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UNITS AND

MEASUREMENTS

Metrology.

Metrology is defined as the


Science of pure measurement.
But in engineering purposes, it
is restricted to measurements
of length and angles and other
qualities which are expressed
in linear or angular terms.

Units and Standards

Units of Measurement:
C.G.S. System of Units
Centimeter Gram Second system of unit
M.K.S. System of Units:
Meter kilogram second system of units
International System (SI) of Units:
the meter (m), kilogram (k), second (s), and
ampere (A) of the MKSA system and, in
addition, the Kelvin (K) and the candela (cd)
as the units of temperature and luminous

Terminology in
instrumentation

Precision

Degree

of
repetitiveness. If an instrument is not
precise it will give different results for
the same dimension for the repeated
readings.
Accuracy The maximum amount
by which the result differ from true
value(ie) Closeness to true value

Calibration

is the process of establishing the


relationship between a measuring device
and the units of measure. This is done by
comparing a devise or the output of an
instrument to a standard having known
measurement characteristics.
Sensitivity
It is ratio between output signal to input
signal

Readability is a measure of an
instrument's ability to display
incremental changes in its output
value.
True size Theoretical size of a
dimension which is free from errors.
Actual size size obtained through
measurement with permissible error

Repeatability
is
the
variation
in
measurements taken by a single person or
instrument on the same item and under the
same conditions. A measurement may be
said to be repeatable when this variation is
smaller than some agreed limit.

Reproducibility is one of the main


principles of the scientific method, and
refers to the ability of a test or experiment
to be accurately reproduced, or replicated,
by someone else working independently.

Methods of measurement.
1. Direct Method

2. Indirect Method

3. Comparison Method

4. Coincidence Method.
Classification of measuring
instruments.
1. Angle measuring instruments

2. Length measuring instruments

3. Instruments for surface finish

4. Instruments for deviations.

Measurement Methods
1.

Direct method. compare the quantity directly with the primary


or secondary standard.

2. Indirect method.

03/05/15

Measurements and Sources of Errors

Measurement Methods (Cont.)


3. Comparison method: the comparison of an
unknown quantity to a known quantity called a standard
using Dial Indicator.

4. Coincidence method.

Sources of error

Controllable Errors Calibration Errors ,ambient Conditions ,


Stylus pressure, avoidable errors
Random Errors
These occur randomly and the specific
causes
of
such
errors
cannot
be
determined, but likely sources of this type
of error are small variations in the position
of setting standards and workpiece, slight
displacement of lever joints in the
measuring
joints
in
the
measuring
instrument,

Parallax Error :
On most dials the indicating finger
or pointer lies in a plane parallel to
the scale but displaced a small
distance
away
to
allow
free
movement of the pointer. It is then
essential to observe the pointer
along a line normal to the scale
otherwise a reading error will occur.

Definition of Standards:
A standard is defined as something that is
set up and established by an authority as
rule
of the measure of quantity, weight, extent,
value or quality.
For example, a meter is a standard
established by an international organization
for measurement of length. Industry,
commerce, international trade in modern
civilization would be impossible without a
good system of standards.

Role of Standards:
The role of standards is to achieve uniform,
consistent and repeatable measurements
throughout the world. Today our entire
industrial economy is based on the
interchangeability of parts the method of
manufacture. To achieve this, a measuring
system adequate to define the features to the
accuracy required & the standards of
sufficient accuracy to support the measuring
system are necessary.

STANDARDS OF LENGTH
In practice, the accurate measurement must be
made by comparison with a standard of
known dimension and such a standard is called
Primary Standard.
The first accurate standard was made in England
and was known as Imperial Standard yard which
was followed by International Prototype meter
made in France. Since these two standards of length
were made of metal alloys they are called material
length standards.

LENGTH / LINE STANDARDS


When the length being measured is expressed as the distance between two
lines, then it is called Line Standard.
Examples: Measuring scales, Imperial standard yard, International prototype
meter, etc.
Characteristics of Line Standards:
1. Scales can be accurately engraved but it is difficult to take the full
advantage of this accuracy.
Ex: A steel rule can be read to about 0.2 mm of true dimension.
2. A scale is quick and easy to use over a wide range of measurements.
3. The wear on the leading ends results in under sizing
4. A scale does not possess a built in datum which would allow easy scale
alignment with the axis of measurement, this again results in under sizing.
5. Scales are subjected to parallax effect, which is a source of both positive
& negative reading errors
6. Scales are not convenient for close tolerance length measurements
except in conjunction with microscopes.

END STANDARDS
When the length being measured is expressed as the distance between two
parallel faces, then it is called End standard.
End standards can be made to a very high degree of accuracy.
Ex: Slip gauges, Gap gauges, Ends of micrometer anvils, etc.
Characteristics of End Standards:
1. End standards are highly accurate and are well suited for measurements
of close tolerances as small as 0.0005 mm.
2. They are time consuming in use and prove only one dimension at a time.
3. End standards are subjected to wear on their measuring faces.
4. End standards have a built in datum, because their measuring faces are
flat & parallel and can be positively located on a datum surface.
5. They are not subjected to the parallax effect since their use depends on
feel.
6. Groups of blocks may be wrung together to build up any length. But
faulty wringing leads to damage.
7. The accuracy of both end & line standards are affected by temperature
change.

Light (Optical) wave Length Standard:


The wavelength of a monochromatic light which is invariable unit of length
provides an acceptable standard. Krypton 86 atom is selected for
wavelength standard of length. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas,
krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by
fractionally distilling liquefied air. The high power and relative ease of
operation of krypton discharge tubes caused (from 1960 to 1983) the official
meter to be defined in terms of one orange-red spectral line of krypton-86.
Error in measurement being 1 part in 100 millions.
1 metre = 1650763.73 wavelengths of Kr 86;
1 yard = 1509458.3 wavelengths of Kr 86.
Advantages of using wave length standards:
1. Length does not change.
2. It can be easily reproduced easily if destroyed.
3. This primary unit is easily accessible to any physical laboratories.
4. No wear and tear
5. Wavelength standard can be reproduced consistently at any time and at
any place.

Linear measuring
instruments

Outside caliper.
Inside caliper.
Vernier caliper
Screw gauge
vernier height gauge
vernier depth gauge
Dial gauges

SLIP GAUGES OR GAUGE BLOCKS (JOHANSSON


GAUGES)
Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of steel having cross
section of 30 mm face length & 10 mm face width.
Slip gauges are blocks of high-carbon-steel that have been
hardened and stabilized by heat treatment. They are ground
and lapped to size to very high standards of accuracy and
surface finish. A gauge block (also known Johansson
gauge, slip gauge, or Jo block) is a precision length
measuring standard consisting of a ground and lapped
metal or ceramic block. Slip gauges were invented in 1896
by Swedish machinist Carl Edward Johansson.

Gauge or Jo Blocks ISO 3650


Come in sets to 150 mm
with 88 blocks
Minimum step 1 m
Make up any dimension by
wringing blocks together
Sets come in several
grades, typical for shop
use is grade AS-1 with
thinner blocks good to
sub-microns

Sets include two wear blocks to be mounted to either end of stack to protect
the measurement blocks from wear

Gauge blocks

Slip gauges
Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of
high grade steel with close tolerance.
It ensure the resistance to wear.
They are than stabilized by heating
and cooling successively in stages so
that hardening stresses are removed.

Slip gauges
After being hardened they are carefully
finished by high grade lapping to a high
degree finish, flatness and accuracy.
Its having a truly flat surface for
accurate reading.
The cross section of these gauge is 9 x
30 mm for size upto 10 mm and 9 x 35
mm for larger size.

Uses of slip gauges


Slip gauges are used for
To get the high accuracy
For checking the accuracy of vernier
calliper, micrometer and such other
measuring instrument.
For measure the angle of work piece.

Wringing of slip gauge

SLIDE

TWIST

Slip Gauges
Direct precise measurement, where the accuracy of the work
piece demands it.
For checking accuracy of venire calipers, micro metes, and such
other measuring instruments.
Setting up a comparator to specific dimension.
For measuring angle of work piece and also for angular setting
in conjunction with a sine bar.
The distances of plugs, spigots, etc. on fixture are often best
measured with the slip gauges or end bars for large dimensions.
To check gap between parallel locations such as in gap gauges
or between two mating parts.
Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of high grade steel with
exceptionally close tolerances. These blocks are suitably
hardened through out to ensure maximum resistance to wear.
They are then stabilized by heating and cooling successively in
stages so that hardening stresses are removed.

Dial indicators
Test indicators short range
high sensitivity used as null
devices
Long range needle makes many
revolutions has counter dial
Used for rough centering,
thickness measurement
Mounted in a stand either
stationary while part moves or
indicator moves along a
straightedge with part still
Generally looking for minimum
indicator movement
End result given as TIR Total
Indicator Reading or Runout

Also attached to bore & depth


gages
Digital & dial versions available
Can be fitted with various tips

Dial Indicator

Figure 45.6 Dial indicator: front view shows dial and graduated
face; back view shows rear of instrument with cover plate
removed (photo courtesy of Federal Products Co.).

Mechanical Gauges: Dial


Indicators

Mechanical gages are designed to


mechanically magnify the deviation to
permit observation
Most common instrument in this
category is the dial indicator, which
converts and amplifies the linear
movement of a contact pointer into
rotation of a dial
The dial is graduated in small units such as 0.01
mm or 0.001 inch
Applications: measuring straightness, flatness,
parallelism, squareness, roundness, and runout

Dial Indicator to Measure Runout

Figure 45.7 Dial indicator setup to measure runout; as part is


rotated about its center, variations in outside surface relative
to center are indicated on the dial.

Micrometer
Micrometer works on principle of Screw and nut.
When the screw is turn through the nut through
one revolution it advance by one pitch distance.
Least count of micrometer
The Micrometer has a screw of 0.5 mm pitch with
a thimble graduated in 50 division to provide a
direct reading of
Pitch/n = 0.5/50 = 0.01 mm
Micrometer total reading =
Main scale reading + Reading on the thimble *
L.C

Outside mircometers ISO 3611

Outside mircometers ISO 3611


Most common are 25 mm capacity available to 500 mm
Accurate to .01 mm with resolution to .002 mm on better
grades
Use a micrometer stand with larger sizes if practical
Commonly used for measuring diameters use ball tips
for plane surfaces
Ratchet gives uniform squeeze between anvils
Digital versions help avoid reading errors

Depth Micrometer

Angular measurements
1. Vernier bevel Protractor
2. Tool room microscope
3. Sine bar and dial gauge
4. Auto Collimator
5. Taper measuring machine
6. Roller, Slip gauge, and
micrometer.

Angular Measurement
Circles are divided into 360 equal parts,
each being a degree.
Each of these degrees can be evenly
divided into 60 equal parts. These parts
are called minutes.
These minutes can be evenly divided
into 60 equal parts. These parts are
called seconds.

Angular Measure Tools

Protractor

Whole degree increments

Multi-Use Gauge
Pre-set positions for
45 and 90 degrees,
59 degree drill point
angle, and whole
degree increments.

Multi-Use Gauge

Pre-set position for 90 degrees.

Multi-Use Gauge

Pre-set position for 45 degrees.

Multi-Use Gage

Measuring 59 degree drill point angle.

Protractor Head
Whole
degree
increments

Protractor
Built-in
Spirit
Level

Protractor
Angular
Measure
with
Protractor
Head

Universal Bevel
Protractor

Precision angles to
within 5' (0.083)
It Consists of : Base
Vernier scale
Protractor dial
Sliding blade
Dial clamp nut

Vernier Protractor
Used to measure obtuse angle (90-180)
Acute-angle attachment fastened to
protractor to measure angles less than 90
Main scale divided into
two arcs of 180
Scale divided into 12
spaces on each side of 0
If zero on vernier scale
coincides with line on
main: reading in degrees

Reading a Vernier
Protractor
Note number of whole degrees between zero
on main scale and zero on vernier scale
Proceeding in same direction, note which vernier
line coincides with main scale line

Multiply number by 5' and add to


degrees on protractor dial
50
4 x 5'= 20'
Reading =
50 20'

Sine Bars
Used when accuracy of angle must be
checked to less than 5 minutes
Consists of steel bar with two cylinders
of equal diameter fastened near ends
Centers of cylinders exactly 90 to edge
Distance between centers usually 5 or 10
inches and 100 or 200 millimeters.

Made of stabilized tool hardened steel

Sine Bar

Sine Bars

Surface finish measurement


Surface finish refers to the quality finish
or roughness over the surface.
Surface texture :

Repetitive or random deviations form


the normal surface which form the pattern
of the surface. Surface texture include
roughness, waveness, lay and flows.
. Primary texture :
This refers to
the roughness of a surface, as opposed to
its waviness (secondary texture)

Methods of measuring
surface finish

1) Surface Inspection
(or) comparison

.
method

2. Direct Instrument

a) Touch Inspection

b) Visual Inspection

c) Scratch Inspection

d) Microscopic Inspection

e) Surface photograph

f) Micro - Interferometer

g) Wallace surface Dynamometer

h) Reflected light Intensity

Roughness measurement
Maximum Peak to Valley. Height of
Roughness.
Root Mean Square Value (R.M.S.
Value)..
Centre Line Average Method (C.L.A.
Value)

Surface finish measuring


instruments
Profilometer.
The Tomlinson Surface Meter
Taylor-Hobson Talysurf.

UNIT IV
TEMPERATUREMEASUREMENTS

CLASSIFICATION OF
TEMPERATUREMEASURING
EQUIPMENTS

Bimetallic Thermometers:
Principle Involved : These use the
principles of metallic expansion when
temperature changes.
A bimetallic strip is shown in
figure which is straight initially. When
temperature changes, its shape also
changes into an arc.

BIMETALIC THERMOMETER
USE
The displacement of the free end can be converted into an
electric signal through use of secondary transducers like
variable resistance, inductance and capacitance transducers.
Figure shows a strip of bimetal in the form of a spiral. The
curvature of the strip varies with temperature. This causes
the pointer to deflect. A scale is provided which has been
calibrated to show the temperature directly.

This kind of spiral is mostly used in devices measuring


ambient temperature and air-conditioning thermostats.

Advantages of Bimetallic Thermometers

1. Simple
2. Inexpensive
3. Accuracy of 0.5% to 2%

RESISTANCE
THERMOMETERS
Basic principle of resistance
thermometers?
When an electric conductor is
subjected to temperature change the
resistance of the conductor changes.
This change in resistance of the
conductor becomes a measure of the
change
in
temperature
when
calibrated.

Thermocouples
Principles Involved : When heat is
applied to the junction of two
dissimilar metals, an e.m.f. is
generated. (Figure)

Thermistors:
Thermistor is a temperature sensitive variable
resistor made of a ceramic like semiconducting
material. They are made of metal oxides and their
mixtures like oxides of cobalt, copper, nickel, etc.
Unlike metals, thermistors respond negatively to
temperature. They behave as resistors with a high
negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
Typically, for each 1 C rise in temperature, the
resistance of a thermistor decreases by about 5%.
This high sensitivity to temperature changes
makes the thermistor useful in precision
temperature measurements. The resistance of
thermistors vary from 0.5 to 0.75M . Variation
of resistivity with temperature is shown in figure.

UNIT III
FLOW MEASUREMENT

FLOW METERS
Flow meter measures the actual flow
rate.
TYPES OF FLOWMETERS
VENTURIMETER
PITOT TUBE
FLOW NOZZLE
ORIFICE PLATE

VENTURIMETER
USES
1. Low head loss about 10% of
differential pressure head.
2. High co-efficient of discharge.
3. Capable of measuring high flow rates
in pipes having very large diameter.
4. Characteristics are well established
so they are extensively used in process
and other industries.

VENTURI PRINCIPLE
This is just like an orifice meter. It has three distinct
parts, namely convergent cone, throat and divergent
cone. A manometer measures the pressure difference
between two sections as shown in figure.

Let
a1
Area at the inlet (1-1)

A2
Area at the section (2-2)

x
Pressure head difference

Cd
Discharge coefficient



,Q=

Cd a1 a2 2 g x
a 21 a2 2

Orifice METER
Let

a1 Area at section I-I


a0 Area of orifice

Cd Discharge coefficient

Then, Flow rate

ROTO METERS
Rotameter:
A rotameter is a variable area type flow meter. It
consists of a vertical tapered tube with a float which
is free to move within the tube. The fluid goes from
the bottom to the top. When no fluid flows, the float
rests at the bottom of the tube. The float is made of
such a diameter that it completely blocks the inlet.
When flow starts in the pipeline and fluid reaches
the float, the buoyant effect of fluid makes the float
lighter. The float passage remains closed until the
pressure of the flowing material plus the buoyance
effect exceeds the downward pressure due to the
float weight. Thus, depending on flow, the float
assumes a position. Thus the float gives the reading
of flow rate.

Pitot Tube
Principle: Transformation of kinetic
energy of a liquid into potential energy
in the form of a static head.
Figure shows a pitot tube installed in a
pipeline where it acts like a probe. The
tube consists of two concentric tubes,
the inner tube with its open ends
faces the liquid.

Pitot tube principle


outer tube has a closed end and has four to eight
holes in its wall. The pressure in the outer tube is
the static pressure in the line. Total pressure is
sum of static pressure and the pressure due to the
impact of fluid.
If P
pressure)

Ps

Pressure

at

inlet

(Stagnation

Static pressure
Density, then

Velocity v = from which flow rate is determined.

UNIT V
FORCE MEASUREMENT

FORCE MEASUREMENT
Force.
The mechanical quantity which changes
or tends to change the motion or shape
of a body to which it is applied is called
force.
.Force measureing equipments
load cells
Load cells are devices used for force
measurement through indirect methods.

Force measuring
equipments
Scale and balance

a. Equal arm balance

b. Unequal arm balance

c. Pendulum scale
2. Elastic force meter Proving ring
3. Load cell

a. Strain gauge load cell

b. Hydraulic load cell

c. Pneumatic load cell

Torque measuring
equipments
Mechanical torsion meter
Optical torsion meter
Electrical torsion meter
Strain gauge torsion meter

Types of strain gauges.

Unbonded strain gauge


Bonded strain gauge
Fine wire strain gauge
Metal foil strain gauge
Piezo-resistive strain gauge

PROVING RING

Use of proving Rings

Proving rings are steel rings used for calibration of material


testing machines in situations where, due to their bulkness, dead
weight standards cannot be used.
P ring is a circular ring of rectangular section and may support
tensile or comprehensive force across its diameter.
the change in radius in the direction of force, is given by
where d is the outer diameter of the ring and
K is stiffness.
Deflection of the ring is measured using a precision micrometer.
To get precise measurements, one edge of the micrometer is
mounted on a vibrating reed which is plucked to obtain a vibratory
motion. The micrometer contact is then moved forward until a
noticeable damping of the vibration is observed.

LOAD CELLS
Use of Load Cell
Force
transducers
intended
for
weighing purposes are called load cells.
Instead of using total deflection as a
measure of load, strain gauge load cells
measure load in terms of unit strains. A
load cell utilizes an elastic member as
the primary transducer and strain
gauges as secondary transducer. Figure
shows one such load cell arrangement.

DYNAMO METERS

Mechanical Dynamometer:
These come under the absorption type. An example for this kind is prony
brake.

In Prony brake, mechanical energy is converted into heat through dry friction
between the wooden brake blocks and the flywheel (pulley) of the machine. One
block carries a lever arm. An arrangement is provided to tighten the rope which is
connected to the arm. Rope is tightened so as to increase ht frictional resistance
between the blocks and the pulley.
If
F Load applied and
Power dissipated
r - Lever arm
N Speed of flywheel (rpm)
Torque T = F.r
The capacity of Prony brake is limited because:
Due to wear of wooden blocks, friction coefficient varies. So, unsuitable for large
powers when used for long periods.
To limit temperature rise, cooling is to be ensured.

D.C. Dynamometer
D.C. dynamometer is usable as an
absorption
as
well
as
transmission
dynamometer. So, it finds its use in I.C.
Engines, steam turbines and pumps. A d.c.
dynamometer is basically a d.c. motor with a
provision to run it as a d.c. generator where
the input mechanical energy, after conversion
to electrical energy, can either be dissipated
through a resistance grid or recovered for use.
When used as an absorption dynamometer it
acts as d.c. generator. (figure) Cradling in
trunnion bearings permits the determination
of reaction torque.

Eddy CURRENT
DYNAMOMETER

Current or Inductor Dynamometers:

This is an example for absorption type dynamometers.


Principle: When a conducting material moves through a magnetic flux
field, voltage is generated, which causes current to flow. If the conductor is
a wire forming a part of a complete circuit will be caused to flow through
that circuit, and with some form of commutating device a form of a.c. or
d.c. generator may result.

An eddy current dynamometer is shown in figure. It consists of a metal disc


or wheel which is rotated in the flux of a magnetic field. The field if
produced by field elements or coils excited by an external source and
attached to the dynamometer housing which is mounted in trunnion
bearings. As the disc turns, eddy currents are generated. Its reaction with
the magnetic field tends to rotate the complete housing in the trunnion
bearings. Water cooling is employed.