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The Third Philippine Republic

Historical background
American Financial Aid

Led by Sen. Tydings who recommended that $100M be given to the Phils. for
rehabilitation and reconstruction

Pre-war trade relations be continued for the next 3 to 5 yrs

US Congress passed resolution for$120M for public buildings, $75M for

budgetary purposes, $25M for guerilla notes and $100M surplus
RFC granted loan of $60M to the Phils.

The Bell Trade and Rehabilitation Acts

Free-trade relations between the US and the Phils until 1954

Parity rights to the Americans, amendment of the 1935 constitution
Passed as complementary based on the condition that parity rights be given to
the Americans

Preparations for Independence

The Treaty of General Relations

The Election of 1946

Manuel A. Roxas

instituted a Joint PhilippineAmerican Finance Commission in

December 1946
Miguel Cuaderno was appointed as
Secretary of Finance, tasked to
draw plans for central bank
Financial concessions from the US
that include trade-offs for 23
military bases in the Philippines
Sought amnesty for collaborators
Campaigned vigorously for the
amendment of 1935 constitution to
extend parity rights to Americans.
Campaigned on the blessings of
American exploitation of Phil.
natural resources
Aggressive handling of the Huks

Manuel A. Roxas

Graft and corruption in the government

Surplus War property Scandal

School supplies scandal

Failure to stop the Huks
Stigma of collaboration activities
Overly dependent on the kindness of
the Americans
First to corrupt the press
Served the shortest administration; May
1946 to April 1948 (death April 15, 1948
at Clark Air Base

Elpidio Quirino

Assumed presidency after Roxas died in

April 1948
Served in office from April 17, 1948 to
December 30, 1953
R.A. 265 (Central Bank Act) signed in
June 1948 seen as a significant step in
economic self-assertion and financial
independence of the country
Slow recovery of the economy beginning
1950 (Korean War) due to profits from
exports and demand for Phils products in
the world market
Daniel Bell Mission, an economic survey
team sent by US Pres. Truman to
ascertain the conditions in the Phils

Found the economy to be deteriorating

Finances of the govt was in critical
Warrants had been issued without available
Loans extended amounting to $250M with
$70M to pay for the salary of govt

Elpidio Quirino

Failure of amnesty to the Huks

but success in breaking its back

Declared to be absolute but not to

be implemented
Failure to adopt the secret
agreement with Judge Antonio
Failure of the govt to issue
certification to Huks to hold on to
their arms/weapons
Subsequent returm of Luis Taruc to
the field
Natl Def Sec. Magsaysays policy of
attraction and AFPs success in
crushing the Huk Central Committee
on Oct. 18, 1950

Graft and corruption

Allegations of nepotism
Appointment of cronies in govt

Ramon Magsaysay

Dec. 30, 1953 to March 17, 1957

Projected himself to the Filipinos as the
man of the people
Envisioned his govt to be responsive to
the needs of the barrios/rural
Improvement of the land tenure system
and land resettlement
Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954

Credit to the peasants, infrastructure for

the rural folks and technical knowledge for
the farmers

Agricultural Tenancy Commission

Court of Agrarian Relations
Natl Resettlement and Rehabilitation

Agricultural Credit and Cooperative

Financing Administration
Farmers Cooperative and Marketing

Community development

Presidential Complaints and Action Com

Opening of Malacanang to the masses

Ramon Magsaysay

Spoiled the masses

Openly pampering the masses had

mislead them into believing that
everything will be done for them by
the govt
Later on will lament the fact that the
people expected him to solve all
their problems

No concrete plans to uplift the


To impress the masses, offices are

improvised to assure the loyalty of
the masses to Magsaysay
Resulted in the superficial
development of the barrio and the
general condition of the masses

Carlos P. Garcia

Served the remaining 8 mos. Of Pres.

Magsaysay and was elected to serve from
Dec. 30, 1957 to Dec. 30, 1961
Austerity Program

Credit controls to arrest the expansion

of credit to non-productive investments

Nationalist Economic Policies goals:

To complete Phil. Economic

independence through the adoption of
the Filipino First Policy
To establish Filipino dignity as a free
people by dealing with foreign powers
on terms of sovereign equality
To achieve a balanced economy by
providing impetus to agriculture and
To promote social justice and general
welfare of the people
To minimize, if possible, to eradicate
graft and corruption

Carlos P. Garcia

Local implications of economic


Graft and corruption committed by

presidential appointees
Soaring prices of basic commodities
by hoarding and black marketing by
heartless merchants

Intervention of foreign governments

in the economic policies adopted by
the administration

Condemning the nationalist

sentiments couched in the Filipino
First Policy
Protesting import and export
controls imposed by the
CIA worked to elect Macapagal

Diosdado P. Macapagal

Dec. 30, 1961 to Dec 30, 1965

Land Reform Code

Abolition of tenancy on rice and corn

Establishment of a leasehold system
that allowed farmers to pay
landlords in fixed rental instead of
portions of harvest

RA 4166 which provided that

Philippine Commemoration of
Independence was reverted back to
June 12

Diosdado P. Macapagal

Pro-American economic policies

Lifted import and exchange controls

Unlimited repatriation of profits had
been allowed, unlimited import
controls abolished and local credit
were made available to foreign
Devaluation of peso to Php 3.90 to
the U$1

Subservience to IMF and WB

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Dec. 30, 1965 to Feb. 25, 1986

Economic Policies

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

Sporadic economic growth

Spent for economic projects by
borrowing and invited foreign
investments with incentives
Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran:
focus on the development of the
Emphasis on the common goals of
society for the realization of Filipino

Proclamation 1081 or the Martial

Law on Sept. 21, 1972
Constitutional Authoritarianism

1973 Constitution: govt from

presidential to parliamentary,
abolition of the legislative body,
President is also Prime Minister

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Crony Capitalism

Foreign debts: $27B

Economic projects of the Marcos

administration were financed by
loans and financial aids form the US

Human Rights Violations

Confiscated businesses of the

oligarchs and allowed his allies to
take-over its administration
Led to institutionalized graft and
money laundering
Intended for the redistribution of
monopolies but the cronies enriched
themselves in the positions

Extra-judicial killings, arbitrary

arrest and detention, torture etc.


The Fourth Republic

Election of 1981; first after 12 years
Marcos won via landslide and
governed from June 30, 1981 until
Feb. 25, 1986
EDSA 1 on February 1986

Corazon C. Aquino

Feb. 25, 1986 to June 30, 1992

Restoration of Democracy

1987 Constitution, restored the

bicameral congress, limited the
powers of the president and
emphasized civil liberties
Family Code of 1987, Administrative
Code of 1987
Local Govt Code; devolved powers
of the national government to local

RA667 or CARP or Comprehensive

Agrarian Reform Program

Expended reform to sugar lands

Redistribution of agricultural lands to
Land lords were paid just
compensation by the govt and
allowed to retain 5 has
Also applied to corporate

Corazon C. Aquino

Debt servicing was honored by her

administration not repudiated
Mendiola Massacre
Natural disasters and man-made

1990 Luzon earthquake & Mt.

Pinatubo eruption
Sea mishaps
Power outages

Military attempts to overthrow the

Aquino administration

RAM; Reform the Armed Forces

Members were loyal to Sec. Def.
Juan Ponce Enrile and some loyalist
of the Marcoses
Economic implications of the coup
attempts; investors flee due to the
destabilization and loses

Fidel V. Ramos

June 30, 1992 to June 30, 1998

Philippines 2000 NIC-hood

Envisions the country to be a

member of the tiger economies of
Economic growth and sustainability
Peace and stability
Energy and power generation
Environmental protection
Bureaucracy streamlining

Southern Philippines Center for

Peace and Development
APEC in 1996
Most-travelled president with
accumulated foreign investment
attraction placed around $20B

Fidel V. Ramos

PEA-Amari Deal

The Centennial Expo Filipino Project

Public Estates Authority deal on

Manila Bay reclamation and
SC declared the deal null and void
Total cost amounted to Php 9B
Considered by critics as a white
Contracts and bidding anomalies and
allegations of corruption

Charter Change

The attempts to amend the 1987

constitution produced the opponents
that decry it as Cha-Cha
Critics pointed out that Ramos
wanted to extend his presidency
and/or wanted to influence the
outcome of the upcoming election

Joseph E. Estrada

June 30, 1998 to Jan. 20, 2001

Angat Pinoy 2004

GNP to grow from 1% in 1998 to 67% in 2004

Decline in unemployment from 67% to 1%
Inflation from 9.8 to 4.5
Improvement of the govts fiscal
Strong growth in export products

JEEP ni Erap/Erap para sa Mahirap

MILF campaigns

Prompted by series of terrorist

attacks on military and civilians, an
all-out-war was declared on Mar. 21,
MILF declared jihad on the Philippine

Joseph E. Estrada

Midnight Cabinet

Engaging in drinking sessions with

members of cabinet and
personalities with personal favors to
the president

Jueteng gate that resulted into his

ouster via EDSA2

Whistleblower was Gov. Chavit

Money paid off to the president
amounted to Php400m from illegal
gambling profits
Impeachment trials
Jose Velarde Accounts

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Jan.20, 2001 to June 30, 2010

Strong Republic

Emphasis on economic policies that

yielded average growth of 5% in the
Fastest growth of Philippine
economy from 2001 to 2007
Holiday economics

EVAT and other economic programs

Introduced in November 2005

Revenue raising efforts to balance
the economy
Strengthening the peso, best
performing currency in 2005 and

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Gloria-gate Hello, Garci

Extra-judicial killings
Charter change

Allegations of vote rigging by calling

one of the commissioners of the
Apologized to the country but did
not step down from power

Move to change the present from of

govt to a federal parliamentaryunicameral form of government

NBN-ZTE scandal

Corruption involving former

COMELEC chair Benjamin Abalos and
the First Gentleman
Jun Lozada and Joey de Vencia as
state witnesses

Benigno Simeon Aquino III

Formation of a truth commission
On June 29, 2010, Aquino announced the
formation of a truth commission that will investigate
various issues including corruption allegations
against outgoing President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
Aquino named former Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr.
to head the truth commission.
Education reform
During Aquino's first State of the Nation Address
(SONA), Aquino announced his intention to reform
the education system in the Philippines by shifting to
K12 education, a 12-year basic education cycle.
SONA 2010
"Ang Tuwid na Daan" vs "Ang Baluktot na Daan"
Stating that the previous government was in the
"daang baluktot" for a long time, and that the nation
was purposely deceived about the true state of the

Benigno Simeon Aquino III

SONA 2011
Getting rid of the use of the wang-wang (which
symbolized abuse of authority) is a major step in
changing the Philippines
The Philippine's still has exclusive sovereignty over
the South China Sea aka. "West Philippine Sea"
The government is fighting hunger and poverty--with
survey showing hunger decreasing from 20.5% to
15.1% from May to June
Business and the economy in the Philippines are
improving as evidenced by a boom in investors and
new businesses
Aquino encouraged citizens to pay the proper
amount in taxes
The nation is increasing security and the people are
"ready to protect themselves"
The unemployment rate went from 8% to 7.2%

SONA 2012
Aquinos Government is pushing for dengue
Government promises improvement on education
including lack chairs and textbooks. Currently they
fixing backlogs of textbooks and chairs and rooms.
66,000 new rooms by 2013.
43.61% increase on budget for colleges and state
universities however it shouild implement SUC.
DepEd budget will also increase next year from
199Billion to 292.7 Billion Pesos
Government implemented reforms and granted 434,
676 TESDA scholars
Aquinos Administration created 3.1 millions jobs
which led to stats of unemployment down to 6.9
million compare to previous administration