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EXTREME WEATHER

CONCRETING
Presented byAnuj Agarwal
3/27/15

Hot Weather Concreting


Any operation of concreting done at
atmospheric temperatures above 40C or any
operation of concreting ( other than steam
curing) where the temperature of concrete at
time of its placement is expected to be
beyond 40C.
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EFFECTS OF HOT WEATHER


ON CONCRETE

Accelerated Setting - High temperature increases the rate


of setting of the concrete. The duration of time during
which the concrete can be handled is reduced. Quick
stiffening may necessitate undesirable retempering by
addition of water. It may also result in cold joints.
Reduction in Strength -High temperature results in the
increase of the quantity of mixing water to maintain the
workability with consequent reduction in strength.

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Increased Tendency to Crack - Either before or after


hardening plastic shrinkage cracks may form in the partially
hardened concrete due to, rapid evaporation of water.
Rapid Evaporation of Water During Curing Period - It is
difficult to retain moisture for hydration and maintain
reasonably uniform temperature conditions during the
curing period.
Difficulty in Control of Air Content in Air-Entrained Concrete
- This adds to the difficulty of controlling workability. For a
given amount of air-entraining agent, hot concrete wilI
entrain less air than concrete at normal temperatures.

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EFFECTS OF HOT WEATHER ON


CONCRETE PROPERTIES
EFFECTS ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH:
Concretes mixed, placed and cured at elevated temperatures
normally develop higher early strength than concretes produced and
cured at normal temperatures, but at 28 days or later the strengths
are lower.

EFFECTS ON WORKABILITY AND WATER DEMAND


For maintaining the same workability, the quantity of water in the
concrete mix has to be increased as the concrete temperature
increases. If the amount of water remains unchanged, theri
conversely, there will be loss of workability of concrete as the
temperature increases.
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EFFECTS ON SHRINKAGE:

In the hot weather, whenever the rate of evaporation of


water from the concrete mix is greater than the rate at
which water rises to the surface of freshly placed concrete (
bleeding ), plastic shrinkage cracking will usually occur.
High concrete temperature, high air temperature, high wind
velocity and low relative humidity, or combinations thereof,
cause rapid evaporation which significantly increases the
likelihood of occurrence of plastic shrinkage cracking.

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RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND


PRECAUTIONS

TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF CONCRETE INGREDIENTS


The most direct approach to keep concrete temperature down
is by controlling the temperature of its ingredients. Thus, in hot
weather all available means shall be used for maintaining these
materials at as low temperatures as practicable. The aggregates
can be protected from direct sunrays by erecting temporary
sheds over the aggregate stock pile. Water can also be sprinkeled
on to the aggregate before using them in concrete. Other
methods are use of ice as mixing water, cooling with nitrogen
and cooling trucks.

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TEMPERATURE OF CONCRETE AS PLACED.


In hot weather, wherever necessary, the ingredients of concrete should be
cooled to the extent necessary to maintain the temperature at the time of
placing below 40 C.

PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY.


Temperatures of aggregates, water, and cement shall be maintained at the
lowest practical levels so that the temperature of the concrete is below 40%
at the time of placement.

PLACEMENT, PROTECTION AND CURING


Placement and Finishing- Forms, reinforcement, and sub grade shall be
sprinkled with cool water just prior to placement of concrete. Continuous
curing is important because the volume changes due to alternate wetting
and drying promote the development of surface cracking. When
temperature conditions are critical, concrete placement may be restricted
to the evenings or night when temperatures are lower and evaporation is
less.
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COLD WEATHER CONCRETING


Cold Weather Concreting - Any
operation of concreting done at about
5C atmospheric temperature or below.

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EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER


ON CONCRETE
Delayed Setting - When the temperature is falling to about 5C or below,
the development of concrete strength is retarded compared with the
strength development at normal temperatures. The hardening period,
necessary before the removal of forms is thus increased and the
experience from concreting at normal temperature cannot be used directly.
Freezing of Concrete at Early Ages - When concrete is exposed to freezing
temperature, there is the risk of concrete suffering irreparable loss of
strength and other qualities, that is, permeability may increase and the

durability may be impaired.

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Repeated Freezing and Thawing of Concrete - If concrete is


exposed to repeated freezing and -thawing after final set and
during the hardening period, the final qualities of the
concrete may also be impaired.

Stresses Due to Temperature Differential - It is a general


experience that large temperature differentials within the
concrete member may promote cracking and have a harmful
effect on the durability. Such differentials are likely to occur
in cold weather at the time of removal of form insulations.

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EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER ON


CONCRETE PROPERTIES
EFFECTS ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Concretes mixed, placed and cured at temperatures lower than the
normal develop strength at a slower rate. However, this slower
development of initial strength does not necessarily impair the long
term strength and adequately protected concrete in winter would
have the long term strength not significantly lower than at normal
temperatures.

EFFECT OF FREEZING ANDTHAWING CYCLES ON HARDENED


CONCRETE.
Damages due to freezing and thawing is usually measured in terms
of lowering of dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete.
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EFFECTS OF FREEZING OF FRESH CONCRETE


Freshly placed concrete is vulnerable to freezing
temperatures so much so that if water in fresh
concrete is allowed to be frozen, irreparable
damage to the quality of concrete and permanent
lowering of compressive strength can occur.

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RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND PRECAUTIONS


TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF CONCRETE
INGREDIENTS.
The temperature at the time of setting of concrete can be
raised by heating the ingredients of the concrete mix. The
temperature of the water should not be more than 65 C.

USE OF INSULATING FORMWORK.


A fair amount of heat is generated during hydration of cement
such heat can be gainfully conserved by having insulating
formwork covers.
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PROPORTIONING OF CONCRETE INGREDIENTS .


Since the quantity of cement in the mix affects the rate of
increase in temperature, an additional quantity of cement can be
used. High Alumina Cement is generally prefered.

PLACEMENT AND CURING. Before placing the concrete all


snow must be removed.

DELAYED REMOVAL OF FORMWORK. Since rate of strength


is slow formwork and props have to be kept in place for a longer
time.

USE OF PRECAST MEMBERS.

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REFRENCES
IS: 7861 (part I) 1981
IS: 7861 (part II) 1981
CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY M.L. GAMBHIR

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