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# Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

## 17.1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

Inductive reactance (XL ) causes the
total
current to lag the applied voltage.
Capacitive reactance (XC ) causes the
total
current to lead the applied voltage.
Therefore, XL and XC tend to offset each
The
magnitude of the total reactance in the series
other.
circuit:
The impedance :
Using Ohm s Law:
Voltage drop across the capacitor:
Voltage drop across the inductor:
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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
Voltage drop across the resistor:
Total Voltage :
a) When XC > XL (the circuit is capacitive)
Impedance phasor diagram:
From the diagram, the value of can
be calculated:

## where : X = |XL - XC|

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
a) When XC > XL (the circuit is capacitive)
Expressing the diagram in term of
voltages:
From the diagram, the value of also
can be calculated by using:

where VCL = VC - VL
b) When XL > XC (the circuit is inductive)
Impedance phasor diagram:

## Expressing the diagram in term of voltages:

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
c) When XC = XL (the circuit is at resonance)
When XC = XL : the total reactance is zero.
Therefore:

1
2f r L
; thus
2f r C
1
fr
4 2 LC
1
fr
2 LC
2

## At the resonant frequency

VC and VL > VS
VC and VL cancel leaving 0V because their
voltages are equal in magnitude but opposite in
phase
ZT = R, at the minimum value because XT = 0
Thus I at the maximum value
V R = VS

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
d) ANALYSIS OF SERIES RLC CIRCUITS
At low frequency
XC XL Circuit predominantly capacitive
As f XC and XL until XL = XC
At high frequency
XL XC Circuit predominantly inductive
At resonance frequency
XL = X C
the two reactance cancel
Circuit purely resistive
series resonance
XL is a straight line since,
XL = 2fL
General straight line formula, y = mx + C
Thus y = XL; slope, m = 2L and C = 0
XC curve is called hyperbola
General hyperbola formula; xy = k
Where x = f; y = XC and k = 1/2C
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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

## Determine the total impedance and

the phase angle for RLC circuit

## Find the voltage across R, L and C

and draw the voltage phasor
diagram.

## For the series RLC circuit, determine

Xc , XT and Z at resonance.
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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.2 PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
The parallel RLC circuit as show.

## The total impedance can be

calculated
using the sum of reciprocals
method:

(BCL = |BC BL |)

Conductance:
Capacitive susceptance:
Inductive susceptance:

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.2 PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
CURRENT RELATIONSHIPS
In parallel RLC circuit, the current in the capacitive branch and the current in the
inductive branch are always 180 degree out of phase with each other. For this reason,
IC and IL subtract from each other.

where ICL

= IC - IL

## Following the Ohm s Law:

Therefore, the total current IT:
Current at the inductor branch, IL :
Current at the capacitor branch, IC :

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
a) When IC > IL (the circuit is capacitive)
where ICL = IC - IL

## b) When I C <I L (the circuit is inductive)

where ICL = IC - IL

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
c) When IC = IL (the circuit is at resonance)
Ideally, parallel resonance occurs when:
When XC =X

## , the two branch current IC and IL are equal in magnitude.

Impedance:

Phase shift:

Resonance frequency:

## Parallel resonance occurs when XL = XC

Frequency at which resonance occurs is known
as resonant frequency
When XL = XC, IC and IL are equal in magnitude
but 180 out of phase
Thus ICL = 0
Thus XL = XC and Z=infiniti

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## Chap[17] RLC Circuit.

17.1 PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT

phase angle:

## Find each branch current and total current

in circuit. Draw a diagram of this
relationship.

## For the Parallel RLC circuit, determine

Xc , XT ,C ,L, Z and IT at resonance

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## PRATICAL 1 SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

&
PRATICAL 2 PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT

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