Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 42

PROGRAMMING

LANGUAGE

GROUP MEMBER
NIVHA RANI PRASAD
SAURABH KISHORE PANDEY
TANUJA MOHAPATRA
SANGITA SWAIN
IPSITA MOHANTY
SAMBHIT KUMAR PANDA
ASHUTOSH KUMAR DHAL

AGENDA

INTRODUCTION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE.

GENERATION

INTERPRETER

COMPILER

ALGORITHEM

TYPES OF PROGRAMMING

CHARACTERSTICS OF A GOOD PROGRAM

PROGRAMMING
Programming is the process of writing,
testing, debugging .This source code is written in a
programming language. It is a multi step processing
which identifies and defines any problem, and
develops a solution by preparing a set of instruction that
can run on a computer.
A,B

C=A+B

It involves different processes:


Designing
Code the program
Testing & debugging
Documentation

GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING
1st generation (MACHINE LEVEL LANGUAGE): It is the

programming language having only binary numbers i.e. zero &


one.
2nd generation (ASSEMBLY LEVEL LANGUAGE): Assembly
languages are similar to machine languages, but is bit
understandable as it allow user to replace numbers by names.
3rd generation (HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE): High-level
programming languages are simple like human languages,
similar to English language easily understandable to human e.g..
BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN and Pascal.
4th generation (special operation): a language similar to human
language used in query and data base. ex. SQL

INTERPRETER
An interpreter translates high-level instructions into

an intermediate form and then executes.

It does not need to go through the compilation stage

during which machine instructions are generated.

It analyzes and executes each line of source code in

succession, without looking at the entire program.

It can execute a program immediately.

COMPILER
Compiler translates source code into object

code.
The compiler works looking at the entire piece

of source code and collecting and reorganizing


the instructions.
programs produced by compilers run much

faster than programs executed by an


interpreter.

ALGORITHEM Graphical-FLOWCHART
Structural-PSEUDO CODE

FLOWCHART
Flowchart for adding two numbers:

START
INPUT A, B
SUM=A+B
PRINT SUM
STOP

PSEUDO CODE
Pseudo code for adding two numbers:
Step 1: START
Step 2: INPUT A, B.
Step 3: SUM=A+B
Step 4: PRINT SUM
Step 5: STOP

TYPES OF PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGE
STRUCTURAL PROGRAMMING

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

STRUCTURAL PROGRAMMING:
A program is divided into small tasks or module,

having its own functions.

when tasks gets completed, they are combined together

to solve the problem.

It is often associated with a "top-down" approach to

design.
Ex:C-programming,Ada,Pascal

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING:


In OOP both data structures and the types of operations

are specified that can be applied to data structure.

This pairing of a piece of data with the operations is

known as an object.

A program becomes a collection of cooperating objects,

rather than a list of instructions.

E.g.. C++,C# ,JAVA.

#include<stdio.h>
/*HEADER FILE*/
main ( )
/*MAIN FUNCTION*/
{
int a, b, sum, diff, pro, div;
/*INITIALIZATION*/
printf (enter the 1st no.:);
Printf (enter the 2nd no.:);
scanf (%d %d, &a, &b);
/*INPUT STATEMENT*/
sum=a + b;
diff=a-b;
/*DATA MANIPULATION*/
pro=a*b;
div=a/b;
printf (the sum of two nos.=%d, sum);
printf (the difference of two nos.=%d, diff);
/*OUTPUT
Printf (the product of two nos.=%d, pro);
Printf (the division of two nos.=%d, div);
getch ();
}

STATEMENT*/

/*END OF PROGRAME*/

An object-oriented programe(c++)
#include < iostream.h>
#include< conio.h >
/*HEADER FILE*/
Class stud
/*CLASS DEFINATION*/
{
Public:
/*SCOPE OF VARIABLE*/
char name[10],sub[10];
/*INITIALIZATION OF VARIABLE*/
int r_no;
void main()
/*MAIN FUNCTION*/
{
cout<<enter the name,sub,r_no:;
cin>>name>>sub>>r_no;
/*INPUTING*/
cout<<endl<<name<<endl<<sub<<endl<<r_no;

}
getch();
}

/*OUTPUTING*/

CHARACTERSTICS OF GOOD
PROGRAM
PORTABILITY
READABILITY
EFFICIENCY
STRUCTURAL
FLEXIBILITY
GENERALITY
DOCUMENTATION

SOURCE :
http:// www .internet.com
http:// webopedia.com
http://www.reddit.com/r/programming
Introduction to computer Science-Dorling

Kindersley

DATA BASE
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM

AGENDA
INTRODUCTION
BENEFITS OF DBMS
FILE SYSTEM
DB VS FILE APPROACH
HOW DBMS COMES UP
COMPONENTS OF DBMS
DATA MODEL
DATA DICTIONARY
DATA LANGUAGE
ER DIAGRAM
SQL
DATA WAREHOUSING
DATA MODELING

DBMS
DB CAN BE DEFINED AS A COLLECTION OF INTERRELATED DATA
THE DBMS IS A SET OF PROGRAMS TO MANAGE AND MANIPULATE THE
DATA CONTAINED IN THE DB.
DBMS IS A COMPUTERISED RECORD KEEPING SYSTEM WHOSE
OVERALL PURPOSE IS TO MAINTAIN INFORMATION AND TO MAKE IT
AVAILABLE ON DEMAND (ADHOC QUERYING).
IN ORDER TO CARRY OUT DATABASE OPERATIONS LIKE
INSERTION,DELETION AND RETRIVAL,THE DATABASE NEEDS TO BE
MANAGED BY A SOFTWAREPACKAGE.THIS SOFTWARE IS CALLED As
DBMS (Database Management System)

INTRODUCTION
THE TERM DATA BASE IS MADE OF 2 WORDS: DATA &
BASE.IT IS A BASE FOR DATA THAT IS ,ASSEMBLE GROUP OF
DATA.WHEN THE DATA IS PROCCESSED & CONVERTED INTO
A MEANINGFUL INFORMATION.
IT IS A COMPUTER BASED RECORD KEEPING SYSTEM
WHOSE PURPOSE IS TO RECORD AND MAINTAIN
INFORMATION THAT IS RELEVANT TO THE ORGANIZATION
NECESSARY FOR MAKING DECISIONS.
USES OF DATABASE IN VARIOUS APPLICATIONS
Banking System and ATM's machines.
Stock Trading Systems.
Flight Reservation Systems.
Computerized Library Systems.
Super Market Product Inventory System.
Credit Card/Credit Limit Check System.

NEEDS&BENEFITS OF DBMS
Reduction in Data Redundancy:

*Redundancy means duplication of data.


*Each application has its own separate files which lead to
redundancy in
stored data and wastage of time.
*DBMS doesnt maintain separate copies of the same data.
Reduction in Inconsistency:

*Some times two variable have variations i.e. one of the two
entries has been updated. At such times, the database is said to be
inconsistent.
Sharing of Data:

*Helps in developing new applications which will use the same


stored data .
Endorsement of Standards:

*Standards are easier to enforce .


*It relate to naming, format, structure of the data.
setting of a DBMS enforce security which could have been quite
difficult, since the data is stored centrally.

FILE SYSTEM
In data processing, a file is a related collection of records.
Each record would consist of fields for individual data items.
By providing the same information in the same fields in each

record the file will be easily accessible for analysis and


manipulation.

File is an entity of data available to users that can be

manipulated as an entity like data moved from one file


directory to another.

The file have a unique name in its directory known as file name

extension like executable file have an ".exe" extension.

The extension describe the type of file and how it will work on

any OS.

DB approach Vs FILE approach


DATABASE APPROACH

Redundancy is

controlled.
Unauthorized access
is restricted.
providing multiple
user interfaces.
Enforcing integrity
constraints.
Providing backup and
recovery.

FILE
APPROACH

Data redundancy &

inconsistency is
present.
Difficult in accessing
data.
Data isolation.
Data integrity.
Concurrent access is
not possible.

How DBMS came up:


Bit
Bytes
Fields or entity
records
files
Data base
Data ware house+ Data mining

Components of DBMS
DDL (Data definition language): DDL is used to

create and destroy database and its objects. These


command are primarily used by the DBA (data base
administrator) during the setup and removal phase of
a database project.

DML (Data manipulation language): DML is

used to retrieve, insert, modify and delete database


information. user use this during the operation of
database.

DATA Model
DATA Dictionary

DATA BASE
Keep backups of data base.
ADMINISTRATOR(DBA)
Granting different
authorities
different
Role
of atoDBA:

users.
Keeping track of database
updating.
Designing & modifying DB
for new user & maintaining
data dictionary.
Maintaining DB integrity &
security through
communication.
Identify users problem &
resolve them.

DATA MODEL
Hierarchical
Network
Relational

Data model
Hierarchical model: data in a hierarchical model is
represented by a collection of records and
relationship between the data are represented by link.

NETWORK MODEL
This model is similar to hierarchical modal with a
difference that data can be represented graphically
through this model. Data have relations like:
One to one
One to many
Many to many

RELATIONAL MODEL
In relational model, the table in a Database has fixed

record length with fixed number of attributes or


fields, where records are having relation among them.
Data is arranged in the form of rows and columns
having relation between them.
R.NO

NAME

SUB

AGE

R.NO YEA
R

MARKS SU

THE DATA DICTIONARY


The data dictionary is an important part of the DBMS. It

contains data about data i.e. the database descriptions


used by the DBMS. When the data dictionary is active,
DBMS checks the data dictionary every time the database
is accessed.
The data dictionary contains the following information:
Logical structure of database
Schemas, mappings and constraints.
Description about application programs.
Descriptions of record types, data item types.
Description about physical database design, such as
storage structures, access paths etc.
Descriptions about users of DBMS and their access rights.

DATABASE ARCHITECTURE
It is 3-layered system:

INTERNAL-It describes

how the data is actually


saved, the actual storage
of data.
CONCEPTUAL-It describes
the type of data and the
relation among them. It is
handled by DBA.
EXTERNAL-It is the view
the an individual gets
about the data, the data
shown on the screen while
working on DB. It is
restricted accord. to
authorization of user.

STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE(SQL)


SQL means Structured Query Language, it was

developed by IBM in 1970.


SQL is used to communicate with a database.
SQL statements are used to perform tasks such
as update or retrieve data from a database.
Some common relational database management
systems that use SQL are: Oracle, Sybase,
Microsoft SQL Server, Access etc.
Few SQL commands are:
"Select-DML
"Insert-DML
"Update-DML
"Delete-DML
"Create-DDL
"Drop -DDL

PL/SQL

DATA
WAREHOUSING
DATA WAREHOUSING IS DEFINED AS A PROCESS OF

CENTRALIZED DATA MANAGEMENT AND RETRIVAL.DATA


WAREHOUSING LIKE DATA MINING,IS A RELATIVELY NEW
TERM ALTHOUGHT THE CONCEPT ITSELF HAS BEEN AROUND
FOR YEARS;IT REPRESENTS AN IDEAL VISION OF
MAINTAINING A CENTRAL REPOSITORY OF ALL
ORGANIZATIONAL DATA.

DATA MINING IS SOFTWARE OR ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR

ANALYZING DATA.IT ALLOWS THE USER TO ANALYZE THE


DATA FROM DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OR
ANGELS,CATEGORIZE IT AND SUMMERIZE THE
RELATIONSHIP IDENTIFIED.DATA MINING IS A PROCESS OF
FINDING CORRELATIONS OR PATTERNS AMONG DOZENS OF
FIELDS IN LARGE RELATIONAL DATABASE.

DATA MINING GIVES YOU THE INFORMATION THAT IS

NEEDED TO MAKE DECISIONS AND BUSINESS PROBLEMS.IN


ANALYSIS SERVICES,YOU GET EASY TO USE,EXTENSIBLE &
FLEXIBLE DATA MINING TOOLS THAT CAN HELP YOU
IDENTIFY TRENDS PATTERNS IN THE HAND OF DECISION
MAKERS.

GUIDED BY:
PRADEEP KR. SAHOO

THANK YOU