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Temperature

Why would someone designing a pipeline include these strange


loops? Pipelines carrying liquids often contain loops such as
these to allow for expansion and contraction as the
temperature changes. We will study thermal expansion in this
chapter

Temperature and the Zeroth


Law of Thermodynamics

We often associate the concept of temperature with how hot or cold an


object feels when we touch it. Thus, our senses provide us with a
qualitative indication of temperature. However, our senses are unreliable
and often mislead us.

The zeroth law of thermodynamics. (a) and (b) If the temperatures of A


and B are measured to be the same by placing them in thermal contact
with a thermometer (object C), no energy will be exchanged between
them when they are placed in thermal contact with each other (c).

Thermal equilibrium is a situation in which two objects would not


exchange energy by heat or electromagnetic radiation if they were
placed in thermal contact.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics

If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object


C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other

We can think of temperature as the property that determines whether an


object is in thermal equilibrium with other objects. Two objects in thermal
equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature. Conversely, if
two objects have different temperatures, then they are not in thermal
equilibrium with each other.

Quick Quiz

Two objects, with different sizes, masses, and temperatures, are


placed in thermal contact. Energy travels (a) from the larger object to
the smaller object (b) from the object with more mass to the one with
less (c) from the object at higher temperature to the object at lower
temperature

Thermometers and the Celsius


Temperature Scale

All thermometers are based on the principle that


some physical property of a system changes as the
systems temperature changes. Some physical
properties that change with temperature are

the volume of a liquid,

the dimensions of a solid,

the pressure of a gas at constant volume,

the volume of a gas at constant pressure,

the electric resistance of a conductor, and

the color of an object.

As a result of thermal expansion, the level of the mercury in the


thermometer rises as the mercury is heated by water in the test tube.

0C, this temperature is called the ice point of water

100C, which is the steam point of water

The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer

The physical change exploited in this device is the variation of pressure of


a fixed volume of gas with temperature.

A constant-volume gas thermometer measures the pressure of the gas


contained in the flask immersed in the bath. The volume of gas in the
flask is kept constant by raising or lowering reservoir B to keep the
mercury level in column A constant.

A typical graph of pressure versus temperature taken with a constantvolume gas thermometer. The two dots represent known reference
temperatures (the ice and steam points of water).

The Absolute Temperature Scale

Pressure versus temperature for experimental trials in which gases have


different pressures in a constant-volume gas thermometer. Note that, for
all three trials, the pressure extrapolates to zero at the temperature
-273.15C.

Absolute temperatures at which


various physical processes occur.
Note that the scale is logarithmic.

Skala termometer
Kelvin
air
mendidih

es
mencair

Celcius Fahrenhe Reamu


it
r

373

100

212

80

273

32

5 + 273

9 + 32

Bila belum ada skala ?


Lt L0
tc
100 o
L100 L0

dengan
L0 = panjang kolom ketika 0o
L100 = panjang kolom ketika 100o
Lt = panjang kolom pada temperatur tertentu

Liquid-in-glass

Sifat termometrik:
Perubahan volume ( yaitu perubahan panjang dari
merkuri atau etanol )
Keuntungan:
Mudah digunakan, murah dan mudah dibawa.
Kerugian:
Mudah pecah, daerah pengukuran terbatas, tidak dapat
digunakan untuk mengukur obyek kecil.
Daerah Pengukuran:
Merkuri : 234 723 K , Etanol : 173 K 323 K

Constant-Volume gas Thermometer

Sifat Termometrik
Tekanan pada gas dengan volume konstan.
Keuntungan
Skala absolut, akurat, daerah pengukuran lebar
Kerugian
Bentuk besar, respon lambat, sulit untuk mengukur obyek
kecil.
Daerah Pengukuran Temperatur
3 500 K

Resistansi

Sifat Termometrik
Perubahan resitansi dari bahan konduktor (Pt, Ni, dll.)
Keuntungan
Akurat, daerah pengukuran lebar, dapat didisain berbagai
macam model.
Kerugian
Harga mahal.
Daerah Pengukuran Temperatur
15 900 K

Thermocouple

Sifat Termometrik
GGL yang timbul karena dua metal berbeda dikontakkan.
Keuntungan
Sensitif, respon cepat, daerah pengukuran lebar.
Kerugian
Tegangan kecil sehingga membutuhkan penguatan
Daerah Pengukuran Temperatur
25 1400 K

Thermistor

Sifat Termometrik
Perubahan resistansi dari bahan semikonduktor (Si).
Keuntungan
Mudah diaplikasikan dengan komputer, murah.
Kerugian
Kurang akurat.
Daerah Pengukuran Temperatur
200 700 K

Optical Pyrometer

Sifat Termometrik
Perubahan sifat material karena kena radiasi panas.
Keuntungan
Tidak bersentuhan dengan obyek, mudah digunakan.
Kerugian
Memerlukan kalibrasi, kurang akurat, mahal.
Daerah Pengukuran
Diatas 1250 K