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OME201101 GSM BTS312

Hardware Structure
ISSUE 4.0

Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be


able to:

Know the functions and features of


BTS

Master the BTS hardware structure

Master the signal processing of BTS

Internal Use

References

BTS312 User Manual

BTS3.0 User Manual

Internal Use

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Location
Um Interface

MS

BTS

BSC
A Interface

MS

HLR/AUC/EIR

BTS
BTS

MSC/VLR
MAP

BTS

MS

PSTN
ISDN
PSPDN

TUP,ISUP

SMC/VM

OMC

MS: Mobile Station

BTS: Base Transceiver Station

BSC: Base Station Controller

HLR: Home Location Register

AUC: Authentication Center

EIR: Equipment Identity Register

MSC: Mobile Switching Center

VLR: Visitor Location Register

SMC: Short Message Center

VM: Voice Mailbox

OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center

Internal Use

Features and Functions

High integration and low power consumption

15 radio carriers at the Abis sharing an E1 for transmission (15:1)

Support various transmission modes and complex topologies,


e.g. SDH, E1, microwave, satellite etc.

Support the configuration of up to S24/24/24 and facilitating


expansion

1-minute fast startup

Internal Use

Features and Functions

Support GSM900,DCS1800,EGSM and RGSM

Support GSM PHASE 1 PHASE 2 and PHASE 2+

Support GPRS and EDGE

Support baseband hopping and RF hopping

Support FR, HR, EFR and AMR

Support A5/1 and A5/2 encryption/decryption

Internal Use

Hardware Structure
DATA_BUS/CONTROL_BUS/TIMING_BUS
External
alarm

External
control
E1

TMU

TRX

TRX

CDU

CDU

antenna

CDU

antenna

Opt. fiber
xDSL

TEU

TES

antenna

TRX
FH_BUS

PSU

PMU
Common Unit

Signal Processing Unit

Antenna Feeder Unit

Internal Use

Cabinet and Boards


TDU
SWITCH BOX
FAN BOX

Boards in Cabinet:

CDU: Combiner & Divider Unit


TRX: Transceiver
PMU: Power Monitoring Unit

AIR BOX
C

TMU: Timing/Transmission &


Management Unit
PSU: Power Supply Unit

FAN BOX

TDU: Time Distribution Unit

TT T T T

MM E E E

U U

UU S U U

TES: Transmission Extension


Power Supply Unit
TEU: Transmission Extension
Unit

AIR BOX

Internal Use

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Chapter 2 System Componnents


Section 1 Common Unit
Section 2 Signal Processing Unit

Internal Use

TMU
Functions of TMU

Provide E1 connection interface

Provide channel multiplexing and flexible networking modes

Provide Man-machine interface (MMI) and operation &


maintenance link

Provide centralized BTS clock

Provide alarm signal input ports

Internal Use

Structure of TMU
External synchronous clock

BSC

BIU

CBUS

MMI (manmachine
Interface)

Environment
monitors

DBUS

OMU

EAC

Standby
TMU

Standby MCK

MCK

TDU

Extended BIU

TBUS

Internal Use

Indictors on TMU

PWR
RUN
LI1
LI2

Indicator
Name

Color

PWR

Green

Power

On: Normal
Off: Abnormal

RUN

Green

Running State

Flash(0.5Hz): Normal
On or Off: Abnormal

Flash

Green

E1
Transmission

On: Local Alarm


Flash: Remote Alarm
Off: Normal

Off

Meaning

Explanation

Normal State

LI3
LI4
M/S
PLL
RST
DBG

T2M

LI1,2,3,4

FCK
T13M

M/S

Green

Master/Slave
indication

MMI

PLL

TMU

Green

Phase
identification
indicator

Slow flash(1HZ): Master


Quick flash(2Hz): Slave
On: Free oscillation
Quick flash(4Hz):
Catching
Slow flash(1Hz): Locked
Off: Abnormal

On

Master
Board:
Slow flash
Slave Board: Quick
flash

Slow flash

Internal Use

TDU
Functions of TDU

Provide clock channels in one synchronous cell

Transfer E1 signals in the local cabinet

Provide alarming channels

Provide bus-control interfaces

Internal Use

Position of TDU

Internal Use

Cabinet-top Connectors

(1)

Data bus
interface (DCF1)

(2) External alarm interface


(EAC1 and EAC2)

(7) Data bus interface


(DCF2)

(8)

(3) 120 E1 interface


(TME1)

(4) Built-in optical


transmission E1 interface
(TRA1, TRA2, TRB1, and
TRB2)

(9) External
synchronous
clock interface
(SYNC)

(10) Grounding cable


interface for combined
cabinet (SHELLGND)

(5)

(6) Clock interface (CKB1 and


CKB2)

(11) External power


cable interface

(12) Feeder input interface


(ANT)

Storage battery
management
signal cable
interface (PWRC)

(13)

75 E1 interface (TX and


RX)

Cascading interface of CDU combined cabinet


(CDU)

Internal Use

Power Supply
220VAC

When the supply input is 220VAC,the AC/DC


module is used.

-48VDC

When the supply input is -48VDC,the DC/DC


module is used.

+24VDC
When

the supply input is +24VDC,neither

DC/DC nor AC/DC module is used.

Internal Use

Power Supply System


EMI
filter

220VAC IN

+
-

EMI
filter

-48VDC IN

Anti-lightning
Power
distribution

+
-

Monitoring
unit PMU

+24VDC IN

Load
AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

EMI
filter

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

26VDC OUT

DC contacter

Battery group

Fuse

Internal Use

PSU Configuration

mode

Capacity (TRX)

Boards (PSU)

Boards (PMU)

24VDC

1 ~ 12

-48VDC

1~3

4~6

7~9

10 ~ 12

1~3

4~6

7~9

10 ~ 12

220VAC

notes

One PSU for


backup

Internal Use

PMU
PMU structure

AC power supply

AC/DC

AC/DC

AC/DC

AC/DC

Load
Fan

Power monitoring
unit PMU

Fuse
Battery

Internal Use

FMU
Functions of FMU

Fan feeding

Fan revolution speed control

Alarm detection

+24V power supply input interface

Internal Use

Chapter 2 System Componnents


Section 1 Common Unit
Section 2 Signal Processing Unit

Internal Use

TRX
Functions of TRX

Baseband speech processing

Um and Abis interface signaling processing

Modulation and demodulation

RF signal amplification

Internal Use

TRX Module Structure


FH_BUS

DBUS
CBUS

SCP

Transmitter

PAU

TDP
CUI

DSP

Receiver

RCU

Diversity
receiver

TBUS
Clock processing part
RPU

TBPU
TBPU:TRX Baseband signal Processing Unit
SCP: Signaling Processing Unit

DSP: Digital Signal Processing Unit

TDP: Transmitter Driver and PLL Unit


DBUS: Data Bus

RPU:RF signal Processing Unit

CBUS: Control Bus

PAU: Power Amplifier Unit


TBUS: Timing Bus

CUI: Carrier Unit Interface


RCU: Receiving Unit

FH_BUS: Frequency Hopping Bus

Internal Use

Output Power of TRX

Normal: 40W(46dBm) or 60W(48dBm)

PBU: 80W(49dBm)

EDGE TRX: GMSK: 60W, 8PSK: 40W

Internal Use

Alarms of TRX
Over standing wave alarm

When the standing wave ratio at the power amplifier output port

exceeds 1.5, it reports standing wave alarm to the baseband unit


Over-temperature alarm

When the temperature of the power amplifier exceeds 85, the


power amplifier unit reports the over-temperature alarm via the
baseband unit, and automatically turns off the power amplifier

Internal Use

Indicators on TRX
TX OUT

PWR

Indicator
Name

Color

PWR

Green

Meaning

Explanation

Normal
State

Power

On: Normal
Off: Abnormal

On

SCP Running
State

Flash(0.5Hz):
Normal
On or Off:
Abnormal

Flash

DSP Running
State

Flash(0.5Hz):
Normal
On or Off:
Abnormal

Flash

Alarm
Indicator

On: Alarm
Off: No alarm

Off

RCP
RDP
FAIL

RCP

RST

MMI

Green

RDP

Green

FAIL

Red

RXA IN

RXB IN

TRX
Internal Use

CDU
Functions of CDU

Combine and filter transmitted signals

Filter ,amplify and distribute received signals

Provide power for the tower-top amplifier

Alarm detection

Internal Use

CDU Structure

TX1
TX2
TX-COMB
TX-DUP
RX1
RX2
RX3
RX4

Combiner

Divider
LNA

HL-out
RX1
RX2
RX3
RX4
HL-in
RXD-out

TX/RX-ANT

Duplexer

Divider

LNA

Filter

RXD-ANT

Internal Use

Indicators on CDU

Indicator
Name

Color

POWER

Green

Power

On: Normal
Off: Abnormal

On

Yellow

Standing
wave ratio
alarm

On: VSWR is greater


than 1.5 and
less than 2.5
Off: Normal

Off

Red

Standing
wave ratio
alarm

On: VSWR is greater


than 2.5
Off: Normal

Off

Red

TTA current
indication

On: TTA current out


of range
Off: Normal

Off

Red

LNA
current
indication

On: LNA current out


of range
Off: Normal

Off

VSWR1

VSWR2

TTA

LNA

Meaning

Explanation

Normal
State

Internal Use

Rear Panel of CDU


Correspondence between knob setting and current
strength of TTA
Setting

MAIN

DIVERSE

Unit

off

off

100

65

mA

107

100

mA

205

205

mA

Note: MAIN is recommended to be set at 1(100mA),and


DIVERSE to be set at 2(100mA).Other modes of
setting are not recommended
MAIN: TTA power feeding selection knob of main receiving channel
DIVERSE: TTA power feeding selection knob of diversity receiving channel
FUSE :1.5A

Internal Use

Alarm Detection

VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) monitoring: CDU Monitors the


status of antenna system. When the detected standing wave ratio
exceeds the preset threshold (1.5 or 2.5), CDU will generate
corresponding alarms

Low noise amplifier fault alarm: The signal is extracted from the
power supply current of the low noise amplifier. When the current
exceeds a certain level ,alarm signals are generated

Tower-top amplifier alarm: When there is a tower-top amplifier on


service, the CDU monitors the status of tower-top amplifier by its
working current. If the current exceeds a certain level , alarm signals
are generated

Internal Use

EDU

EDU indicators are the same as those of CDU

TX1

RX1
RX2

Duplexer

Divider

TX2

RX3
RX4

LNA

Duplexer

Divider

TX/RX-ANT1

TX/RX-ANT2

LNA

Internal Use

SCU

Four carriers are combined and output through 3dB bridges and the
insertion loss is 6.8dB

TX1

TX2
TX3

3dB
Bridge
3dB
Bridge
3dB
Bridge

TX4
Tx_Comb

Internal Use

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Speech Processing

BSC-(TDU)-TMU-DBUS-TRX-CDU-ANT-MS
DBUS

BSC

FH_BUS

BIU
S
C
P
OMU

D
S
P

C
U
I

TDP

PAU
RCU

CBUS
Clock process
RPU

EAC

MCK

TDU

TBPU
TBUS

Internal Use

C
D
U

OML Processing

BSC-(TDU)-TMU-CBUS-TRX (or PMU,CDU)


DBUS

BSC

FH_BUS

BIU
S
C
P
OMU

D
S
P

C
U
I

TDP

PAU
RCU

CBUS
Clock process
RPU

EAC

MCK

TDU

TBPU
TBUS

Internal Use

C
D
U

RSL Processing

BSC-(TDU)-TMU-DBUS-TRX
DBUS

BSC

FH_BUS

BIU
S
C
P
OMU

D
S
P

C
U
I

TDP

PAU
RCU

CBUS
Clock process
RPU

EAC

MCK

TDU

TBPU
TBUS

Internal Use

C
D
U

Clock Processing

BSC (or External Clock) (TDU)-TMU-TDU-TBUS-TRX

External synchronous clock

BSC

DBUS

FH_BUS

BIU
S
C
P
OMU

D
S
P

C
U
I

TDP

PAU
RCU

CBUS
Clock process
RPU

EAC

MCK

TDU

TBPU
TBUS

Internal Use

TBUS Connection
Clock bus connection in a synchronous cell

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

T T

U U

P S U

P S U

Basic
Extension

cabinet


cabinet

Basiccabinet
group

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

P S U

Basiccabinet

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

P S U

Extension

cabinet

Extension

cabinet
group
Internal Use

Cabinet Extension Cabling

Blue colored sockets installed with matching connectors are for resistance
termination

There are E1 cables between basic cabinet group and extension cabinet
group

CKB1 CKB2
DCF1

CKB1 CKB2
DCF2

Extension Cabinet

DCF1

Basic Cabinet

Basic Cabinet Group

CKB1 CKB2
DCF2

DCF1

CKB1 CKB2
DCF2

Basic Cabinet

DCF1

DCF2

Extension Cabinet

Extension Cabinet Group

Internal Use

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Antenna and Feeder System


Antenna

Antenna
stand
Jumper between
antenna and TTA

Jumper between
lightening arrester
and cabinet

TTA
Lightening
arrester

Jumper between
TTA and feeder

TDU

Feeder

SWITCH BOX
FAN BOX

T T T T

R R R R

X X X X

BTS312
cabinet

AIR BOX

T T T T

R R R R

X X X X

FAN BOX

T T T T
R R R R

X X X X

P P P P P PP

T T TT

S S S S S S M ME E E
U U U U U UU

U S UU

AIR BOX

Internal Use

S1/1/1

TX

TX/RX ANT

COMB
TX COMB

TX OUT

DUP

TX DUP

(TX/RXA)

RX

1:4
RXA

HL OUT
HL IN

RXD ANT

RXB

1:4

(RXB)

RXD OUT

Internal Use

S2/2/2

TX

TX OUT

TX/RX ANT

COMB
TX COMB

RXA

DUP

TX DUP

(TX/RXA)

RX

RXB

1:4
HL OUT

TX OUT

HL IN

RXD ANT
1:4

RXA
RXB

(RXB)

RXD OUT

Internal Use

S4/4/4 2CDU

Duplexer

Combiner

Duplexer

Distributor

Distributor

Combiner

Distributor

Distributor

Internal Use

S4/4/4 SCU+CDU
SCU

TX

TX OUT

COMB

RXA
RXB

TX COMB

TX OUT
RXA
RXB

TX

TX OUT

COMB

CDU

TX/RX ANT

TX COMB

RXA

DUP

TX DUP

RX

RXB

1:4
HL OUT

TX OUT

RXD ANT

HL IN

1:4

RXA
RXB

(TX/RXB)

(RXA)

RXD OUT

Internal Use

2CDU+SCU

Duplexer

Combiner

Duplexer

Distributor

Distributor

Combiner

Combiner

Distributor Distributor

Combiner Combiner

Internal Use

Lightning Arrester

feeder

Lightning Arrester is used to


prevent the equipment from
being

damaged

by

the

lightening current inducted


by the core line of the feeder

jumper

Lightning Arrester

Internal Use

Types of Main Feeder

7/8 inch

5/4 inch

Cable loss=0.043dB/m

Cable loss=0.032dB/m

1/2 inch jumper

Cable loss=0.11dB/m

Used between the antenna and the main feeder

Between the antenna and the tower-top amplifier

Between the cabinet and the lightning arrester

Internal Use

TTA (Optional)

The tower-top amplifier is installed close to the receiving antenna

It can be used to increase the receiving sensibility of the base


station

Consisting of:

Simplex TTA

Duplex TTA

Triplex TTA

Internal Use

TTA (Optional)

simplex TTA

duplex TTA

triplex TTA

triplex TTA
TX filter
BTS

antenna

bypass

Bias Tee
RX filter

RX filter
Low noise amplifier

DC

Internal Use

Antenna Pattern

The antenna pattern describes the radiating abilities of antennas in all


directions

360
Omni Antenna

120

90

65

Directional antenna

Internal Use

Polarization

Two main types of polarization

Vertical polarization

Horizontal polarization

The types of antenna divided by polarization

Single polarized antenna


Vertical polarization for GSM
One port for one feeder

Dual polarized antenna


+45 degree and -45 degree
Two ports for two feeders

Internal Use

Summary

Summary

Functions and features of BTS


BTS hardware structure
Signal processing of BTS
Antenna and feeder system

Internal Use

Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved