals Equation
nRT
n 2a
P
2
V nb V
Corrects for
Corrects for
molecular
molecular
volume
attraction
General form of the van der Waals equation:

n 2a

nb

nRT
V 2

Persamaan Van der Waals


Untuk gas nonideal
(

2)
an
P + 2 (V nb) = nRT
V

tekanan
terkoreksi

volume
terkoreksi

5.8

If sulfur dioxide were an ideal gas, the


pressure at 0C exerted by 1.000 mol
occupying 22.41 L would be 1.000 atm.
Use the van der Waals equation to
estimate the real pressure.
values for SO2

a = 6.865 L2.atm/mol2
b = 0.05679 L/mol

nRT n a
P
- 2
V - nb V
R= 0.0821 L. atm/mol. K
T = 273.2 K
a = 6.865 L2.atm/mol2
V = 22.41 L
b = 0.05679 L/mol

nRT n a
P
- 2
V - nb V
2

(1.000 mol) (6.865


(1.000 mol)(0.08206
P
22.41 L - (1.000 mol)(0.05679 L/mol)
( 22.41 L) 2
Latm )( 273.2K )
molK

L2 atm )
mol 2

P 0.989 atm
The real pressure exerted by 1.00 mol of SO 2
at STP is slightly less than the ideal pressure.