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CHAPTER 1

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AND


TARIFFS
BEX 42803 UTILISATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
Prepared by,
DR. KOK BOON CHING
2012@JEK/FKEE

Outlines
Introduction
Electricity Generation Scenario in
Malaysia
Electric Supply System
HV Distribution Networks
LV Distribution Networks
Hardware for Distribution Systems
Load Characteristics and Tariffs Rate
2

Introduction
Energy is needed in many areas
of human endeavor such as:
moving people and goods around

TRANSPORT
producing and processing of food AGRICULTURE
manufacturing of useful materials
and artifacts - INDUSTRY
Powering communication gadgets
and equipment, and going about
other commercial activities COMMERCE
maintaining physical comfort and
convenience in our homes HOUSEHOLDS
3

Introduction - TRANSPORT
Transportation is the movement
of people and goods from one
place to another.
Transportation depends on
continuous supply of energy.
Automobiles are powered by
gasoline (petrol), aeroplanes by
jet fuel (kerosene), and trucks,
trains, and ships by diesel oil.
Conveyers, cranes, robots and
pipelines use motors and
pumps, which are powered by
electricity.
4

Introduction - AGRICULTURE
Agro-industries and processing of
agricultural products require energy.
Mechanical implements powered by
fuel or electricity are immensely more
efficient and productive than
humans and animals.
In developed countries, a major
portion of electricity used in
agriculture powers irrigation pumps.
The energy requirements in agriculture
are mainly met using solar energy,
fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas),
fuel wood and electricity.
5

Introduction - INDUSTRY
Most of the energy used in industry is used by the
machines and processes, which make the products
of industry.
Industrial energy-consuming systems include
boiler and other fired systems (furnace, kilns,
incinerators, dryers), compressed air system,
electric motors (for fans, blowers, pumps,
conveyers, etc.) and lighting system.
Energy is also used to heat or cool the buildings
and to provide hot water and other facilities for
workers.

Introduction - COMMERCE
Highly sophisticated
communication systems both
for the supply of goods and
services, and the maintenance
of organisational cohesion
requires a ready supply of
suitable energy.
Energy in commerce is basically
use for information
processing, ACMV, and
lighting.
Electrical energy is the most
common form of energy used
and supplemented by chemical
energy from batteries
(renewable energy system).
7

Introduction - HOUSEHOLD
Energy is required in
households for space heating or
cooling, water heating, cooking,
lighting, ironing, and power
appliances like fridge, washing
machines, sound systems, TV,
hair dryers, shavers, clocks,
blenders, toasters, vacuum
cleaners, sewing machines, etc.
The energy may come from
direct heating from the sun,
electricity, burning of fossil fuels
or fuel wood.
8

Installed Capacity by Fuel Type

Generation Mix Profile in Malaysia

Installed Capacity by Power Producers

Generation Mix Profile in Malaysia

10

Malaysia (2010)

Number of Consumers by Sector

11

SALES OF ELECTRICITY (Peninsular)

12

Major Power Station in Peninsular Malaysia


13

Some of Thermal Power Plants in Peninsular


Malaysia

KEV
(2,420
MW)
SERDANG
(625
MW)
GELUGOR
Teluk
Ewa
(68
MW)
PAKA
(1,139
MW)
PORT
DICKSON
(360
MW)
PRAI
(360
MW)
PASIR
GUDANG
(729MW)
CONNAUGHT
MANJUNG
(2100
MW)
CSP
2x500
MW
Coal/G/O
GT
MW
Gas
GT
2700
34
MW
Dist
CC
13x135
xx330
MW
Gas
CC
MW
Gas
CSP
3x120
Gas/Oil
CSP
Fuel
Oil
CSP
MW
Oil/Gas
BRIDGE
(832
MW)
TANJUNG
BIN
(2100
MW)
3 3x290
x2x120
MW
Coal
CSP
MW
Coal/G/O
MW
Gas
CC
1x269
MW
Gas
CCGT
1x269
MW
Gas
GT
4x
130
MW
32x300
x2x110
700
MW
Coal
CSP
MW
GT 2x300
2x110
MW
Gas
CC
1x
312
MWGas/Oil
Gas
GT 2x110 MW Gas

N
LEGEND
LEGEND
Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Note:
GT - Open Cycle Gas Turbine
CC - Combined Cycle
CSP - Conventional Thermal
C/G/O - Triple Fuel Coal, Oil & Gas
Dist - Distillate

ST
RA
ME ITS O
LA
KA F

SOUTH
CHINA
SEA

14

Some of Hydro Power Plants in Peninsular


Malaysia

Temengor
Chenderoh
Bersia
Sg.Piah
Pergau
Kenering
Kenyir
Cameron
Highland
87
MW
32
24MW
MW
7.3
443xxxx10.7
150MW
40MW
100MW
261.9 MW
12 x 8.4
MW
27 MW

N
LEGEND
LEGEND
Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Note:
GT - Open Cycle Gas Turbine
CC - Combined Cycle
CSP - Conventional Thermal
C/G/O - Triple Fuel Coal, Oil & Gas
Dist - Distillate

ST
RA
ME ITS O
LA
KA F

SOUTH
CHINA
SEA

15

(Source: Electricity Supply Industry in Malaysia: Performance and Statistical Information,


Suruhanjaya Tenaga, 2010)

Peninsular Malaysia (2010)

Maximum Demand and Installed Generation


Capacity

16

Sabah (2010)

Maximum Demand and Installed Generation


Capacity

(Source: Electricity Supply Industry in Malaysia: Performance and Statistical Information,


Suruhanjaya Tenaga, 2010)

17

Sarawak (2010)

Maximum Demand and Installed Generation


Capacity

(Source: Electricity Supply Industry in Malaysia: Performance and Statistical Information,


Suruhanjaya Tenaga, 2010)

18

Electricity Forecast (2007 2011)

19

20

TNB GRID SYSTEM 2010

21

TNB Grid System (2006)

22

MAJOR POWER STATION AND GRID

23

MAJOR POWER STATION AND GRID

24

Prospective ASEAN Power Grid

Electrical Supply Systems


Medium/High Voltage (HV)
Overhead transmission lines (500 kV,

275 kV).
Underground cables (132 kV, 66 kV, 33
kV, 22 kV, 11 kV, 6.6 kV).
For large scale industry customers.

Low Voltage (LV)


Voltage level below 1 kV (240 V and 415

V).
For residential, commercial, and small
industry applications.

25

Definition of Voltage Levels

1 kV

Low
Voltag
e

50 kV

Mediu
m
Voltag
e

High
Voltag
e

26

Low Voltage (LV System)


Single-phase, 2-wire, 240 V, up to 12
kVA maximum demand
Three-phase, 4-wire, 415 V, up to 45
kVA maximum demand
Three-phase, 4-wire, C.T. metered,
415 V, up to 1000 kVA maximum
demand
Citation: TNB Electricity Supply Application Handbook, 2nd Edition, March 2007

27

Medium and High Voltage (MV &


HV)
Three-phase, 3-wire, 11 kV for load
of 1000 kVA maximum demand and
above
Three-phase, 3-wire, 22 kV or 33 kV
for load of 5000 kVA maximum
demand and above
Three-phase, 3-wire, 66 kV, 132 kV
and 275 kV for exceptionally large
Citation: TNB
Supply
Application
Handbook,
2 Edition, March 2007
load
ofElectricity
above
25
MVA
maximum
demand
nd

28

Steady-state Supply Voltage


Performance
Under normal conditions
Voltage Level

% variation

415 V and 240 V

-10% & +5%

6.6 kV, 11 kV, 22 kV, 33 kV

5%

132 kV and 275 kV

-5% & +10%

Under contingency conditions


Voltage Level

% variation

415 V and 240 V


6.6 kV, 11 kV, 22 kV, 33 kV

10%
+10% & -10%

132 kV and 275 kV

10%

Citation: TNB Electricity Supply Application Handbook,


2nd Edition, March 2007 29

Security Levels for Distribution Systems


For voltage levels of 6.6 kV, 11 kV,
22 kV and 33 kV the average
supply restoration is less than 4
hours.
For supplies at 240 V and 415 V the
restoration period may vary beyond
4 hours depending on the type of
network fault.
Citation: TNB Electricity Supply Application Handbook, 2nd Edition, March 2007

30

Structure of the Power System

Overview of Electricity Supply Systems

31

High Voltage Electrical Supply


A. Main Transmission Line Network
System
Connecting the electrical supply source

from electrical generation stations to


the main distribution network system
at certain large areas like states,
districts and big towns.
The main transmission line networks
are liked to each other to form the
National Grid System.
The method used in the transmission
line network is the 3, 3 lines (R-Y-B)
system through main overhead line

32

High Voltage Electrical Supply


B. Primary Distribution Network
System
It receives electrical supply from main

transmission line network system.


It is located at few selected locations in
a state.
The electrical power is delivered to the
users through 4 distribution levels.

33

American Versus European


System

34

High Voltage Electrical Supply


First Level (1) Transmission Main Intake

(TMI) or Pencawang Masuk Utama


(PMU).
Interconnection point of 132kV or 275kV to
the distribution network.
The standard transmission
capacity and voltage
transformation provided at
the PMU are as follows:- 132/33kV, 2 x 90 MVA
- 132 /22kV, 2 x 60 MVA
- 132 /11 kV, 2 x 30 MVA
35

High Voltage Electrical Supply


Second Level (2) Main Distribution Sub-

station (MDS) or Pencawang


Pembahagian Utama (PPU).

Main Distribution Substation is normally


applicable to 33kV for
interconnecting 33kV
networks with 11 kV
networks.
It provides capacity
injection into 11 kV network
through a standardized
transformation of 33/11 kV.

36

High Voltage Electrical Supply


Third Level (3) Main Switching Station

(MSS) or Stesyen Suis Utama (SSU).


SSU at 33kV, 22kV and 11 kV are
established to serve the following
function:
1. To supply a dedicated bulk
consumer ( 33kV, 22kV, 11
kV)
2. To provide bulk capacity
injection or transfer from a
PMU/PPU to a load center for
further localized distribution.
37

High Voltage Electrical Supply


Fourth Level (4) Distribution Substation

(DS) or Pencawang Elektrik (PE).


Distribution sub-stations are capacity
injection points from 11 kV, 22kV and
sometimes 33kV systems to the low
voltage network (415V, 240V).
Typical capacity ratings are
1000kVA, 750kVA, 500kVA
and 300kVA.

38

High Voltage Electrical Supply


Under ground cables are used in the

delivery system from level 1 4.


Types : 3C x 300 mm sq/ 3C240 mm sq/
3C185 mm sq, XLPE (cross-linked
Polyethylene), Aluminum.
Block diagram:

33 kV/22 kV

TMI

MDS

MSS

132kV/33
kV/11kV

33kV/11kV
22 kV/11kV

33kV/22
kV/11 kV

MTL

D
S
11kV/415 V
(LV)

D
S
39

High Voltage Electrical Supply


C. Secondary Distribution Network
System

Begins whenever the High Voltage


electrical supply (11KV) received at DS
is converted to Low Voltage electrical
supply (415V).
Method used is the 4 lines (R-Y-B-N)
through step-down transformer.
The number of DS is depends on the
total load demands (VA) requested by
the user.
40

High Voltage Electrical Supply


Number of chamber indicating the number of

transformers needed. (2 chambers type can


be recognised with 2 doors of the size of
2400 mm wide X 3000 mm high)
Type of transformer :
Oil Immersed Type, cheap but low efficiency
(for small users).
Cast Resin - Dry, more expensive but higher
efficiency (larger customers).
Nominal Volt-Ampere capacity of the

transformer: 300 kVA, 500 kVA, 750 kVA, and


1000 kVA.
41

High Voltage Electrical Supply


What are inside the DS?
1) Switch gear
2) Transformer
3) Low Voltage Distribution Board
) The 415V supply will then connected to

the kWh metering system (user side)


through LV underground cables.

42

High Voltage Electrical Supply


Layout of an DS (Single Chamber):
Switchgear
Room

Transformer
Room

LV Board
Outgoing Points

43

Single Chamber DS

44

Double Chamber DS

45

High Voltage Electrical Supply


D. Types of Electrical Supply Users:

HV Higher institutions, shopping


complexes, large factories (owned the
MDS, MSS, DS).
LV Domestic users, shop lots, public
buildings.

46

Low Voltage Electrical Supply


Types:
3, 4 wires + E 415V
1, 2 wires + E 240V

Types of LV electrical installation:


Small Industry Buildings.
Small Commercial Building (shop, office,

restaurant).
Small Residential Building (Condo, Terrace,
Apartment).
Small Public Building (wet market, bus station,
.)
Public Utilities (Street lights, traffic lights,..)
47

Low Voltage Electrical Supply


Main components in a LV electrical
supply distribution system (building):
kWh meter TNB
Main Switch Board (MSB)
Sub Switch Board (SSB)
Distribution Board (DB)

48

Low Voltage Electrical Supply


Example of residential connection:
DS

TNB

Loads

Consumers

49

Low Voltage Electrical Supply


Example of industry connection:
MSS

HT Switch Room

DS

SSB

HT Meter Room
HT Switch Room

FACTORY

Users
Transformer Room
Main
Switch Board

MSB

50

Main Switchboard (MSB)

51

Sub Switchboard (SSB)

52

Low Voltage Electrical Supply


Example: Double-storey House

53

Low Voltage Electrical Supply


Example: Terrace house installation

54

Economic Aspects
Utility company must plans for the
electricity demand in advance as
requested by its consumers.
Common terms used:
Connected load
Maximum demand
Demand factor
Average demand
Load factor
Diversity factor
55

Economic Aspects
Connected Load sum of the rated
maximum values of all loads used by
consumer. It may be expressed in
watts, kW, A, hp, kVA etc.
Maximum Demand highest or
peak demand for a specified time
(might be in hour, day, month, or
year).
Demand
Factor (DF)
Actual demand
DF

Connected load
56

Economic Aspects
Average Demand Sum of the
total demand (in kWh) divided by the
demand period (hr).
Load Factor (LF) - The ratio of the
average
the peak load. LF
Averageload
demandover
(in kW)
LFalways

is
1.
Maximum
demand
or
LF

Average load (kWh)


Maximum demand Demand period (hr)
57

Economic Aspects
Diversity Factor (Div F) - The ratio
of the sum of the individual
maximum demands in a distribution
system to the maximum demand of
the whole
distribution
system.
Demand
Ind. Max.
Div F

Group Max. Demand

For consumer Div. F < 1.0


For generation supplier Div. F > 1.0
58

Example 1 Economic Aspects


A load rises from zero to 10 kW instantaneously
and stays constant for 1 minute, then rises to 20
kW and remains constant for 1 minute,
continues at this rate of rise until it reaches a
maximum value of 50 kW for 1 minute, then
instantly falls to zero for 1 minute, after which it
again rises in 10 kW steps at 1 minute intervals
to a maximum of 50 kW and returns to zero for 1
minute. If the load continues to vary in these
steps:
What is the average demand over the first 15
minutes?
ii. Over the second 15 minutes?
iii. Over the 30 minutes demand interval?
i.

59

Example 1 Economic Aspects


Solution:
kW
50
40
30
20
10
Time (minute)
15 minutes

60

Example 1 Economic Aspects


Solution (Cont.):
(i)
Total demand
= (10 kW x 3 + 20 kW x 3 + 30 kW x 3 + 40 kW
x 2 + 50 kW x 2)
= 360 kW
Average demand over 15 minutes
= 360 kW/15 minutes
= 24 kW.

61

Example 1 Economic Aspects


Solution (Cont.):
(ii) Total demand for the second 15 minutes
= 390 kW
Average demand = 390 kW/15 minutes
= 26 kW
(iii) Total demand over 30 minutes
= 360 kW + 390 kW = 750 kW
Average demand = 750 kW/30 minutes
= 25 kW
62

Example 2 Economic Aspects


A factory consumes 425,200 kVAh in a year
with the yearly average power factor, 0.86.
If
the half-an-hour demand was 120 kW, find,
i. The average load demand
ii. Annual load factor
iii. If the factory decided to increase the
electricity usage to 450,000 kWh and
the load factor to 65%, what will be the
maximum demand?
63

Example 2 Economic Aspects


Solution:
(i) Average load demand
= (425,200 x 0.86) kWh/ (365 x 24) hr
= 41.74 kW.
(ii) Load factor = 41.74 kW/ 120 kW =
35%.
(iii) Maximum demand
= 450,000 kWh/ (8,760 x 0.65) =
79.03 kW.
64

Example 3 Economic Aspects


A group of Parit Raja consumers has a
total annual individual maximum
demand of 132 kVA supplied from a
single phase distribution
transformer. If the average diversity
factor
between the group of consumers is
2.8,
determine the nearest standard size of
the

65

Example 3 Economic Aspects


Solution:
The size of the transformer is determined
according to the maximum demand of the
whole group.
Group Maximum demand,
= Annual individual maximum demand/ DF
= 132 kVA/ 2.8
= 47.14 kVA.
Nearest standard size = 50 kVA.
66

Tariffs
The rate of charging for electrical
energy supplied by the utility
company to its consumer.
Tariff charge is depends on various
factors:
Type of consumer (industrial,

commercial, or domestic)
Type of service (lighting, heating, etc)
Total fixed running annual charges
of the utility company
Facility for calculating the bill

67

Tariffs
Definition of electricity tariff:
Total actual charges (fixed running) [RM]
Tariff
Total energy supplied to the consumer [kWh]

3 types of tariffs:
i. Residential
ii. Commercial
iii. Industrial
68

TNB Tariffs
Refer to TNB Tariffs Book (updated 2011).
Power Factor Tariff (Low Power Factor Penalty):
Below 0.85 and up to 0.75 lagging, 1.5% of
the bill for that month for each one-hundredth
(0.01).
Below 0.75 lagging, A supplementary charge
of 3% of the bill for that month for each onehundredth (0.01).
69

Example 4 Power Factor Tariff


A medium voltage industrial consumer having
the following data for its monthly electricity bill:
Total electricity consumption in kWh
- 160,000 units
The reactive power consumption in kVArh
- 120,000 units
The monthly load factor - 68%
For each kilowatt of maximum demand per
month
= RM 25.30/ kW
For all kWh = 28.8 cents/ kWh

70

Example 4 Power Factor Tariff


i. Determine the monthly maximum
demand for this consumer. [take 30
days/month]
ii. What is the total monthly bill charge
for this consumer?
iii. Recalculate the total monthly bill
charge if the reactive power
consumption is increased to
150,000 units.
71

Example 4 Power Factor Tariff


Solution:
(i) Monthly max. demand
= 160,000 kWh/(0.68)(30 x 24) = 326.80 kW.
(ii) Monthly bill without PF consideration,
= 326.80 kW x RM 25.30 + 160,000 kWh x RM
0.288
= RM 54,348.04
PF = cos (tan-1 120,000/160,000) = 0.8
Poor PF charge = 1.5% x (0.85 - 0.8) x 100 x
RM54,348.04
= RM 4,076.10

72

Example 4 Power Factor Tariff


Solution:
(iii) Monthly bill without PF consideration,
= 326.80 kW x RM 25.30 + 160,000 kWh x RM
0.288
= RM 54,348.04
PF = cos (tan-1 150,000/160,000) = 0.73
Poor PF charge = [1.5% x (0.85 - 0.75) + 3.0% x
(0.75 - 0.73)] x 100 x RM54,348.04 = RM
11,413.09
Total monthly bill charge = RM 65,761.13
73

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