Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

# Real gases

## Real gases do not obey the perfect gas

law exactly because molecules interact
with each other.
Two important inter-molecular forces
exist: repulsive forces and attractive
forces.

## For the perfect

gas:
1). The size of
molecules
is negligible;
2). Molecules do not
interact;
pV=nRT

## For real gases:

1). The molecule itself
occupies a
volume;
2). There are
interactions
among molecules;

(p+p) (V -V ) =nRT

Molecular interactions
Repulsive forces between molecules assist
expansion and attractive forces assist
compression.

## Attractive forces are effective over several

molecular diameters. They are important when
the molecules are fairly close together.
Attractive forces are ineffective when the
molecules are far apart.

## The compression factor

The compression factor, Z, is defined as
pVm ZRT

pVm
Z
RT

## For a perfect gas, Z = 1 under all conditions;

the deviation of Z from 1 is a measure of
departure from perfect behaviour.

## At very low pressures: Z < 1.

At high pressures: Z> 1.
Repulsive forces are now
dominant.

## At intermediate pressures: Z<1

For most gases have, the
attractive forces are dominant. .
Results by plotting
the compression
factor, Z, against
pressure for several
gases at 0 .

pressures.

## 1 mol gas ideal

PV = nRT
PV = 1,0
n=
RT

Gaya Tolak-menolak

Gaya Tarik-menarik

5.8

## In the van der Waals equation,

P becomes ( P
where n2a/V2 represents the effect on pressure to
intermolecular attractions or repulsions.

various gases.

n 2a
2 )
V

## Also, in the van der Waals equation,

V becomes ( V - nb)
where nb represents the volume occupied
by n moles of molecules.

## The van der Waals equation

(p+p) (V -V ) =nRT

a
p 2 (Vm b ) RT
Vm

n 2a
p 2 (V nb ) nRT
V

a
p 2
Vm

V b

## Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal

Behavior
The van der Waals Equation
nRT
n 2a
P
2
V nb V
Corrects for
Corrects for
molecular
molecular
volume
attraction
General form of the van der Waals equation:

n 2a

nb

nRT
V 2

## Persamaan Van der Waals

Untuk gas nonideal
(

2)
an
P + 2 (V nb) = nRT
V

tekanan
terkoreksi

volume
terkoreksi

5.8

## If sulfur dioxide were an ideal gas, the

pressure at 0C exerted by 1.000 mol
occupying 22.41 L would be 1.000 atm.
Use the van der Waals equation to
estimate the real pressure.
values for SO2

a = 6.865 L2.atm/mol2
b = 0.05679 L/mol

nRT n a
P
- 2
V - nb V
R= 0.0821 L. atm/mol. K
T = 273.2 K
a = 6.865 L2.atm/mol2
V = 22.41 L
b = 0.05679 L/mol

nRT n a
P
- 2
V - nb V
2

## (1.000 mol) (6.865

(1.000 mol)(0.08206
P
22.41 L - (1.000 mol)(0.05679 L/mol)
( 22.41 L) 2
Latm )( 273.2K )
molK

L2 atm )
mol 2

P 0.989 atm
The real pressure exerted by 1.00 mol of SO 2
at STP is slightly less than the ideal pressure.