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Continuous

comprehen

sive

evolution

To:

SUBRAMANYAM SIR AND

REENA ROY MAM

MATHS TEACHERS

64

2

10

3

9

%%

1

42

42

understand sets?

yes yashaswini

FR O M :

N .YA S H A S W IN I Not equal

10 TH S TD

M A G N O LIA H IG H S C H O O L

C H EN N IE B Y PA SS R O A D

M U LB A G A L -563131

ion n

t

i

d io

ad ddit

a

FA1

FA1

SETS

born

Philipp Cantor

(1845-03-03)March 3, 1845

Saint Petersburg, Russian

Empire

Halle, Province of Saxony,

German Empire

whole of definite , distinct objects of

our perception and our thought which

SET

S

A set is a collection of well defined

objects. the objects in a set is called the

element or members of the set

A bundle of books

Colors of rainbow

Finite sets are sets that have a finite

number of members. If the elements of a

finite set are listed one after another, the

process will eventually run out of

elements to list.

Example:

A = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, , 100}

C = {x : x is an integer, 1 < x < 10}

An infinite set is a set which is not finite.

It is not possible to explicitly list out all

the elements of an infinite set.

Example:

T = {x : x is a triangle}

N is the set of natural numbers

ELEMENTS.

AN INFINITE SET HAS THE PROPERTY THAT NO

MATTER HOW MANY ELEMENTS WE LIST,

THERE ARE ALWAYS MORE ELEMENTS IN THE SET

THAT ARE NOT ON OUR LIST.

IF S IS A FINITE SET, THE SYMBOL | S | STANDS FOR

THE NUMBER OF ELEMENTS OF S.

THE SET WITH NO ELEMENTS IS CALLED THE

EMPTY SET, AND IS WRITTEN AS .

THUS | | = 0.

A ONE-ELEMENT SET IS A SET SUCH AS S = { 5 }

WITH | S | = 1.

UNION OF

SETS

S ET

O F A LL TH E ELEM EN TS

IT IS TH E

W H IC H A R E EITH ER IN A O R IN B O R IN

B O TH A A N D B

EXAMPLE

If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

and B= {2, 4, 6}, then

the union of these sets

A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

6}.

Intersection of two

sets

THE SET OF THE ALL ELEMENTS

WHICH ARE COMMON TO BOTH A

AND B

EXAMPLE:

Intersection of

A={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

and B={0, 2, 4, 6}

AB = {2, 4, 6}

ARE:

A B = B A

A A B

A A = A

A = A

A B IF AND ONLY IF A B = B

INTERSECTIONS:

A B = B A

A B A

A A = A

A =

A B IF AND ONLY IF

AB=A

Universal Set

This is the set from which all the elements

being examined are members. The

universal set is denoted by the symbol U.

Example:

Using set builder notation, where {x:..}

means the set of all x such that,

If A = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Then U = {x: x 0, x W}

That is, the universal set, U = W, the set of

whole numbers.

Complement of sets

U

U then

A

A =U/A and

B=U/B

Example: Let U =

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

and A = {1, 3, 5}.

Then A' = {2, 4,

6}.

complements:

A A = U

A A =

(A ) = A

A \ A =

A \ B = A B

The symbol represents the empty set, which is the set that

has no elements at all. Nothing in the whole universe is an

element of :

| | = 0 and x , no matter what x may be.

There is only one empty set, because any two empty sets have

exactly the same elements, so they must be equal to one

another.

Example:

If, H = {the number of dinosaurs on

earth}

Then, H is an empty set.

That is, H = {}

VENN DIAGRAM

Diagrams make mathematics easier because they help us to

see the whole situation at a glance. The English

mathematician John Venn (18341923) began using

diagrams to represent sets. His diagrams are now called

Venn diagrams.

larger set that contains all of the elements in all of the sets

being considered. This larger set is called the universal set,

and is usually given the symbol E. In a Venn diagram, the

universal set is generally drawn as a large rectangle, and

then other sets are represented by circles within this

rectangle.

set is E = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 },

and each of these numbers has been

placed somewhere within the rectangle.

odd whole numbers between 0 and 10. Thus we

place the numbers 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 inside the circle,

because A = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 }. Outside the circle we

place the other numbers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 that are

in E but not in A.

Union of sets

Intersection

of sets

Complement of sets

Subsets:

A set S is a subset of set A if every member of S

is a member of a

{1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4}

says that {1, 2, 3} is a subset of {1, 2, 3, 4}. The

empty set is a subset of every set. Every set is a

subset of itself. A proper subset A is a subset of A

that is not identical with A. The expression of

{1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4}

says that {1, 2, 3} is a proper subset of {1, 2, 3,

4}.

When we know that S is a subset of T, we place the

circle representing S inside the circle representing T. For

example, let S = { 0, 1, 2 }, and T = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }. Then S

is a subset of T, as illustrated in the Venn diagram

below.

both circle

Set Difference:

The relative complement or set

difference of sets A and B, denoted A B, is the set

of all elements in A that are not in B.

The Venn diagram for the set difference of sets A

and B is shown below where the shaded region

represents A B.

B = {B, D, E}. THEN A B = {A, C}

AND B A = {E}.

Commutative Property for

Intersection say that the order of

the sets in which we do the

operation does not change the

result.

General Properties: A B = B A

and

A B=B

A.

or multiplication of a set of numbers

is the same regardless of how the

numbers are grouped. The

associative property will involve 3 or

more numbers

General form:

over Intersection and the

Distributive Property of

Intersection over Union show two

ways of finding results for certain

problems mixing the set operations

of union and intersection.

General Property: A (B C) = (A

B) (A C) and A (B C) = (A

B) (A C)

Example: Let A = {a, n, t}, B = {t,

a, p}, and C = {s, a, p}. Then

identities

CARDINALITY OF

SETS

Cardinal number

present in a set is called cardinal

number which is denoted by n

EXAMPLE :

A{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,} then the

cardinal number of set A=n(A)=10

sets

Two sets are equal if they both have the same members.

Example:

If, F = {20, 60, 80}

And, G = {80, 60, 20}

Then, F=G, that is both sets are equal.

Note: The order in which the members of a set are written

does not matter.

Two sets are equivalent if they have the same number of

elements.

Example

If, F = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

And, G = {10, 12, 18, 20, 22}

Then, n(F)= n(G)= 5, that is, sets F and G are equivalent.

Joint sets

two sets are said to be joint or non disjoint

sets ,if they have at least one element in

common

e.g.

A={3,4,5,6}

B={1,4,7,8}

are joint sets

VENN DIAGRAM

Joint sets

Disjoint sets

Two sets are called disjoint if they have no elements

in common. For example:

The sets M = { men } and W = { women } are

disjoint.

The sets S = { 2, 4, 6, 8 } and T = { 1, 3, 5, 7 } are

disjoint.

their intersection is the empty set,

Two sets A and B are disjoint if A B = .

Sample problem

owned houses, 600 owned cars, 345 owned boats, 300

owned cars and houses, 250 owned houses and boats, 270

owned cars and boats, and 200 owned all three.

a. How many of the workers did not own any of the three

items?

b.Solution:

How many of the workers owned only two of the items?

universal set (which represents all

900 workers), and sets for Houses

(H), Cars (C), and Boats (B)

sets. They told you that 200 people

owned all three. Place this number

in your diagram.

of items in two sets at the same time.

We are told that there are 300 people

that own a house and a car. This means

that the intersection of sets H and C

should have 300 in it. At the end of the

last step, there were 200 in this area.

Therefore there must be 100 needed

above the 200.

are 250 people who own houses

and boats, therefore there must be

an additional 50 in the intersection

of sets H and B.

are 270 people who own cars and

boats, therefore there must be an

additional 70 in the intersection of

sets C and B.

own boats. Currently the total of

all in set B is 320 (50+200+70).

We need 25 more. The 25 must be

in the part of B not intersected by

other sets.

the diagram, we get 825. We

know that there are 900 workers.

This tells us that there are 75

workers that own none of the

three.

There are 220 people who on

exactly two of the items.

(100+50+70) to get 220. These

are areas where only two sets

cross at a time.

.

.

2.

Idempotent laws

.

.

Commutative laws.

Associative laws

Distributive laws

De-Morgans Laws

Symmetric Difference

The

end

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