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MODERN ACADEMY FOR

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

IN MAADI
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ELECTRONIC
MEASUREMENTS

Text Books
Larry D. Jones, A. Foster Chin, Electronic
Instrumentation & Measurements, 2 nd Ed.,
Prentice-Hall Inc., 1991.
David A. Bell, A. Foster Chin, Electronic
Instrumentation & Measurements, 2 nd Ed.,
Prentice-Hall Inc., 1997

Grading Policy
Semester Assignments
Mid-term Exam
Practical Exam
Final Exam
Total

10 (5)
20 (15)
30 (20)
90 (60)
150 (100)

ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
CONTENTS

Introduction
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
Special Types of Oscilloscopes
Analog Voltmeters
Digital Voltmeters
Frequency meters
Spectrum Analyzers
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INTRODUCTION
Life in the 21st century relies heavily on
precision measurement, it is at the heart of
many critical experiences like:
Satellite navigation systems that depend

on ultra stable clocks, as any small error in


timing can throw navigation a long way off
course.
Medical and food industry where
elementary components ordered from
different suppliers and interact together .
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Principles for Good Measurements


1. Right tools
Measurements should be made using
equipment and methods that have been
demonstrated to be fit for purpose
2. Right people
Measurement staff should be competent,
properly qualified, and well informed.

3. Right procedures
Well-defined procedures consistent with national or
international standards should be in place for all
measurements
4. Regular review
There should be both internal and independent
assessment of the technical performance of all
measurement facilities and procedures.

Measurements Quality
When talking about measurement quality, it
is important to understand the following
concepts:
Precision is about how close
measurements are to one another. Thus
precision is represented by a cluster of
consistent measurements, with no
guarantee that they are accurate .

Accuracy is about how close


measurements are to the true value. In
reality, it is not possible to know the true
value and so we introduce the concept of
uncertainty to help quantify how wrong our
value might be.
Uncertainty is the quantification of the
doubt about the measurement results and
tells use insight about quality.

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Error is the difference between the


measured value and the true value of the
variable being measured
True value is the value that would be
obtained by theoretically perfect
measurements .

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CATHOD RAY OSCILLOSCOPE

CATHOD RAY TUBE


DEFLECTION AMPLIFIERS
SWEEP GENERATOR
AUTOMATIC TIME BASE
DUAL TRACS OSCILLOSCOPE
CONTROLS AND MESURMENTS
OSCILL SPECS&PERFORMANCE
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CRO BLOCK DIAGRAM MAIN ITEMS:

Power Supply
Vertical Deflection Amplifier
Horizontal Deflection Amplifier
Sweep Generator
CRT

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14

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Main items of CRT

Electron gun section


Triode Section
Focusing Section
Deflection Section
Post Deflection Acceleration section
Screen

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Electrostatic Deflection

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Deflection Amplifier

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Q2&Q3 form an emitter-coupled


(differential) amplifier .
Q1&Q4 are emitter follower (common
collector) transistors that provide high
input resistance .
R10 DC Shift control resistor
( potentiometer)
S1 has three positions: AC,GND & DC
S2 is adjusted according to scale of
measured signal ( Volt/Div)
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When the input voltage to the attenuator is


zero, the base of Q1 is at ground level&
Q4 base is also adjusted to ground level
Q2 and Q3 bases are both at the same
negative potential with respect to ground
(-VB2 = -VB3)
Also, IC2 = IC3, and the voltage drops
across R3 and R6 set the collectors of Q2
and Q3 at ground level.

20

Q2 and Q3 collectors are the amplifier


outputs, and they are connected directly to
the deflection plates
A positive-going input produces a positivegoing voltage at Q2 base, and causes I C2
to increase and IC3 to decrease
The IC2 increase causes output VC2 to fall
below its normal ground level, and the I C3
decrease makes VC3 increase above
normal ground level
If the change in VC2 = -1V, then VC3= +1 V
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The deflection amplifier operation


principles are the same for both vertical
and horizontal amplifiers
The adjustment potentiometer R10 is used
to adjust the DC level for the displayed
pattern on the screen as desired by the
operator .

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Oscilloscope Time Base


Simple sweep generator
Basic sweep Generator
Automatic time base

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Simple sweep generator

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During the sweep time TS the transistor is cut off and


the capacitor C is charged through the resistor R,
and
Vo= Vcc ( 1 - Exp (- t/RC))

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When the input pulse Vi is applied the


base of the transistor it operates on
saturation mode.
The capacitor C will discharge during the
retrace time Tr
The output voltage will be :
Vo =Vo Exp (-t /R C)
Where RCE is the collector-emitter resistor
CE

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Basic sweep generator

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UTP, LTP= Upper, Lower trigger point of


Schmitt circuit
UTP,LTP = ( Vsat) R6/R5
Vsat (Op Amp saturation Voltage) = (Vcc-1V)

The collector current

I1

( VB1-VBE) / R3

VB1= Base voltage


R3, emitter resistor
The peak-to-peak voltage of ramp (2 x UTP or LTP)
V1 = I1T/ C1
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Example:
For the sweep generator circuit has R3 = 4.2 K ,
C1=0.25 F, VB1= 4.9 V, and the trigger levels for the
Schmitt are 2 V. Calculate the peak-to-peak amplitude
and time period of the ramp waveform.
Solution:
V1 = 2 x (UTP,LTP) = 2 x 2 V(upper trigger point, Lower
trigger point) = 4 V p-to-p
I1 = (VB1 VBE)/ R3= ( 4.9-0.7)/4.2k = 1 mA
T = (V1x C1)/ IC1 = (4Vx 0.25F)/1mA = 1ms

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Automatic time base


The block diagram consists of:
1. Trigger amplifier
2. Schmitt circuit
3. Differentiator
4. Positive Clipper
5. Hold-Off circuit
6. Sweep generator
7. Blanking circuit

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The input signal is applied to vertical amplifier


and to the trigger amplifier
The output of trigger amplifier is an approximate
rectangle wave
The output from the Schmitt circuit is a square
waveform exactly in anti-phase with the input
wave to be displayed.
This square wave is applied to a differentiating
circuit. The output produced by the differentiator
is proportional to the rate of change of the
square wave.

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During the times that the square wave is at its constant


positive level or at its constant negative level, its rate of
change is zero.
At the positive-going edge of the square wave, the rate
of change is a large positive quantity.
At the negative-going edge, the rate of change is a large
negative quantity.
the differentiated square wave is a series of positive
spikes coinciding with the positive-going edges of the
square wave, and negative spikes coinciding with the
negative-going edges

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Hold-Off Circuit

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The positive clipper clips the positive spikes


It is seen that the train of negative spikes causes the
ramp output of the sweep generator to be synchronized
with the input waveform that is to be displayed.
The hold-off circuit is a spike-suppressing circuit
controlled by the level of the ramp output from the sweep
generator.
Once a negative spike has synchronized the time base,
no more spikes are allowed to pass to the sync input
terminal until the ramp output of the sweep generator
approaches its maximum amplitude

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Note that the sweep generator output is fed


back to the hold-off circuit as well as to the
horizontal amplifier.
With all spikes suppressed until the ramp
approaches its peak level, the ramp is not
reset to zero until the electron beam has been
swept horizontally to the right-hand side of the
oscilloscope screen.
Any number of waveform cycles can now be
displayed on the oscilloscope screen.

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DC Level control on Triggering Amplifier

38

The triggering amplifier is similar to the


deflection amplifier.
Potentiometer R10 in the triggering amplifier
performs a similar function of R10 of DC shift
control of deflection Amplifier .
By means of this potentiometer, the amplifier
dc output levels can be adjusted close to the
upper trigger point of the Schmitt.

39

The triggering amplifier output reaches the


upper trigger point approximately at the
same instant that the input wave begins its
cycle. Therefore, the displayed wave
commences at this instant.
Output of the triggering amplifier does not
reach the trigger point until some time
after the input wave has begun its cycle.

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The displayed wave now commences at


this point. It is seen that potentiometer
R 10 functions as a trigger level control, to
adjust the instant in time at which the
displayed wave commences on the
oscilloscope screen.

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Fly Back

42

The output from the sweep generator is fed to a


blanking circuit . This is the pulse waveform
output (V2) from the Schmitt circuit of Basic
Sweep Generator
The pulse wave is inverted and capacitor
coupled to convert it to a train of positive pulses
during the sweep time, and negative pulses that
occur each time the ramp wave falls from its
maximum positive level to its maximum negative
level.

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These pulses are fed to the grid of the


CRT ,the negative pulses (known as
blanking pulses) drive the grid sufficiently
negative to suppress the electron beam
completely.
This means that no electrons strike the
screen while the ramp is going from its
maximum positive to its maximum
negative level.

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If the electrons were not suppressed during this


time, every displayed wave would have a
horizontal line traced by the electron beam
during the fly back time from the right -hand side
of the screen to the left .
The positive pulses are termed un-blanking
pulses, and it is applied to the CRT grid cause
electrons to travel from the cathode to the
screen.

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Dual Trace Oscilloscope


Dual Trace oscilloscope could be double- beam
or single-beam CRT
A single-beam CRT, shown in the next slid, has
Two input amplifiers (channels A & B) , and only
One vertical deflection amplifier feeding one set
of vertical deflection plates.
The input to the vertical deflection amplifier is
alternately switched between channels A and B,
and the switching frequency is controlled by the
time base circuit.
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ALT Mode :

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In ALT mode, the CRT alternately displaying one


input wave and then the other.
In the pervious figure, the input to channel A is a
sine wave with time period T, and that to channel
B is a triangular wave also having a time period
T
The two waveforms are in synchronism. Note
that channel A input has a dc offset, which puts it
above ground level, while channel B is offset
below ground.

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Channel A input is switched to the vertical


deflection amplifier and traced on the
oscilloscope screen during time 0 to t1.
Channel B input is next applied to the vertical
deflection amplifier and traced on the
oscilloscope screen during time t1 to t2
The dc offsets on the inputs cause the waveform
on channel A to be traced on the top half of the
oscilloscope screen and that on channel B to be
traced on the bottom half of the screen.

50

During the next cycle of the time base channel A


input is again traced on the screen, followed by
channel B input once again thus, the two inputs
are alternately and repeatedly traced on the
screen.
The repetition frequency is usually so high that
the waveforms appear to be displayed
simultaneously.
When the method described above is employed
to display two waveforms, the oscilloscope is
said to be operating in alternate (ALT) mode.

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CHOP Mode:
The Figure below illustrates oscilloscope operation in the
chop mode
Channel A input is traced for a short time, t1
Channel B input is traced for time t2.
Back to channel A input for t3, then channel B for t4, and
so on, as illustrated.
High-frequency waveforms would be displayed as
dashed lines, exactly as shown in Figure below.
However, the breaks in the traced waveforms are of such
short duration that they become invisible when mediumand low-frequency waves are displayed.

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Dual-trace oscilloscopes that employ channel


switching normally permit selection of operation
in either alternate mode or chop mode.
For high-frequency inputs the alternate mode is
best, because the waveform traces appear
continuous rather than broken.
Using the chop mode with low-frequency inputs
results in both waves being displayed
continuously. The breaks in each trace are so
short that they cannot be seen.

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Oscilloscope Controls

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Voltage & Frequency Controls

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Voltage & Frequency Measurements

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Voltage Measurements
VP-P = (VP-P Divs/Cycle) X (Volts/Div)
For Signal A
V = (4.6 Div) x 100 mV = 460 mV
For Signal B
V = (2 Div) x 100 mV = 200 mV

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Frequency Measurements
T = (Horizontal Divs/Cycle) X (Time/Div)
For Signal A
T = (8.8/2) Div x 0.5 ms = 2.2 ms
F = 1 / 2.2 ms = 455 Hz
For Signal B
T = (8.8/6) Div x 0.5 ms = 0.73 ms
F = 1 / 0.73 ms = 1.36 kHz
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Phase Measurements

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Each wave time period (cycle) = 8 Div.


8 Div = 360 , 1 Div = 360/ 8 = 45
The time between the commencement of
each cycle is 1.4 Div.
Thus the phase difference is :
= 1.4 x 45 = 63

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Pulse Measurements

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If the vertical sensitivity is 0.1 V/Div


Upper Wave Amplitude PA = 2 X 0.1 = 0.2 V
Lower Wave Amplitude PA = 2.4 X 0.1 = 0.24 V
If the horizontal sensitivity is 1 s/Div
Upper Wave :
Pulse Width Pw = 4.5 s

Space Width Sw = 3.5 s


Wave Period T = 8 s

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Lower Wave
Rise Time: time required for the leading edge to
rise from 10% to 90% of the pulse amplitude
Tr = 0.7 s
Fall Time: time required for the lagging edge to fall
from 90% to 10% of the pulse amplitude
Tf = 0.9 s
Delay Time: time elapsed from the
commencement of the input pulse until the
output pulse reaches 10% of the pulse amplitude
Td = 1 s
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Oscilloscope 1:1 Probe

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The central conductor carries the input signal,


and the circular conductor is grounded to
prevent unwanted noise.
1:1 probe does not contain resistors to attenuate
the input signal
the input impedance of the oscilloscope is
typically 1 M 30 pF
The coaxial cable adds a capacitance Ccc,
typically of 100 pF

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For minimum attenuation and phase shift


(overloading), the total impedance of the
measuring instrument should be much larger
than the signal source impedance (circuit under
test)
At frequencies when the reactance of (Ccc + Ci)
is much larger than (Rs + Ri), the capacitances
have negligible effect, and the oscilloscope
terminal voltage Vi = Vs (Ri / Rs +Ri)
For Ri is much larger than Rs , Vi = Vs
(no attenuation)
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Oscilloscope 10:1 Probe


Attenuator probe includes 9 M resistor in
series with the input terminal, there for it offers a
much larger impedance for the measuring
device, and attenuates the input signal by a
factor of 10.
10:1 probes usually have an adjustable
capacitor to compensate for the coaxial cable
capacitance Ccc, and the input capacitance Ci
The input resistance and input capacitance vary
from one oscilloscope to another, so it is very
important that every probe has to be calibrated
when first use .
69

X-Y and Z Displays


When the oscilloscope time base is
disconnected and sine waves are applied to both
horizontal and vertical inputs, the resulting
display depends on the relation between the two
sin waves.
Very simple displays occur when the wave forms
are equal in frequency, and quit complex figures
may be produced with different frequency
waves.
In all cases these are known as Lissajou
figures.
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Vertical input= sine wave &

Horizontal input= Zero

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Vertical input= 0 & Horizontal input= sine wave

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Two Waves having the same frequency


and in phase

73

Two Waves having the same frequency


but anti phases

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Two Waves having the same frequency


and 90 phase difference

75

Two Waves having the same frequency


with phase difference 0 << 90

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Two Waves having the same Phase but


different frequencies (f1:f2 = 2 :1)

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In case of the vertical input frequency is twice the


horizontal input frequency:
One cycle of the horizontal input causes the
electron beam to travel from the center of the
screen to the RHS, then back through the center
to the LHS, then back to the center again.
During this time the vertical input deflects the
beam from center, up, down, back to center, then
up, down, and back to center once more.
The ratio of the vertical frequency (f1) to the
horizontal frequency (f2) can be determined from
the display as follows: f1/f2 = number of positive
peaks / number of RHS peaks
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Two Waves having the same Phase but


f1:f2 = 3 :2

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Some oscilloscopes have a rear connector for


intensity modulation inputs.
This usually termed Z-axis modulation, because
its input modulates the voltage of on the
oscilloscope grid.
The Z input drives the grid voltage more
negative during each negative half cycle of the
modulation wave, therefore dims or completely
blanks the trace intensity.
This makes a number of gaps on the displayed
figure that equal to the ratio of modulating
frequency to deflecting plate frequency Fm/Fp
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THANK YOU
GOOD LUCK

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