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# C.C.

Continuous
comprehen
sive
evolution

To:
SUBRAMANYAM SIR AND
REENA ROY MAM
MATHS TEACHERS
64

2
10

3
9

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1

42
42

## Who will help me to

understand sets?
yes yashaswini

FR O M :
N .YA S H A S W IN I Not equal
10 TH S TD
M A G N O LIA H IG H S C H O O L
C H EN N IE B Y PA SS R O A D
M U LB A G A L -563131

ion n
t
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FA1
FA1
SETS

born

## Georg Ferdinand Ludwig

Philipp Cantor
(1845-03-03)March 3, 1845
Saint Petersburg, Russian
Empire

## died January 6, 1918(1918-0106) (aged72)

Halle, Province of Saxony,
German Empire

## A set is a gathering together into a

whole of definite , distinct objects of
our perception and our thought which

SET
S
A set is a collection of well defined
objects. the objects in a set is called the
element or members of the set

A bundle of books

Colors of rainbow

## FINITE AND INFINITE SETS

Finite sets are sets that have a finite
number of members. If the elements of a
finite set are listed one after another, the
process will eventually run out of
elements to list.
Example:
A = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, , 100}
C = {x : x is an integer, 1 < x < 10}
An infinite set is a set which is not finite.
It is not possible to explicitly list out all
the elements of an infinite set.
Example:
T = {x : x is a triangle}
N is the set of natural numbers

## A SET IS CALLED FINITE IF WE CAN LIST ALL OF ITS

ELEMENTS.
AN INFINITE SET HAS THE PROPERTY THAT NO
MATTER HOW MANY ELEMENTS WE LIST,
THERE ARE ALWAYS MORE ELEMENTS IN THE SET
THAT ARE NOT ON OUR LIST.
IF S IS A FINITE SET, THE SYMBOL | S | STANDS FOR
THE NUMBER OF ELEMENTS OF S.
THE SET WITH NO ELEMENTS IS CALLED THE
EMPTY SET, AND IS WRITTEN AS .
THUS | | = 0.
A ONE-ELEMENT SET IS A SET SUCH AS S = { 5 }
WITH | S | = 1.

UNION OF
SETS
S ET
O F A LL TH E ELEM EN TS

IT IS TH E
W H IC H A R E EITH ER IN A O R IN B O R IN
B O TH A A N D B
EXAMPLE
If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
and B= {2, 4, 6}, then
the union of these sets
A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6}.

Intersection of two
sets
THE SET OF THE ALL ELEMENTS
WHICH ARE COMMON TO BOTH A
AND B
EXAMPLE:

Intersection of
A={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
and B={0, 2, 4, 6}
AB = {2, 4, 6}

## SOME BASIC PROPERTIES OF UNIONS

ARE:
A B = B A
A A B
A A = A
A = A
A B IF AND ONLY IF A B = B

## SOME BASIC PROPERTIES OF

INTERSECTIONS:
A B = B A
A B A
A A = A
A =
A B IF AND ONLY IF
AB=A

Universal Set
This is the set from which all the elements
being examined are members. The
universal set is denoted by the symbol U.
Example:
Using set builder notation, where {x:..}
means the set of all x such that,
If A = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Then U = {x: x 0, x W}
That is, the universal set, U = W, the set of
whole numbers.

Complement of sets
U

## U is the universal set and

U then
A
A =U/A and
B=U/B
Example: Let U =
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
and A = {1, 3, 5}.
Then A' = {2, 4,
6}.

complements:
A A = U
A A =
(A ) = A
A \ A =
A \ B = A B

## The empty set

The symbol represents the empty set, which is the set that
has no elements at all. Nothing in the whole universe is an
element of :
| | = 0 and x , no matter what x may be.
There is only one empty set, because any two empty sets have
exactly the same elements, so they must be equal to one
another.

Example:
If, H = {the number of dinosaurs on
earth}
Then, H is an empty set.
That is, H = {}

VENN DIAGRAM
Diagrams make mathematics easier because they help us to
see the whole situation at a glance. The English
mathematician John Venn (18341923) began using
diagrams to represent sets. His diagrams are now called
Venn diagrams.

## In most problems involving sets, it is convenient to choose a

larger set that contains all of the elements in all of the sets
being considered. This larger set is called the universal set,
and is usually given the symbol E. In a Venn diagram, the
universal set is generally drawn as a large rectangle, and
then other sets are represented by circles within this
rectangle.

## In the Venn diagram below, the universal

set is E = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 },
and each of these numbers has been
placed somewhere within the rectangle.

## The region inside the circle represents the set A of

odd whole numbers between 0 and 10. Thus we
place the numbers 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 inside the circle,
because A = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 }. Outside the circle we
place the other numbers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 that are
in E but not in A.

Union of sets

Intersection
of sets

Complement of sets

Subsets:
A set S is a subset of set A if every member of S
is a member of a
{1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4}
says that {1, 2, 3} is a subset of {1, 2, 3, 4}. The
empty set is a subset of every set. Every set is a
subset of itself. A proper subset A is a subset of A
that is not identical with A. The expression of
{1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4}
says that {1, 2, 3} is a proper subset of {1, 2, 3,
4}.

## Representing subsets on a Venn diagram

When we know that S is a subset of T, we place the
circle representing S inside the circle representing T. For
example, let S = { 0, 1, 2 }, and T = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }. Then S
is a subset of T, as illustrated in the Venn diagram
below.

## Make sure that 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are placed outside

both circle

Set Difference:
The relative complement or set
difference of sets A and B, denoted A B, is the set
of all elements in A that are not in B.
The Venn diagram for the set difference of sets A
and B is shown below where the shaded region
represents A B.

## Example: LET A = {A, B, C, D} AND

B = {B, D, E}. THEN A B = {A, C}
AND B A = {E}.

## Property for Union and the

Commutative Property for
Intersection say that the order of
the sets in which we do the
operation does not change the
result.
General Properties: A B = B A
and
A B=B
A.

## Associative property is the addition

or multiplication of a set of numbers
is the same regardless of how the
numbers are grouped. The
associative property will involve 3 or
more numbers
General form:

## The Distributive Property of Union

over Intersection and the
Distributive Property of
Intersection over Union show two
ways of finding results for certain
problems mixing the set operations
of union and intersection.
General Property: A (B C) = (A
B) (A C) and A (B C) = (A
B) (A C)
Example: Let A = {a, n, t}, B = {t,
a, p}, and C = {s, a, p}. Then

identities

CARDINALITY OF
SETS

Cardinal number

## The number of distinct elements

present in a set is called cardinal
number which is denoted by n

EXAMPLE :
A{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,} then the
cardinal number of set A=n(A)=10

## Equal and Equivalent

sets
Two sets are equal if they both have the same members.
Example:
If, F = {20, 60, 80}
And, G = {80, 60, 20}
Then, F=G, that is both sets are equal.
Note: The order in which the members of a set are written
does not matter.
Two sets are equivalent if they have the same number of
elements.
Example
If, F = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
And, G = {10, 12, 18, 20, 22}
Then, n(F)= n(G)= 5, that is, sets F and G are equivalent.

Joint sets
two sets are said to be joint or non disjoint
sets ,if they have at least one element in
common
e.g.
A={3,4,5,6}
B={1,4,7,8}
are joint sets
VENN DIAGRAM

Joint sets

Disjoint sets
Two sets are called disjoint if they have no elements
in common. For example:
The sets M = { men } and W = { women } are
disjoint.
The sets S = { 2, 4, 6, 8 } and T = { 1, 3, 5, 7 } are
disjoint.

## Another way to define disjoint sets is to say that

their intersection is the empty set,
Two sets A and B are disjoint if A B = .

Sample problem

## A survey of 900 workers in a plant indicated that 500

owned houses, 600 owned cars, 345 owned boats, 300
owned cars and houses, 250 owned houses and boats, 270
owned cars and boats, and 200 owned all three.
a. How many of the workers did not own any of the three
items?
b.Solution:
How many of the workers owned only two of the items?

## Make a Venn diagram, using a

universal set (which represents all
900 workers), and sets for Houses
(H), Cars (C), and Boats (B)

sets. They told you that 200 people
owned all three. Place this number

## Next we begin by looking at numbers

of items in two sets at the same time.
We are told that there are 300 people
that own a house and a car. This means
that the intersection of sets H and C
should have 300 in it. At the end of the
last step, there were 200 in this area.
Therefore there must be 100 needed
above the 200.

## In a similar way, we see that there

are 250 people who own houses
and boats, therefore there must be
an additional 50 in the intersection
of sets H and B.

## In a similar way, we see that there

are 270 people who own cars and
boats, therefore there must be an
additional 70 in the intersection of
sets C and B.

## We see that there are 345 who

own boats. Currently the total of
all in set B is 320 (50+200+70).
We need 25 more. The 25 must be
in the part of B not intersected by
other sets.

## If we total up all of the numbers in

the diagram, we get 825. We
know that there are 900 workers.
This tells us that there are 75
workers that own none of the
three.
There are 220 people who on
exactly two of the items.

## This is calculated by adding

(100+50+70) to get 220. These
are areas where only two sets
cross at a time.

.
.
2.

## Formulas of set theory

Idempotent laws
.
.

Commutative laws.

Associative laws

Distributive laws

De-Morgans Laws

Symmetric Difference

The
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