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stages

For a specified separation between two key components

developed for the required minimum no of equilibrium stages

which corresponds to total reflux.

This condition can be achieved in practice by charging the

column with feedstock and operating it with no further input

of feed and no withdrawal of distillate or bottoms as illustrated

in figure .

For S.S. operation within the column, heat input to the reboiler

and heat output from the condenser are made equal (assuming

no heat losses).

Then, by material balance, vapor and liquid streams passing

between any pair of stages have equal flow rates and compositions,

from stage to stage unless the assumption of constant

molar overflow is valid.

Derivation of an exact equation for the minimun nos

of equilibrium stages involves only the definition of

the K value & the mole fraction equality between

stages.

For component i at stage 1 in above-----1

figure.

-----1

----2

------3

-----4

-----5

-------6

-------7

or

-----9

Where,

component i& j

enrichments of any 2

stages to the relative volatilities between the two

components.

Limitation to eq.9 is that the conditions of each stage

must be known to compute the set of

relative

However

if

the

relative

constant, eq 9 simplifies to

volatilities

is

assumed

----10

-----11

equation

When i= the light key (LK) & j= the heavy component

(HK),

the

influenced

minimum

no

of

equilibrium

stages

is

relative volatility between the key components.

replacing the product of mole fraction ratios by the

equivalent product of mole distribution ratios in term

of component distillate & bottom flow rates d & b,

respectively, and by replacing the relative

volatility by a geometric mean of the top stage and

bottom stages

values.

------------------(12)

Thus,

------------------(13)

varies appreci

column and/or when the mixture forms non ideal liquid s

The fenske equation is not restricted to the two

components.

Once Nmin is known eq. 12 can be used to calculate

molar flow rates of d & b for all non key components.

These values provide a first approximation to the

actual product distribution when more than the

minimum number of stages are employed.

Let i = a non key component and j = the heavy key

or reference components denoted by r.

------------------------(14)

Then eq 12 becomes,

In 14 gives

-----15

-----16

components at total reflux.

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