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The elements of aluminum, Iron, Oxygen, and Silicon make

up about 88 percent of the earth's solid surface. Water on


the surface and in the air as clouds and fog is made up of
hydrogen and oxygen. The air is 99 percent nitrogen and
oxygen. Hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon make up 97 percent
of a person. Thus almost everything you see in this picture
us made up of just six elements.

These fluorescent lights emit light as electrons of mercury


atoms inside the tube gain energy from the electric current.
As soon as they can, the electrons drop back to their
lower-energy orbit, emitting photons with ultraviolet
frequencies. Ultraviolet radiation strikes the fluorescent
chemical coating inside the tube, stimulating the emission
of visible light.

Contents
Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and
the Periodic Table
Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions
The Sizes of Atoms and Ions
Ionization Energy
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity
Reactivity
Magnetic Properties
Periodic Properties of the Elements
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Estructura Atmica y Tabla


Peridica
t o m o s y E le m e n t o s
E s t r u c t u r a A t m ic a y T a b la P e r i d ic a
to m o
N c le o
P ro to n e s
N m e r o a t m ic o

T a b la P e r i d ic a
E le c t r o n e s

N e u tro n e s
N m e ro d e m a s a
Is to p o s

G ru p o s

P e ro d o s

A r r e g lo d e e le c t r o n e s
L e y P e r i d ic a

Alkali Metals

The Periodic table

Alkaline Earths

Halogens

Noble Gases

Main Group

Transition Metals

Main Group

Lanthanides and Actinides


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Atomic Size - Group trends


As we increase
the atomic
number (or go
down a group). . .
each atom has
another energy
level,
so the atoms get

bigger.

H
Li
Na
K
Rb

Atomic Size - Period Trends


Going from left to right across a period,
the size gets smaller.
Electrons are in the same energy level.
But, there is more nuclear charge.
Outermost electrons are pulled closer.

Na

Mg

Al

Si

S Cl Ar

Periodic Law

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Electron dot notation for the representative elements.

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Grupos
Bloque Grupo Nombres

Config. Electrn.

1
2

Alcalinos
Alcalino-trreos

n s1
n s2

13
14
15
16
17
18

Trreos
Carbonoideos
Nitrogenoideos
Anfgenos
Halgenos
Gases nobles

n s2 p1
n s2 p2
n s2 p3
n s2 p4
n s2 p5
n s2 p6

3-12

Elementos de transicin

n s2(n1)d1-10

El. de transicin Interna


(lantnidos y actnidos)

n s2 (n1)d1(n2)f1-14

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TIPOS DE ENLACES
INICO

ENLACES DE HIDRGENO

COVALENTE

METLICO

VAN DER WAALS DISPERSIN

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Valence Electrons
The number of valence
electrons an atom has
may also appear in a
square.
Valence electrons are
the electrons in the
outer energy level of an
atom.
These are the electrons
that are transferred or
shared when atoms
bond together.

Elements, Compounds, Mixtures


Sodium is an element.
Chlorine is an
element.
When sodium and
chlorine bond they
make the compound
sodium chloride,
commonly known as
table salt.
Compounds have different properties
than the elements that make them up.

Table salt has different properties than


sodium, an explosive metal, and chlorine,
a poisonous gas.

VARIACIN DE LAS PROPIEDADES PERIDICAS


EN EL SISTEMA PERIDICO

Electronegatividad

Electronegatividad

Nivel principal de
energa

n=4

Incremento de energa

n=3

n=2

Subnivel

4d
5s
4p
3d
4s
3p
3s
2p
2s

n=1

1s

Los elementos de un mismo grupo, tienen propiedades qumicas semejantes, ya


que tienen el mismo nmero de electrones en su capa de valencia (ltima capa
electrnica) y estn distribuidos en orbitales del mismo tipo

Por ejemplo, los elementos del grupo 17:

Elemento

Configuracin electrnica

Flor

1s2 2s2 2p5

Cloro

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

Bromo
Yodo

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p5

Configuracin
ms externa

ns2 np5

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p5

Estos hechos sugieren que las propiedades qumicas de un


elemento estn relacionadas con la configuracin electrnica de
su capa de valencia
34

Configuracin Electrnica de Iones


Ion sodio Na+

Configuracin para el tomo neutro


Na ( 1s22s22p63s1 )

11

Configuracin para el ion Na+


Na+ ( 1s22s22p6 ) + 1e

11

Configuraciones electrnicas de cationes y aniones


de elementos representativos
Na [Ne]3s1

Na+ [Ne]

Ca [Ar]4s2

Ca2+ [Ar]

Al [Ne]3s23p1

Al3+ [Ne]

Los tomos aceptan


electrones de modo que
los aniones adquieren la
configuracin electrnica
de un gas noble.

Los tomos ceden electrones de


modo que los cationes adquieren
la configuracin electrnica de un
gas noble.

H 1s1

H- 1s2 or [He]

1s22s22p5F

F- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]

O 1s22s22p4

O2- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]

N 1s22s22p3

N3- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]

Na+, Al3+, F-, O2-, y N3- son todos isoelectrnicos con el Ne.
Poseen la misma configuracin electrnica que el Ne.

The ionization process

Now Im a happy ion!


Im POSITIVE! And my
outer shell is full, without that
troublesome extra electron.

Configuracin de ion cloruro Cl

Configuracin del tomo de cloro ms un


1e + Cl (1s22s22p63s23p5)

Configuracin electrnica del ion cloruro Cl Cl- (1s22s22p63s23p6)

Ejemplo 1: Escribir c.e. del 13Al


El gas noble inmediatamente anterior
es el nen 10Ne, luego la c.e. del Al
debe ser
[Ne] 3s23p1
Ejemplo 2: Escribir la c.e. del galio 31Ga
El gas noble inmediatamente anterior
es el 18Ar , luego la c.e. del galio ser
[Ar] 4s23d104p1

EFECTO PANTALLA S

Electrones externos de un tomo, los cuales se


encuentran sometidos a la atraccin de los protones del
ncleo que tienen carga elctrica opuesta, pero esta
accin del campo que nace del ncleo se ve disminuida
por la repulsin que ejercen los electrones de los
niveles ms internos. En todo tomo, entonces, el
ncleo genera un campo de atraccin hacia los
electrones, pero los internos hacen una accin de
pantalla del campo nuclear, disminuyndolo.

El S que ejercen los electrones de un tomo hacia un


electrn situados en las proximidades del mismo se
puede determinar mediante la siguiente expresin:
S = 0,35 * Nn + 0,85 * N(N-1) + N

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43

44

Carga Nuclear Efectiva (Zef)


Es

la carga real que mantiene unido a un


e al ncleo.
Depende de:
Nmero atmico (Z)
Efecto pantalla (apantallamiento) (S )
de e interiores o repulsin electrnica.
Ambos efectos son contrapuestos:
A mayor Z mayor Zef.
A mayor apantallamiento menor Zef.
As consideraremos que: Z ef = Z - S
45

Variacin de Zef en la tabla


Vara

poco al aumentar Z en los e de


valencia de un mismo grupo
Aunque hay una mayor carga nuclear
tambin hay un mayor apantallamiento.
Consideraremos que en la prctica
cada e de capa interior es capaz de
contrarrestar el efecto de un protn.

46

Variacin de Zef En La Tabla.

Crece hacia la derecha en los elementos de un


mismo periodo.
Debido al menor efecto pantalla de los e de la
ltima capa y al mayor Z.
Variacin de Z+ en la Tabla peridica

aumenta

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Radio Atmico

Se define como: la mitad de la distancia de dos


tomos iguales que estn enlazados entre s.

Por dicha razn, se habla de radio covalente y


de radio metlico segn sea el tipo de enlace
por el que estn unidos.

Es decir, el radio de un mismo tomo depende


del tipo de enlace que forme, e incluso del tipo
de red cristalina que formen los metales.
49

Propiedades Peridicas

Tamao del tomo


Radio Atmico:

Radio covalente (la mitad de la distancia entre


los ncleos de 2 tomos vecinos de un mismo
elemento que no se encuentran enlazados).
Si los tomos enlazados son iguales
( molculas homonucleares). Si los tomos
enlazados
son
diferentes
(
molculas
heteronucleares).
Radio inico, es la magnitud que asignan a los
distintos iones, si se supone c/u de ellos como
una esfera rgida de radio constate.
50

Variacin Del Radio Atmico


En Un Periodo

En un mismo periodo
disminuye al aumentar
la carga nuclear
efectiva (hacia la
derecha).

Es debido a que los


electrones de la ltima
capa estarn ms
fuertemente atrados.

Periodo 2

51

Variacin Del Radio Atmico


En Un Grupo
En

un grupo, el
radio aumenta al
aumentar el periodo,
pues existen ms
capas de
electrones.

Grupo 1

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Aumento En El Radio Atmico

53

Radio
Metlico
o

Covalente
Inico

Trends in Ion Sizes

Figure 8.13

Cationic Radii

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Anionic Radii

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Sizes of Ions
Ionic size
depends upon:
Nuclear charge.
Number of
electrons.
Orbitals in which
electrons reside.

Sizes of Ions
Cations are
smaller than their
parent atoms.
The outermost
electron is
removed and
repulsions are
reduced.

Sizes of Ions
Anions are larger
than their parent
atoms.
Electrons are
added and
repulsions are
increased.

Sizes of Ions
Ions increase in
size as you go
down a column.
Due to increasing
value of n.

Sizes of Ions
In an isoelectronic series, ions have the
same number of electrons.
Ionic size decreases with an increasing
nuclear charge.

Radio Inico

Es el radio que tiene un tomo que ha perdido o ganado


electrones, adquiriendo la estructura electrnica del gas
noble ms cercano.
Los cationes son menores que
los tomos neutros por la mayor
carga nuclear efectiva (menor
apantallamiento o repulsin de e).
Los aniones son mayores que
los tomos neutros por la disminucin de la carga nuclear efectiva (mayor apantallamiento o
repulsin electrnica).
65

Radio Inico.
Los elementos pueden perder o ganar electrones para formar iones
positivos (cationes) o iones negativos (aniones). El radio de un catin es
siempre menor que el tomo que lo genera, mientras que el in negativo
tendr siempre un radio mayor.
A

A+

+ e

A + e

A-

Comparacin Radios Atmicos y Inicos


Catines

Anines

Energa De Ionizacin (EI) (Potencial


De Ionizacin).
Es

la energa necesaria para extraer un e


de un tomo gaseoso y formar un catin.
Es siempre positiva (proceso endotrmico).
Se habla de 1 EI (EI1), 2 EI (EI2), ... segn
se trate del primer, segundo, ... e extrado.
La EI aumenta hacia arriba en los grupos y
hacia la derecha en los periodos por
aumentar Zef y disminuir el radio.
La EI de los gases nobles, al igual que la 2
EI en los metales alcalinos, es enorme.
71

La energa de ionizacin es la energa mnima (kJ/mol)


requerida para remover un electrn de un tomo gaseoso en
su estado natural.
I1 + X (g)

X+(g) + e-

I1 primera energa de ionizacin

I2 + X+(g)

X2+(g) + e-

I2 segunda energa de ionizacin

I3 + X2+(g)

X3+(g) + e-

I3 tercera energa de ionizacin


I1 < I 2 < I3

Na [Ne]3s1
Mg [Ne]3s2
Al [Ne]3s23p1

Si [Ne]3s23p2
Cl [Ne]3s23p5
P [Ne]3s23p3
Ar [Ne]3s23p6 = [Ar]
S [Ne]3s23p4

1) More difficult to remove electron from smaller


atom
2) I1 < I2 < I 3 < I4 First electron easiest to remove
3) Inner-shell electrons impossible to remove

74

10-4 Ionization Energy

Mg(g) Mg+(g) + e-

I1 = 738 kJ

Mg+(g) Mg2+(g) + e-

I2 = 1451 kJ

Zeff2
I = RH 2
n

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Se puede observar que la variacin est de acuerdo con la


configuracin electrnica de los elementos.

Esquema de Variacin de la Energa de


Ionizacin (EI).

Aumento en la
Energa de
ionizacin

79

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81

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Afinidad Electrnica (AE)

Es la energa intercambiada cuando un tomo


gaseoso captura un e y forma un anin.
Se suele medir por mtodos indirectos.
Puede ser positiva o negativa aunque suele ser
exotrmica. La 2 AE suele ser positiva. Tambin la 1
de los gases nobles y metales alcalinotrreos.
Es mayor en los halgenos (crece en valor absoluto
hacia la derecha del S.P. y en un mismo grupo hacia
arriba por aumentar Z* y disminuir el radio).
84

Electronegatividad ( )
y Carcter Metlico

Son conceptos opuestos (a mayor menor


carcter metlico y viceversa).
mide la tendencia de un tomo a a atraer los e
haca s.
es un compendio entre EI y AE.
Pauling estableci una escala de
electronegatividades entre 07 (Fr) y 4 (F).
aumenta hacia arriba en los grupos y hacia la
derecha en los periodos.
85

Los elementos con bajos potenciales de ionizacin y bajas


afinidades electrnicas son electropositivos y tienen
carcter metlico
Los elementos con altos potenciales de ionizacin y altas
afinidades electrnicas son electronegativos y tienen
carcter no metlico
El Flor es el elemento ms electronegativo de la tabla
peridica
El Francio es el elemento ms electropositivo de la tabla
peridica

Aumento de
En La Tabla Peridica

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Electronegativity

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Reactividad
Es la capacidad de reaccin qumica que presenta ante
otros reactivos.
Se
puede
distinguir
entre
la
reactividad
Termodinmica y la reactividad cintica. La primera
distingue entre s la reaccin est o no favorecida por
entalpa (competencia entre energa y entropa). La
segunda decide si la reaccin tendr lugar o no en una
escala de tiempo dada. As, hay reacciones permitidas
por termodinmica (como la combustin de grafito en
presencia de aire ), pero que estn bloqueadas por
cintica.
La qumica orgnica y la qumica inorgnica estudian
la reactividad de los distintos compuestos. La qumica
fsica trata de calcular o predecir la reactividad de los
compuestos, y de racionalizar los caminos de
reaccin.

NMEROS DE OXIDACIN

NMEROS DE OXIDACIN

NMEROS DE OXIDACIN

98

Metals versus Nonmetals


Metals tend to form cations.
Nonmetals tend to form anions.

Alkali Metals
Found only as compounds in nature.
Have low densities and melting points.
Also have low ionization energies.

Alkali Metals

Their reactions with water are famously exothermic.

Alkali Metals
Alkali metals (except Li) react with oxygen to
form peroxides.
K, Rb, and Cs also form superoxides:
K + O2

KO2
Produce bright colors when placed in flame.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Have higher densities and melting points than


alkali metals.
Have low ionization energies, but not as low
as alkali metals.

Alkaline Earth Metals


Be does not react
with water, Mg
reacts only with
steam, but others
react readily with
water.
Reactivity tends to
increase as go down
group.

Group 6A

Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are nonmetals.


Tellurium is a metalloid.
The radioactive polonium is a metal.

Oxygen
Two allotropes:
O2
O3, ozone

Three anions:
O2, oxide
O22, peroxide
O21, superoxide

Tends to take electrons


from other elements
(oxidation)

Sulfur

Weaker oxidizing
agent than oxygen.
Most stable allotrope
is S8, a ringed
molecule.

Group VIIA: Halogens

Prototypical nonmetals
Name comes from the Greek halos and
gennao: salt formers

Group VIIA: Halogens


Large, negative electron
affinities
Therefore, tend to oxidize
other elements easily

React directly with metals


to form metal halides
Chlorine added to water
supplies to serve as
disinfectant

Group VIIIA: Noble Gases

Astronomical ionization energies


Positive electron affinities
Therefore, relatively unreactive

Monatomic gases

Group VIIIA: Noble Gases


Xe forms three
compounds:
XeF2
XeF4 (at right)
XeF6

Kr forms only one stable


compound:
KrF2

The unstable HArF was


synthesized in 2000.

10-7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

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Screening and Penetration

Zeff = Z S

En = -R Zeff2
H
n2

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Cationic Radii

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Anionic Radii

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Atomic and Ionic Radii

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First Ionization Energy

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10-5 Electron Affinity

F(g) + e- F-(g)

EA = -328 kJ

F(1s22s22p5) + e- F(1s22s22p5)
Li(g) + e- Li-(g)
kJ

EA = -59.6

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First Electron Affinities

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Second Electron Affinities

O(g) + e- O-(g)

EA = -141 kJ

O-(g) + e- O2-(g)
kJ

EA = +744

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10-6 Magnetic Properties


Diamagnetic atoms or ions:
All e- are paired.
Weakly repelled by a magnetic field.

Paramagnetic atoms or ions:


Unpaired e-.
Attracted to an external magnetic field.

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Paramagnetism

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Boiling Point

?
266

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?
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123

Melting Points of Elements

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Melting Points of Compounds

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Reducing Ability of Group 1 and 2


Metals

2 K(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 K+ + 2 OH- + H2(g)


I1 = 419 kJ

I1 = 590 kJ
I2 = 1145 kJ

Ca(s) + 2 H2O(l) Ca2+ + 2 OH- + H2(g)

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Oxidizing Abilities of the Halogens

2 Na + Cl2 2
NaCl

Cl2 + 2 I- 2 Cl- +
I2

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Acid Base Nature of Element Oxides


Basic oxides or base anhydrides:
Li2O(s) + H2O(l) 2 Li+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)

Acidic oxides or acid anhyhydrides:


SO2 (g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq)

Na2O and MgO yield basic solutions


Cl2O, SO2 and P4O10 yield acidic solutions
SiO2 dissolves in strong base, acidic
oxide.
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Focus on The Periodic Law and

Mercury

Should be a solid.
Relativistic
shrinking of sorbitals affects all
heavy metals but is
maximum with Hg.

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Magnetic Properties
Although an electron behaves like a tiny
magnet, two electrons that are opposite in
spin cancel each other. Only atoms with
unpaired electrons exhibit magnetic
susceptibility (see Fig. 8.2).
A paramagnetic substance is one that is weakly
attracted by a magnetic field, usually the result of
unpaired electrons.
A diamagnetic substance is not attracted by a
magnetic field generally because it has only
paired electrons.
132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

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Properties of Non-Metals
Non-metals are poor
conductors of heat
and electricity.
Non-metals are not
ductile or malleable.
Solid non-metals are
brittle and break
easily.
They are dull.
Many non-metals are
gases.

Sulfur

Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids (metal-like)
have properties of both
metals and non-metals.
They are solids that can
be shiny or dull.
They conduct heat and
electricity better than
non-metals but not as
well as metals.
They are ductile and
malleable.

Silicon

Families
Columns of elements are
called groups or families.
Elements in each family
have similar but not
identical properties.
For example, lithium (Li),
sodium (Na), potassium
(K), and other members
of family IA are all soft,
white, shiny metals.
All elements in a family
have the same number of
valence electrons.

Periods
Each horizontal row of
elements is called a
period.
The elements in a period
are
not
alike
in
properties.
In fact, the properties
change greatly across
even given row.
The first element in a
period is always an
extremely active solid.
The last element in a
period, is always an
inactive gas.

The periodic table of the elements.

The location of metals, nonmetals, and semiconductors in the periodic


table.

Tabla Peridica

(A) Periods of the periodic table, and (B) families of the periodic table.

Metals Tend to Lose Electrons

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Nonmetals Tend to Gain Electrons

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Electron Configuration of Some Ions

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ISOELECTRONIC SUBSTANCES
and EXCITED STATES
Substances with the same number of electrons
are isoelectronic ions.
Isoelectronic ions (or molecules) ions (or
molecules) with the same number of valence
electrons.
Isoelectronic substances: P3, S2, Cl, Ar, K+, Ca2+.
The electron configation of an element in an
excited state will have an electron in a highenergy state
E.g. [Ar]4s13d94p1 is an excited-state electron
configuration for Cu.

163

Atomic Radius
Atomic radii
actually decrease
across a row in the
periodic table. Due
to an increase in
the effective
nuclear charge.
Within each group
(vertical column),
the atomic radius
tends to increase
with the period
number.

Fig. 8.17 Atomic Radii for Main


Group Elements

164

Atomic Radius 2
If positively charged the radius decreases while if the
charge is negatively the radius increases (relative to the
atom).
When substances have the same number of electrons
(isoelectronic), the radius will depend upon which has the
largest number of protons.
E.g. Predict which of the following substances has the
largest radius: P3, S2, Cl, Ar, K+, Ca2+.

165

IONIZATION ENERGY

Ionization energy, Ei: minimum energy required to remove an


electron from the ground state of atom (molecule) in the gas
phase. M(g) + h M+ + e .
Ei related to electron configuration. Higher energies = stable
ground states.
Sign of the ionization energy is always positive, i.e. it requires
energy for ionization to occur.
The ionization energy is inversely proportional to the radius and
directly related to Zeff.
Exceptions to trend:

B, Al, Ga, etc.: their ionization energies are slightly less than the
ionization energy of the element preceding them in their period.

Group 6A elements.

Before ionization ns2np1.


After ionization is ns2. Higher energy smaller radius.
Before ionization ns2np4.
After ionization ns2np3 where each p electron in different orbital (Hunds
rule).

Electron-electron repulsion by two electrons in same orbital


increases the energy (lowers EI).
166

What does it mean to be reactive?


We will be describing elements according to
their reactivity.
Elements that are reactive bond easily with other
elements to make compounds.
Some elements are only found in nature bonded
with other elements.
What makes an element reactive?

An incomplete valence electron level.


All atoms (except hydrogen) want to have 8 electrons in
their very outermost energy level (This is called the rule
of octet.)
Atoms bond until this level is complete. Atoms with few
valence electrons lose them during bonding. Atoms
with 6, 7, or 8 valence electrons gain electrons during
bonding.

Transition Metals
Transition Elements
include those
elements in the B
families.
These are the metals
you are probably
most familiar: copper,
tin, zinc, iron, nickel,
gold, and silver.
They are good
conductors of heat
and electricity.

Transition Metals

The compounds of transition metals are usually


brightly colored and are often used to color
paints.
Transition elements have 1 or 2 valence
electrons, which they lose when they form bonds
with other atoms. Some transition elements can
lose electrons in their next-to-outermost level.

Transition Elements
Transition elements have properties similar to one another
and to other metals, but their properties do not fit in with
those of any other family.
Many transition metals combine chemically with oxygen to
form compounds called oxides.

Boron Family
The Boron Family is
named after the first
element in the family.
Atoms in this family have
3 valence electrons.
This family includes a
metalloid (boron), and the
rest are metals.
This family includes the
most abundant metal in
the earths crust
(aluminum).

Carbon Family
Atoms of this family
have 4 valence electrons.
This family includes a
non-metal (carbon),
metalloids, and metals.
The element carbon is
called the basis of life.
There is an entire branch
of chemistry devoted to
carbon compounds
called organic chemistry.

Nitrogen Family
The nitrogen family is
named after the element
that makes up 78% of our
atmosphere.
This family includes nonmetals, metalloids, and
metals.
Atoms in the nitrogen family
have 5 valence electrons.
They tend to share electrons
when they bond.
Other elements in this
family are phosphorus,
arsenic, antimony, and
bismuth.

Oxygen Family
Atoms of this family have
6 valence electrons.
Most elements in this
family share electrons
when forming compounds.
Oxygen is the most
abundant element in the
earths crust. It is
extremely active and
combines with almost all
elements.

Rare Earth Elements


The thirty rare earth
elements are composed
of the lanthanide and
actinide series.
One element of the
lanthanide series and
most of the elements in
the actinide series are
called trans-uranium,
which means synthetic
or man-made.

Noble Gases

Noble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive.


One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They
are inactive because their outermost energy level is full.
Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form
compounds, the noble gases are called inert.
The family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton,
xenon, and radon.
All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's
atmosphere.

Halogen Family
The elements in this
family are fluorine,
chlorine, bromine,
iodine, and astatine.
Halogens have 7
valence electrons,
which explains why
they are the most
active non-metals. They
are never found free in
nature.

Halogen atoms only need


to gain 1 electron to fill their
outermost energy level.
They react with alkali
metals to form salts.

Elements, Compounds, Mixtures


Hydrogen is an element.
Oxygen is an element.
When hydrogen and
oxygen bond they make
the compound water.
When salt and water are
combined, a mixture is
created. Compounds in
mixtures retain their
individual properties.

The ocean
is a

Elements, compounds, and


mixtures
Mixtures can be separated by physical
means.
Compounds can only be separated by
chemical means.
Elements are pure substances. When the
subatomic particles of an element are
separated from its atom, it no longer
retains the properties of that element.

Zn Dendritic nanostructures

TABLA PERIDICA

RADIOS ATMICOS

ENERGAS DE IONIZACIN (kJ/MOL)

AFINIDAD ELECTRONICA

kJ/mol

ELECTRONEGATIVIDADES