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Hubs and Rich

Clubs
in human
brain
20110202 Kwon
Taegyun
2015 Spring Brain
dynamics

Review on :


I, We have rich
clubs

Contents
1. Defining networks: Hubs & Rich
Clubs
- what are they?
2. Structural hubs and functional hubs
- where are they?
3. Roles of Hubs
- are they important?

1.
Defining
networks: Hubs
& Rich Clubs

Networks in brain
Modularity
Efficient communication
emotion, social cognition, language

Identifying hubs
Node degree (degree centrality)
Average distance(Closeness)
Betweenness centrality
Vulnerabilty
Eigen-vector centrality, Pagerank
centrality

Highly correlated!

Rich Clubs
Highly interconnected than
prediction
Structural core
-determined by recurcive prouning

"Disassortative network demonstrating the Rich


Club effect" by Mdippel - Own work. Licensed under
CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Rich Clubs
Links over long distances
->direct communication paths,
shorter
transmission delay
High level of wiring volume/ white
matter organization(with high density
of spine)
->high level of robustness
High demands on metabolic activity
->high-cost, high-value optimization

Hubs and Rich Clubs across species


Hub neurons are also found in many
species even in C. elegans
Hubs regions are also found in several
mammalian species
In cortex of human, chimpanzee and
macaque, they have rich clubs in
same region:
medial parietal, cingulate, insular, and
ventromedial frontal cortices
Universal!

Hubs and Rich Clubs across species

Genetic inheritability of hubs


Hub regions, Connectivity density,
integrity of long-range connections
are highly heritable
Hubs emerge relatively early state of
development. Hubs regions are stable
while their interactions developed.
There are also environmental factors,
such as Sexual hormone which
influencing the white matter
projection.

Summary of
1st section.
-Several ways to define hubs, but results are
related.
-Rich club is not just group of hubs
-Seems our brain network get adventage from Rich
clubs. And its universial.
-Characteristics of hubs are heritable

2.
Structural hubs
and functional
hubs

Two diffent Networks


Structural
network
Describe realphysical
connectivity. Stable
on shorter time
scale.
sMRI/diffusion
imaging

Functional
network
Do not represent
anatomical
connetion. Nonstationary and time
dependent,
modulated by task.
fMRI/EEG/MEG

Structural Hubs
Densely connected with central
position
- precuneus, anterior and posterior cingulate
cortex, insular cortex, superior frontal
cortex, temporal cortex, and lateral parietal
cortex

Structural vulnerability
-precuneus, insular, superior parietal, and
superior frontal regions

Structural Hubs
Node degree and betweenness
centrality - precuneus and superior
frontal gyrus

Multiple centrality metrics


-medial parietal, frontal, and insular regions

Match with classical


important regions!

Structural Hubs

Functional Hubs
Concentrated area of functional
connectivity
- ventral and dorsal precuneus, posterior
and anterior cingulate gyrus, ventromedial
frontal cortex, and inferior parietal region

Step-wise connetivity(coactivation)
- superior parietal and superior frontal
cortex and the anterior and posterior cingulate
gyrus , portions of the anterior insula

Functional Hubs

Functional Hubs
Participation of multiple functional
networks
-superior frontal cortex, anterior cingulate
cortex, and precuneus/posterior cingulate
gyrus

Patterns can be rapidly updated


->flexibility.

What makes the difference?


Single neurons are not just dot & line
-Directionality, Efficacy, accessibility are
ignored.

Relatively low resolution of Functional


map
Functional network is based on
Structural network.

Summary of
2nd section.
-Structual hubs and Functional hubs are different.
But related.

3.
Roles of Hubs

Individual diffeneces
Intelligence
-communication efficiency of medial parietal
and prefrontal hub regions

Performance in different cognitive


domain
-global connectivity of frontal hub regions

Personality traits

Roles on
integration

-core set of medial pariental and cigulate


functional hubs

Brain dysfunction
Schizophrenia
Reduced frontal hub connectivity
Disturbed rich club formation in patients as
well as their offspring
Evidence for long-standing dysconnectivity
hypothesis.

Brain dysfunction
childhood-onset schizophrenia
Disrupted modular architecture
Disturbed connectivity of network connector
hubs in multimodal association cortex

Brain dysfunction
Alzheimers disease &
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)
Medial parietal and frontal regions in the
etiology of these disorders, regions that
have high spatial overlap with network hubs.

Brain dysfunction
Lesions or traumatic injury to cortical
network hubs
-> behavioral and cognitive brain
functioning

Focal brain lesions located at cortical


regions overlapping functional
connector hubs
-> widespread disruption of the modular
organization of the functional brain network

Brain dysfunction
White matter damage
-> cognitive decline

Damage to posterior and anterior


cingulate cortex
-> reduced integrity of functional brain
networks

Damage to long-distance connections


-> disruptions of network function and
cognitive outcome

Brain dysfunction
disruption of connectivity of cortical
hub regions
-> diminished or reduced levels of
conscious awareness

Brain dysfunction

Brain dysfunction
Metabolic activity
in parietal
precuneus and
posterior cingulate
hub regions.

Brain dysfunction
Better understanding about disorder
from the function of hubs that are
related
Vice versa. Get better understanding
of functions of the hubs
Can expect applications

Conceptual approach
Prospective of efficient signal
transmission and information flow
Hubs may play the role of Bottle
neck of information flow.
-> can define information flow limit
Essential for serializing of mental
operation

Conceptual approach
With directionality, hubs can be
Source or Sinks
-frontal and paracingulate cortex as
net receivers
-cingulate, entorhinal, and insular
cortex as net emitters
We can think them like driven hubs
and driving hubs

Conceptual approach
There exist multiple functional
domains overlaps
They can be functional workspace,
where the different information can
interactive each other.

Conceptual approach
Model of synchrony-based activity
dependent rewiring shows hubs can
have high probability of rewiring
Scale-free network(where hubs are
exist) shows highest functional
diversity among other network model

Variability and plasticity

Summary of
3rd section.
-Based on empirical findings and conceptual
approach, we can suppose many roles of hubs

Limitations of Network
model
Can not measure intra-regional
projection, which is large portion of
all connetion.
Ignored time-varing factors, such as
firing rate or neuron.
Ignored preference, and accecibility.

Contents
1. Defining networks: Hubs & Rich
Clubs
- what are they?
2. Structural hubs and functional hubs
- where are they?
3. Roles of Hubs
- are they important?

Thanks!
Any questions?

Reference
Slide 9 - "Disassortative network demonstrating the Rich Club effect" by Mdippel Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Disassortative_network_demonstrating_th
e_Rich_Club_effect.png#mediaviewer/File:Disassortative_network_demonstrating_
the_Rich_Club_effect.png

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