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Service Operation

Management-1
By

Nurdin Hidayah, MM.


nurdin@stp-bandung.ac.id

Jurusan Kepariwisataan
Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bandung

Introduction
Pengajar : JAG/NUA
Sifat pengajaran dosen : saling melengkapi
Metode : Presentasi, Diskusi, Sindikasi,
kunjungan industri
Student Center Learning : dosen 40%
mahasiswa 60%

Topik
Understanding Services: The Role of Service in an
Economy, The Nature of Service, Service Strategy
Designing The Service Enterprise: New Service
Development, Technology in Services, Service Quality,
Supporting Facility & Process Flows, Process
Improvement, The Service Encounter, Service Facility
Location
Managing Service Operations: Managing Capacity &
Demand, Managing Waiting Lines, Service Supply
Relationships, Globalization of Services, Managing
Service Project

Referensi
Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons (2010). Service Management 7ed., Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Zeithaml, Valerie, A, Mary, Jo, Bitner, 2000, Service Marketing, Integrating Customer
Focus Across The Firm, second edition, International edition, Prentice Hall,
Singapore.
Lovelock, Christopher, H and Wright, Lauren, 1999, Principle of Service Marketing and
Management, International Edition, Prentice Hall, New York, USA.
Metters, King-Metters, Pullman, Walton (2006). Successful Service Operations
Management 2ed., Thomson.
Nelson. (2005). BaldrigeJust What the Doctor Ordered. Quality Progress.
Sower, Duffy, Kohers, et al. (2001). The Dimensions of Service Quality for Hospitals
Health Care Management Review.
Rust, Roland T., Zakhorik J., Keiningham, Timothy L., 1996, Service Marketing, Harper
Collins College Publisher, England.
Fandy Tjiptono., 2000. Manajemen jasa, Edisi Pertama. Andi offset, Yogyakarta.
Berry, L., Zeithaml, V., Parasuraman, A. (1990) The Service Quality Puzzle. Business
Horizons
Render, Barry, Jay Heizer, 2001, Prinsip-prinsip Manajemen Operasi, Jakarta: Salemba
Empat

Introduction to Service Operation Management


Nature of Business
Business Function
Service Operation Management
Focus on Effective/Efficient

Operation Function
Fungsi bisnis yang bertujuan untuk mengubah
masukan (input) menjadi barang dan atau jasa
(output).

Operation Function
Operation Function
Marketing Function

OUTPUT
INPUT

PROCESS

Customer

Man

Machine, Equipment, Facility

service

Material
Money
Information

Marketing Function

A Process Management Perspective


Information
structure

Inputs

Process
Management
Network of
Activities and Buffers

Flow units

Outputs
Goods
Services

(customers, data,
material, cash, etc.)
Labor & Capital

Resources

Operation Management
Seni dan ilmu dalam memformulasikan,
mengimplementasikan dan mengevaluasi
system transformasi yang mengubah masukan
(input) menjadi barang dan atau jasa (output).

Productivity
Measure of process improvement
Represents output relative to input

Productivity

Units produced
= Input used

Only through productivity increases can our


standard of living improve

Operation Management
Forecasting
Service Design
Quality
Management
Process Strategy &
Capacity Planning
Location
Strategies
Layout Strategies
Project
Management
Schedulling
Linear

HR & Job Design


Work Measurement
Suply-Chain Management
Inventory Management
Aggregate Planning
Material Requirement
Planning
Decision Making Tools
Transportation Models
etc

Operation as a System
Production System
Inputs

Conversion
Subsystem
Control
Subsystem

Outputs

Transformation Processes
Inputs Use resources Outputs

Operation Function
In many companies, operations function
retains the greatest percentage of
employees.
And, it is responsible for the largest part of
the budget.
Therefore, operations function plays a significant
role in success of businesses.

Nature of Service

Klasifikasi Baku Lapangan Usaha

Genetics
Extractives
Manufactures
Services
People Based
Equipment Based
Hybrid

Service Definitions
Services are deeds, processes, and
performances. (perbuatan, proses2 &
kinerja)
Valarie Zeithaml & Mary Jo Bitner

A service is a time-perishable, intangible


experience performed for a customer
acting in the role of a co-producer.
James Fitzsimmons

Karakteristik Jasa
Intangibility: Jasa tidak dapat dilihat, dirasa, dicium, didengar, atau
diraba sebelum dibeli dan dikonsumsi.

Inseparability: Proses produksi dan konsumsi terjadi secara


bersamaan, dalam arti konsumen terlibat dalam produksi implikasinya
kontak dan interaksi menjadi sangat penting.

Heterogeinity: Jasa sangat tergantung kepada sumberdaya manusia


yang terlibat, sehingga banyak variasi bentuk, kualitas, dan jenis tergantung
kepada siapa, kapan dan dimana jasa tersebut diproduksi. Kualitas sulit
dikendalikan sehingga membutuhkan standarisasi..

Perishabillity: Jasa tidak tahan lama dan tidak dapat disimpan. Kursi
pesawat yang kosong, kamar hotel yang tidak dihuni, atau kapasitas jalur
telepon yang tidak dimanfaatkan akan berlalu atau hilang begitu saja karena
tidak bisa disimpan..

Lack of ownership: Pelanggan mungkin hanya memiliki akses


personel atas suatu jasa untuk jangka waktu terbatas (misalnya kamar
hotel, bioskop, jasa penerbagan san pendidikan).
Tjiptono (2004)

The Service Package


Supporting Facility: The physical resources that
must be in place before a service can be sold.
Examples are golf course, ski lift, hospital, airplane.
Facilitating Goods: The material consumed by the
buyer or items provided by the consumer.
Examples are food items, legal documents, golf
clubs, medical history.

The Service Package (cont.)


Explicit Services: Benefits readily observable by
the senses. The essential or intrinsic features.
Examples are quality of meal, attitude of the waiter,
on-time departure.
Implicit Services: Psychological benefits or extrinsic
features which the consumer may sense only
vaguely.
Examples are privacy of loan office, security of a well
lighted parking lot.

Service as a system
Service merupakan suatu proses dan suatu system
Lovelock dan Wright (2002:33)

Service operation system (visible & not visible)


Service delivery system/How will services
delivered (design choices)
Service marketing system (marketing mix)

The service business as a system

High-Contact Service
SERVICE MARKETING SYSTEM
Service Delivery System
Service Operations System

Other
Customers

Interior & Exterior


Facilities

Technical
Core

Equipment

Other Contact Points


Advertising
Sales Calls
Market Research Surveys

The
Customer

Billing/Statements
Misc. Mail, Phone Calls,
E-mails, Faxes, etc.
Website

Service People

Backstage
(invisible)

Front Stage
(visible)

Random Exposure to
Facilities/Vehicles
Other
Customers

Chance Encounters with


Service Personnel
Word of Mouth

Low-Contact Service
Service Operations
System

SERVICE MARKETING SYSTEM


Service Delivery System

Advertising

Mail
Technical
Core

Self
Service
Equipment

The
Customer

Phone, Fax,
Web- site,
etc.
Backstage
(invisible)

Other Contact Points

Front Stage
(visible)

Market Research
Surveys
Billing/Statements
Random Exposure to
Facilities/Vehicles
Word of Mouth

The service marketing triangle