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# CSci 264: Artificial Intelligence

AI

Date
Various

Assignment/Examination/Presentati
on
In-Class Participation (4pts p/ day)

Various

Group Activities

100

100

Midterm

200

## 5/28-5/30 Personal Project/Presentation

Final

Points
100

50
200
250

Topics
AI & Search
Probabilistic Reasoning
Machine Learning
Application Topics
Speech/Text
Vision
Robotics
3

Masters Thesis
Research Papers
Research Project

WEKA

## Probabilistic Graphical Models w/

Matlab/Octave

https://www.coursera.org/course/pgm

Machine Learning w/
Matlab/Octave

https://www.coursera.org/course/ml

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Probabilistic Graphical
Models

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Probabilistic Graphical
Models

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164: AI
Programming

Revisited

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## Informed Search: Heuristics

How should we use our heuristic knowledge (heuristic
function) in systematic search.
Where?
In Node Expansion
Hill Climbing

## Greedy Best-First Search

Select the best from ALL the ndoes encountered so far in Frontier.
Good use of of heuristic knowledge

## Heuristic estimates the value of a node

Promise of a node
Difficulty of solving the subproblem
Quality of solution represented by node

## f(n): Heuristic evaluation function

Depends on n, goal, search so far, domain
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A* Search
IDEA: Avoid expanding paths that are
Evaluation function f(n) = g(n) + h(n)
g(n) = cost so far to reach n
h(n) = estimated cost from n to goal.
f(n) = estimated total cost of path
through n to goal.

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Heuristics

April 1984
@UCI: Fall86-Winter93

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Min.I.maX (CH5)

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Introducing Players:
Min & Max
Max

Min

## Consider a game G between two players: Max & Min

Let U(s, t) be Maxs expected utility if Maxs and
Mins game strategies are s and t.
If G is a zero-sum game, then Mins utility is always
U(s, t).
Max wants to maximize U
Min wants to Minimize U

## A strategy specifies what action an agent choose in

every possible situation
Pure Strategy: the choice is always deterministic
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Principles of AI
Chapter 6:
Constraint Satisfaction
Problems/
Methods

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## Dr. Rina Decter (UCI)

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Probabilities

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Truth Table
Smo
ke

Fire

Smoke
Smoke

Smoke
Fire

Smoke
Fire

(Smoke
Fire)
(Smoke
Fire)

True

True

True

True

True

True

True

False

True

False

True

True

False

True

True

True

False

False

False

False

True

True

True

True

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Principles of AI
Chapter 10: Classical
Planning

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Textbooks
Concise, Unified Treatment of a
Subject

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Artificial Intelligence:
A Modern Approach
Prentice Hall/22nd Most
Cited

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Introduction to Algorithms
3rd Edition
MIT Press

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Textbook: CLRS
Over 6200
citations
documented on
CiteSeerX
(according to
Wikipedia)

From: Reddit

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## Textbooks and Materials

A First Course in Database
Systems (3rd)
by Jeffrey D. Ullman & Jennifer
Widom
Prentice Hall

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## Probabilistic Graphical Models

1st Edition/MIT Press

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Why?

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Part V: Learning
Part VI: Communicating, perceiving,
and acting

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April 1984

## September 15, 1988

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Uncertainty in Science

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Classical Mechanics

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Probability &
Physics
Albert Einstein
Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells
me that it is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot, but does
not really bring us any closer to the secret of the "old one." I, at
any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice.
Letter to Max Born (4 December 1926); The Born-Einstein Letters
(translated by Irene Born) (Walker and Company, New York, 1971)
ISBN 0-8027-0326-7.

## In a 1943 conversation with William Hermanns recorded in

Hermanns' book Einstein and the Poet, Einstein said: "As I have
said so many times, God doesn't play dice with the world."
(p. 58).
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Uncertainty in Science

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Uncertainty in Science
Classical Mechanics versus
Statistical Mechanics

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Judea Pearl
Heuristics -> Probabilistic Reasoning

April 1984

September
14th, 2009

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Judea Pearl
UCLA

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Judea Pearl

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Foundation

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Foundation

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Text)

## In about 850 A.D. the Indian

mathematician Mahaviracarya described
how to arrange a set of bets that cant
lose (what we now call a Dutch book).

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## 1565 Girolamo Cardano

In Europe, the first significant systematic analyses
were produced by Girolamo Cardano around 1565,
although publication was posthumous (1663).
Gambling Motivated

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Gambling Concepts
Odds
Sports Book
Horse Racing

Games of Chance
Poker
Roulette
Fan Tan

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China: Fantan

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Japan: Pachinko

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Horse Racing

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## Meaning and Probability

Theory
20 to 1 in the 5th
What does 20 to 1 Mean?
Where does 20 come from?

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## Probability Theory for

Reasoning

Bayesian Networks
Markov Networks
Hidden Markov Networks
Decision Theory

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Stanford AI
Daphne Koller, Andrew Ng
Stanford: Daphne Koller, Andrew Ng

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(MDPs)

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## Control Systems (R&N:CH15)

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Knowledge Engineering in
FOL
Assemble the relevant knowledge
Decide on a vocabulary of predicates, function
and constants
Encode general knowledge about the domain
Encode a description of the specific problem
instance
Pose queries to the inference procedure and
Debug the Knowledge Base
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## Electronic Circuits Domain

A digital circuit C1 purporting to be a one-bit full
The first two inputs are the two bits to be added,
and the third input is a carry bit.
The first output is the sum, and the second
output is a carry bit for the next added.

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## Electronic Circuits Domain

Does the circuit actually add properly? (Circuit
Verification)

## 2) Assemble the relevant knowledge

Composed of wires and gates; types of gates =
{AND, OR, XOR, NOT}
Irrelevant: size, shape, cost of gates

3) Decide on a vocabulary
Alternatives:
Type(X1) = XOR
Type(X1, XOR)
XOR(X1)
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## Electronic Circuit Domain

(Cont.)
4) Encode general knowledge of the domain
t1,t2 Connected(t1,t2) Signal(t1)=Signal(t2)
t Signal(t)=1 Signal(t)=0
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t1,t2 Connected(t1,t2) Connected(t2,t1)
g Type(g)=OR
Signal(Out(1,g))=1 n Signal(In(n,g))=1
g Type(g)=AND
Signal(Out(1,g))=0 n Signal(In(n,g))=0
g Type(g)=XOR
Signal(Out(1,g))=1 Signal(In(1,g))Signal(In(2,g))
g Type(g)=NOT
Signal(Out(1,g))Signal(In(1,g))

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(cont.)

instance

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## Electronic Circuits Domain

6) Pose queries to the inference procedure
What are the possible sets of values of all the terminals for
i1,i2,i3,o1,o2 Signal(In(1,C1)=i1
Signal(In(2,C1)=i2 Signal(In(3,C1)=i3
Signal(Out(1,C1)=o1 Signal(Out(2,C1)=o2

## {i1/1, i2/1, i3/0}, {i1/1, i2/0, i3/1}, {i1/0, i2/1, i3/1},

i1,i2,i3,o1,o2 Signal(In(1,C1)=i1
Signal(In(2,C1)=i2 Signal(In(3,C1)=i3
Signal(Out(1,C1)=o1 Signal(Out(2,C1)=o2

## ) Debug the knowledge base!

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Knowledge Engineering w/
Bayesian Networks (CH3)
1. Picking Variables
2. Picking Structure
3. Picking Probabilities

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Pathfinder: Hekerman

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