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The Universe

By: Dhruv, Sahil, Viraj, Rishab

Before man was ever created

Before dinosaurs roamed the Earth


Before Earth was created
Before our galaxy was ever born
Something created the Universe
Something, like the Big Bang

What Is the Universe

Universe can be defined as all the things present that we


can see and feel including matter, stars, planets, galaxies
and the content present in the intergalactic space.

What is it made of

How Was it Created

According to the studies carried out, the universe was


formed by expanding of hot, dense phase called Planck
epoch.
This was further known as the Big Bang.
The universe that we see today was stored in a very
concentrated form inside Planck epoch
It is believed that Planck epoch expanded in a very brief
period (less than 10-32 seconds)

The Big Bang

Many scientists today believe that the whole entire universe


was created because of this phenomenon.
In the most common models, the Universe was filled
homogeneously andisotropically with an incredibly high
energy density, hugetemperatures andpressures
This caused the energy to escape and spread out
throughout forming what we know now as the universe.

THE COSMOS

Our view of the Cosmos


Astronomy has seen 3 scientific revolutions in
cosmology

2nd Century: Claudius Ptolemy (Physics of Aristotle) (Geo-centric)

16th Century: Nicolaus Copernicus (Physics of Newton) (Heliocentric)

20th Century: Edwin Hubble (Physics of Einstein) (Big Bang Theory)

Claudius Ptolemy (Physics of


Aristotle)

Nicolaus Copernicus (Physics of


Newton)

Edwin Hubble (Physics of Einstein)

BLACK HOLES, STARS,


AND DARK MATTER

Black holes

Ablack holeis a region of space from which nothing, not


evenlight, can escape.
It is the only place in space where space and time do not
exist
Classified into three classes: Super Massive, Intermediate
Mass, Stellar, and Micro
A portion of the black hole is called the event horizon and is
undetectable.
One light has gone to the horizon there is no turning back

Stars

Astaris a massive, luminous ball ofplasmaheld together


bygravity.
Classified with the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M
O is the hottest and M is the coldest
They are very hot and can also be very bright
There are many stars in the sky and some more are being
discovered
Stars have been observed by many ancient civilizations

Dark Matter

Inastronomyandcosmology,dark matterismatterthat is
inferred to exist fromgravitationaleffects on visible matter
and background radiation, but is undetectable
byemittedorscatteredelectromagnetic radiation.
70-80% of the universe is made of dark matter
Observed by Fritz Zwicky when he found missing mass

GALAXIES

Galaxies

Agalaxyis a massive,gravitationally boundsystem that


consists ofstarsandstellar remnants, aninterstellar
mediumof gas, dust, and an important but poorly
understood component tentatively dubbeddark matter.

Types of Galaxies
Galaxies
Elliptical
Spiral
Irregular
Dark Galaxies

Elliptical

Classified based on the Hubble Classification System.


Classified with the letter E followed by a number from 0 to 7
Dominated by older stars as star formation in this types of
galaxies are very less
Can be very big unlike spiral galaxies
Stars revolve around the center (or the core) of this galaxy
but in random paths
Examples:
M87 (NGC 4486)
M32
M89
M49
M105 (NGC 3379)
M59
Maffei 1, the closest giant
M60 (NGC 4649)
elliptical galaxy

Spiral

Classified with the same system


Classified with Ss followed by a, b, or c
Arms rotate around a central point
Barred galaxies with a barred center
Examples:
Triangulum Galaxy
Whirlpool Galaxy
Andromeda Galaxy
Sunflower Galaxy
Pinwheel Galaxy
The Milky Way

Irregular

These type of galaxies posses an irregular formation of


stars
This is usually caused by tidal interaction between the
galaxy and other galaxies
Examples:
Andromeda (multi-ringed)(controversial)
Haogs Object (ring galaxy)
Cartwheel galaxy (lenticular galaxy)

Dark Galaxies

There is a group of scientists that believe there are dark


galaxies in the universe
They are theoretically invisible because no light is emitted
from it
Theory based on a collision between two galaxies where
one was visible (NGC 4254) and an invisible galaxy

Formation

Time Travel interactive simulation

EXTRA

http://science.discovery.co
m/interactives/time-machine
/time-machine.html