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M.B.

DRYER

E.B.

DRYER

Taking T0 as the reference temperature

,
The enthalpies of gas and solid streams
are
:
Or,

= specific heat of
solid
= specific heat of gas

E.B.

Or

2500

=4.187 KJ/KG0K
for water @
Standard
temperature
and
0
=
1.88
KJ/KG
K
press.
for water vapor @
Standard
temperature
and
press.
= 2500 KJ/KG
Heat
of
vaporization
or
latent heat @ T0

M.B.

1 ZONE-I

ZONE-II

E.B.

ZONE-III 4

ZONE-I

ZONE-II

ZONE-III

Wet solid enters zone I at rate of (Ls ) , kg/hr (dry basis)

The surface area of drying is

(a) , m2/(kg dry solid)

If
(m is the log mean temperature difference,
The heating time of these zone (III) will be,

EB

ZONE-I

ZONE-II

ZONE-III

Wet solid enters zone I at rate of (Ls ) , kg/hr (dry basis)

The surface area of drying is

Putting

ZONE-I

ZONE-II

ZONE-III

The moisture content of the solid is below critical moisture (X<XC)

The drying rate is proportional to the free moisture(X<X*)

Where, =

ZONE-I

ZONE-II

ZONE-III

The moisture content of the solid is below critical moisture (X<XC)

The drying rate is proportional to the free moisture(X<X*)

If X*= 0
Drying time will have

M.B.

E.B.

(N

tG

DRYER

Where,

and are called the wet bulb depression at the two ends of zone-II

M.B.

DRYER

E.B.

Diameter of heat transfer unit : shell diameter is calculated from

the dry gas flow rate
and a suitable gas
velocity or gas mass flow rate

= + 1.97

1 ZONE-I

2 ZONE-II

ZONE-III 4

Problem1:Drying time in a continuous counter flow dryer

1. A wet solid having 25% moisture is to be dried at a rate of 1000, kg/hr to 1%
moisture in continuous counter current dryer. The drying air enter at 100 0C at a
rate of 12000, kg/hr (dry basis) with a humidity of 0.025 , kg per kg dry air and
the dry solids leaves at 600C. The temperature at the wet solid entering the dryer
is nearly same at the adiabatic saturation temperature of the air leaving the dryer.
Following data and information are available:
Gas phase transfer coefficient for drying of the solid (KY)=150 kg/m2h
Effective surface area of the solid = 0.065 m2/kg dry solid
Specific heat of the solid (CPS)=0.96 kJ/kg K
Critical moisture of the solid is =8% ; The equilibrium moisture is negligible. All
moisture are an wet basis, calculate the drying time.

UTION: the dryer may be consider to consists of three zones

M.B.

1 ZONE-I

2 ZONE-II

ZONE-III 4

E.B.
Zone-I: removal of moisture above Xc
Zone-II: removal of moisture below Xc
Zone-III: heating of the solid to its exit temperature of 60 0C
The solid remains at the adiabatic saturation temperature of
the drying gas in Zone-I & Zone-II

Given
data:
Wet solid entering : 1000 kg/hr
Dry solid entering (LS) : 1000(1-0.25)=750kg/hr
X1=25/75=0.333
X4=X3=1/99=0.0101
XC=0.08/0.92=0.087
By an Overall moisture balance
X*=0
GS=12000kg/hr (DRY BASIS)

TG4=1000C
Y4=Y3=0.025
12000(Y1-0.025)= 750(0.333-0.0101)
TS4=600C
Y1=0.0452
CPS=0.96kJ/(kg dry solid) . K

Humid heat of air in Zone-III

CH= 1.005 + 1.88H

CH=1.005+1.88(0.025)
=1.052 kJ/(kg dry air .K)

where 1.005 kJ/kgC is

the heat capacity of dry
air, 1.88 kJ/kgC the heat
capacity of water vapor,
and H is the specific
humidity in kg water
vapor per kg dry air in
the mixture.

Given
data:

Wet solid entering : 1000 kg/hr

Dry solid entering (LS) : 1000(1-0.25)=750kg/hr
X1=25/75=0.333
X4=X3=1/99=0.0101
XC=0.08/0.92=0.087
X*=0
GS=12000kg/hr (DRY BASIS)
TG4=1000C
Y4=Y3=0.025
TS4=600C
CPS=0.96kJ/(kg dry solid) . K

=0.96+0.333*4.187*(40-0)
=94.2 kJ/(kg dry solid .K)

=0.96+0.0101*4.187*(60-0)
=60.14 kJ/(kg dry solid .K)

e gas temperature TG3 can be calculated by the heat balance over zone III
GSCH(TG4-TG3)=LS(HS4-HS3)
12000(100-TG3)=750(0.96(60-40)
TG3=990C

nce, the heat load of this zone III is small the gas temperature does not change
uch
eat transfer calculation in zone-III
Rate of heat transfer from the gas
= GSCH(TG4-TG3)
=12000*1.052*(100-99)

=12620 kJ/hr
= 59

= k y * CH
=150*1.052
=158 kJ/m2h.K

Log mean driving force

100-60=400C

99-40=590C

=(59-40)/(ln(59/40))
=490C

Time of heating @ zone-III

12620/(750*0.065)(158)(49)
0.0334 hr

Overall energy balance

GS (HG4-HG1)=LS(HS4-HS1)
2500

HG4=[1.005+1.88*0.025](100-0)+2500*0.025
=167.7 kJ/kg
12000*(167.7-HG1)=750(60.14-94.2)
HG1= 169.8 kJ/(kg dry air)
2500
169.8=[1.005+1.88*0.0452](-0)+2500*0.0452

Time of heating @ zone-III

12620/(750*0.065)(158)(49)
0.0334 hr

Time of heating @ zone-III

12620/(750*0.065)(158)(49)
0.0334 hr

Time of heating @ zone-III

12620/(750*0.065)(158)(49)
0.0334 hr

Problem2: Sizing of a rotary Dryer

2. A moist non-hygroscopic granular solid at 26 0C is to be dried from 20% initial

moisture to 0.3% final moisture (wet basis) in a rotary dryer at a rate 1500,
kg/hr. hot air enters 1350C with a humidity of 0.015. the exit solid temperature
must not exceed 1100C and the air velocity must not exceed 1.5 m/s in order to
avoid dusting at the solid.

Specific heat of the dry solid (C PS)=0.865 kJ/kg K.

suggest the diameter , the length and the other parameter of the dryer

Solution

Basis of calculation is 1hr operation

Mass of dry solid Ls=1500(1-0.2)=1200kg/hr

Water evaporated (ms)=LS(X1-X2)=1200(0.25-0.00301)=296.4

TS1=260C

TG2=1350C

Y2=0.015

we assume that the exit temperature of gas is , T G1=600C and that of solid is
TS2=1000C

Calculated enthalpy values of different stream (If Ref. Temp.=0 0C)

HS1=[CPS+4.187X1](TS1-T0)
HS1 =[0.85+4.187*0.25](26-0)
=49.31 kJ/kg of dry solid
HS2=[CPS+4.187X2](TS2-T0)
HS2=[0.85+4.187*0.0030](100-0)
=86.2 kJ/kg of dry solid
HG2=[1.005+1.88*Y2](135-0)+Y2*2500
HG2=[1.005+1.88*0.015](135-0)+0.015*2500 =177 kJ/kg
HG1=[1.005+1.88*Y1](60-0)+Y1*2500

CONTINUE

Overall mass balance

GS(Y1-Y2)=LS(X1-X2) (ms)=LS(X1-X2)=1200(0.25-0.00301)=296.4
GS(Y1-0.015)=296.4
GS=296.4/(Y1-0.015)
Enthalpy balance
LS(HS2-HS1)=GS(HG2-HG1)
HG1=(60.3)+Y1*2613
1200(86.2-49.31)=[296.4/(Y1-0.015)](177-60.3+Y1*2613)
Y1=0.04306
AndGS=296.4/(0.04306-0.015)=10560 kg/hr
CALCULATION OF SHELL DIAMETER
humid volume of the inlet gas (1350C, Y2=0.015)
H2=1.183 m3/kg dry air
H2=8315*[(1/MA)+(Y1/MB)][(T+273)/press. atm] MA=29; MB=18
humid volume of the exit gas (600C, Y1=0.04306)
H2=8315*[(1/29)+(0.04306/18)][(60+273)/101325]
=1.008m3/kg dry air
The maximum volumetric flow rate =GS*H2=10560*1.183 =3.47m3/sec
Take maximum superficial velocity of air to be = 1.2m/sec.
(This is the 20% less than the maximum allowable velocity since part of the
dryer field with the moving solid and the entire cross section is not available for
gas flow) if d is the dryer diameter
(*d2/4)(1.2)=3.686
d= 1.98m
Select d=2 m diameter shell

TEMPERATURE

TG2
TGB

TS2

TGA GAS
TG1
TSA

TSB
SOLID

TS1
1

Calculation of the number of heat

transfer units

Zone-III
only heating of the solid occurs in this zone,
there is little water left for vaporization . At the boundary
between zones III and II. The solid is TSB , the wet bulb
temperature of the air at that location.
Assume TSB=TSA=410C
Enthalpy of the solid at the inlet to zone-III
HSB=[1.005+0.00301*4.187](41-0)
=35.37kJ/kg dry
solid
HUMID HEAT OF THE GAS ENTERING ZONE-III
CHB=[1.005+1.88*0.015]
=1.033kJ/kg.K
HEAT BALANCE OVER ZONE-III
LS(HS2-HSB)=GSCHB(TG2-TGB)
1200(86.2-35.77)=10560*1.033(135-TGB)
TGB=1290C
Adiabatic saturation temperature of air entering zone-II (129 0C and
humidity of 0.015) is 41.30C. This is fairly close to the guess value of
410C and TSA=TSB=410C is not changed.

At the boundary B,
TB=129-41 =880C
AT THE END 2, T2=135-100 =350C
LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE IN ZONE-III , Tm=(88-35)/ln(88/35) =57.50C
NUMBER OF HEAT TRANSFER UNIT (NtG)III = (T2-TGB)/ Tm
= (135-129)/(57.5)=0.104
ZONE-II : in order to calculate (NtG)II, it is required to calculate value of TGA. this
can be obtained by heat balance eqn.
HGB=[1.005+1.88YB](129-0)+2500YB
=170.8kJ/kg SINCE YB=0.015
HSA=[CPS+CPL*X1](TSA-0)
=[0.85+4.187(0.125)](41)
=77.77kJ/kg dry solid
ENTHAPLY BALANCE
LS (HSB-HSA)=GS(HGB-HGA)
1200(35.37-77.77)=10560(170.8-HGA)
HGA=175.6=[1.005+0.O4306*1.88](TGA-0)+(0.04306*2500)
TGA=630C
AT SECTION A, TA=63-41 =220C
Tm=(88-22)/ln(88/22)
=47.60C
Number of transfer units (NtG)II =(TGB-TGA)/ Tm
=(129-63)/47.6=1.386

before calculating (NtG)I, check the value of assumed value of the exit
temperature TG=600C by making the energy balance over zone-I
10560(175.6-HG1)=1200(77.77-49.31)
HG1 AND HENCE TG1=59.60C

ZONE-I
T1=60-26=340C
Tm=(34-22)/ln(34/22)=27.50C
Number of transfer units (NtG)I =(TGA-TG1)/ Tm
=(63-60)/27.5=0.109
TOTAL NUMBER OF TRANSFER UNITS
(NtG) =(NtG)I +(NtG)II+ (NtG)III
=0.109+1.386+0.104 =1.53
THE GAS MASS FLOW RATE
=[(10560)*(1.015)+10560(1.04306)]/2
=10867 kg/hr

GAS MASS FLOW RATE G PER AREA = (10867/3600)/(/4)(2)^2

=0.961kg/m2.s
U =[ 237*(G)^0.67]/d
=[237*(0.961)^0.67]/2
=
115 W/m3.K

HUMID HEAT AT THE END

CH2=1.005+1.88(0.015) = 1.033
CH1=1.005+1.88(0.04306) = 1.083
AVG HUMID HEAT
CHAVG=[1.033+1.083]/(2) = 1.058 kJ/kg dry air .K
= 1058 k/kg dry air .K
Length of heat transfer unit (LT) =GCHAVG/ U
=(0.961*1058)/115
8.84 m
LENGTH OF THE DRYER
L = (NtG) *LT =1.56*8.84 = 13.8m
Hence select 2m diameter and 15m long dryer

Problem3: Tunnel dryer

3. It is required to estimate the size of a tunnel dryer for producing 500 lb/hr (dry basis) of
product with 1% moisture , the wet feed consists of a press cake at 60 0F containing 1.5 lb
water/lb dry product. The product is essential non-hydroscopic. The dry bulk density 35
lb/ft3 , shrinkage during dry is negligible . And test have indicate that the critical moisture
contains of the material is all most 0.4 lb water/ lb dry stock , counter flow operation is to
be used and the inlet air temperature will be 300 0F, the specific heat after dry material is
0.3 Btu/lb0F. Fresh air will be at 600F and a humidity of 0.01 lb/ lb dry air. The maximum
mass velocity that cab be used without serious dusting is 2000 lb/hr-ft 2.

Assuming ,
The basis reference temperature is 1000C or 2120F
The material leave the dryer at 2900F and air will be exhaust at 1400C
The heat requirement are approximate as follows
Total heat to evaporate moisture =
500(1.5-0101)[(212-60)+970+0.45(140-212)]
=811752Btu/hr
Heat to rise material sample
CPW*LS(TS2-TS1)
=0.3*500(290-60)
=34500 Btu/hr
Total energy =811752+34500= 846245 Btu/hr
The entering humidity will be 0.03lb/lb dry air to permit the recirculation
This corresponding to 1% relative humidity at 300 0F
The quantity of air required is = [Total energy / (CH(TG2-TG1))]
If CH=0.254 at 3000F
= [846245/ (0.254(300-140))]
=20823 lb/hr

Rate of water removal is

= 500(1.5-0.01)
=745 lb/hr
The humidity of air leave the dryer
=0.03+745/20823
=0.0656
Which corresponding to 48% relative humidity at 140 0F. The wet bulb
temperature corresponding to these condition is 116 0F.
The lb/hr required to recirculate to give the desired entering humidity are
=20823(0.03-0.01)/(0.0656-0.01)
=7490 lb/hr
The heat required for the constant rate section is approximate 70% of total
heat
=846245*0.7
=592371.5
The air temperature at the point where surface drying of solid will be
=140+(300-140)[592371.5/846245]
=252
The number of transfer unit in constant rate section (NTU) C
(NTU)C =ln [(ts-Tw)/(tc-Tw)]
=ln [(252-116)/(140-116)] =1.735

Logarithmic mean temperature difference

t1 =ts-TW = 252-116 =1360F
t2 =tG2-TS2 = 300-290 =100F

Tm =(136-10)/ln(136/10)
=48.27
(Nt)f =(TG2-TS)/ Tm
=(300-252)/(48.27)
=0.994
Total Nt =1.735+0.994
=2.729
The cross sectional area needed for air flow is = The total air requirement
/allowable vapor velocity
=20823/200
= 10.42 sqr. ft
Assume :
Trays =28 ; area = 9ft^2 ; 1 deep; free surface between trays (b)=1.5
Trucks height = 6ft
LT =19.5*b*G^0.2 where , b= space
LT=19.5*(0.125)*(2000)^0.2
=11.15 ft
Total tunnel length (Z1)= (Nt*LT)=2.73*11.15
=30.44