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Cylinder Kinematics : A Thinking Process of

Artificial Animals

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

Means to Control Displacement,


Velocity & Accelerations of
Cylinder Processes.

The Art of Positive Displacement Work


Displacement of system provokes the process.
The rate of change in instantaneous controls, decides the rates
of changes of other thermodynamic variables.
The brain of an animal controls the strain rates in Muscles..
How to design the basic brain of these devices?

Control Dominates the Strength

Control System of A Conventional I.C. Engine


Primary Thermodynamic
Requirement:

Vd Vc
r
Vc

How to select other


geometrical parameters?

Engine Geometry Vs Otto Cycle

th Otto 1
mR
W 1

Tmin r

1
r

1 Tmax

1
r

pmin Vd Vc
1

1
W Tmin 1 Tmin r 1 Tmax r 1 1

r 1
Tmin 1

pminVd

Tmin

1 T

max

1
1
r

Maximum Otto Cycle Volume to meet the Demand

B L
2

cycle

pmin

2 r
B L

4
r 1 Tmax

1
Tmin

r
pmin

4 r 1

1 r

1 W

Tmax
T
min

1 r

Engine Geometry Vs Diesel Cycle


Diesel

1 1 rc 1
1 1

rc 1
r

mR
rc
W 1 Tmax r

2 r
pmin B L

4
r 1

W
1

T
max
Tmin

Tmin 1 r

rc

1 r

Maximum Diesel Cycle Volume to meet the


Demand
2 r
pmin B L

4
r 1

W
1

B L
2

DCycle

T
max
Tmin

rc

1 W

pmin
4

r Tmax

r 1 Tmin

rc

1 r

1 r

Cycle Volume Vs Cylinder Volume


A given cycle can be met using m number of multiple
cylinders if required.

B L m B L

B L
B L
2

2
m

2
m

Any restriction on stroke length can be satisfied by using


multi-cylinder engine.
Why is this required?

Review of History
1889 - Gottlieb Daimler built an improved four-stroke engine
with mushroom-shaped valves and two V-slant cylinders.
1890 - Wilhelm Maybach built the first four-cylinder, fourstroke engine.

Effect of Stroke Length on Engine Kinematics

Engine Cylinder Geometry


Squareness of the engine cylinder: RBS

RBS

B
B

L 2 crank radius(a )

Trending of Current Practice: Bore/Stroke Ratio

Bore to Stroke Ratio

Optimum Cylinder Geometry


Identification of the optimum engine geometry that provides
the best opportunity to have a highly efficient internal
combustion engine is the first step in designing an engine.
In-cylinder simulations have shown that the heat transfer
increases rapidly above a bore-to-stroke ratio of about 0.5.
Engine systems simulations have shown that the pumping
work increases rapidly above a bore-to-stroke ratio of about
0.45.
Engine friction models have shown that the crankshaft
bearing and power-cylinder friction values, for the most part,
cancel each other out for our opposed-piston, two-stroke
engine.