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Chapter 4

The Internal Assessment

Strategic Management:
Concepts & Cases
13th Edition
Fred David

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Ch 4 -1

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Ch 4 -2

Internal Audit

Identify strengths and weaknesses in


Management
Marketing
Finance and accounting
Production and operations
Research and development
Management information systems

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Ch 4 -3

Nature of an Internal Audit


Basis for Objectives & Strategies

Internal strengths/weaknesses
External opportunities/threats
Clear statement of mission

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Ch 4 -4

Key Internal Forces


Distinctive Competencies:
Firms

strengths that cannot be


easily matched or imitated by
competitors

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Ch 4 -5

Key Internal Forces


Distinctive Competencies:
Building

competitive advantage
involves taking advantage of
distinctive competencies

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Ch 4 -6

Internal Audit Process


Parallels process of external audit
Information

gathered from:

Management

Marketing

Finance/accounting

Production/operations

Research & development

Management information systems

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Ch 4 -7

Internal Audit
Managers

and employees from


all areas provide information
A

team of managers then selects


10 to 15 key organizational
strengths and weaknesses to
focus on
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Ch 4 -8

Internal Audit
Financial Ratio Analysis

Exemplifies complexity of
relationships among functional areas
of the business

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Ch 4 -9

Integrating Strategy & Culture


Organizational Culture
Pattern of behavior developed by an

organization as it learns to cope with its


problem of external adaptation and
internal integration . . . is considered valid
and taught to new members as the correct
way to perceive, think, and feel

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Ch 4 -10

Integrating Strategy & Culture


Organizational Culture

Resistant to change

May represent:

Strength

Weakness
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Ch 4 -11

Integrating Strategy & Culture


Values
Beliefs

Legends

Heroes

Symbols

Cultural
Products

Myths

Rites

Rituals

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Ch 4 -12

Integrating Strategy & Culture


Organizational Culture Can Inhibit
Strategic Management

Miss external changes due to


strongly held beliefs

Natural tendency to hold the


course even during times of
strategic change
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Ch 4 -13

Marketing
Marketing Functions
1. Customer analysis
2. Selling products/services
3. Product & service planning
4. Pricing
5. Distribution
6. Marketing research
7. Opportunity analysis

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Ch 4 -14

Marketing
Customer surveys
Consumer information
Customer
Analysis

Market positioning
strategies
Customer profiles
Market segmentation
strategies
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Ch 4 -15

Finance/Accounting

1. Investment decision (Capital

budgeting)
2. Financing decision
3. Dividend decision

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Ch 4 -16

Basic Financial Ratios

Firms ability to meet its


short-term obligations
Liquidity Ratios

Ratios
Current ratio
Quick (or acid test) ratio

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Ch 4 -17

Basic Financial Ratios


Extent of debt financing

Leverage Ratios

Ratios
Debt-to-total assets
Debt-to-equity
Long-term debt-to-equity
Times-interest-earned

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Ch 4 -18

Basic Financial Ratios


Effective use of firms
resources
Activity Ratios

Ratios
Inventory turnover
Fixed assets turnover
Total assets turnover
Accounts receivable turnover
Average collection period

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Ch 4 -19

Basic Financial Ratios


Effectiveness shown by
returns on sales and
investment
Profitability Ratios

Ratios
Gross profit margin
Operating profit margin
Net profit margin
Return on total assets (ROA)

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Ch 4 -20

Basic Financial Ratios


Effectiveness shown by
returns on sales &
investment
Profitability Ratios
(contd)

Ratios
Return on stockholders
equity (ROE)
Earnings per share
Price-earnings ratio

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Ch 4 -21

Basic Financial Ratios


Firms ability to
maintain economic
position
Growth Ratios

Ratios
Sales
Net Income
Earnings per share
Dividends per share

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Ch 4 -22

Finance/Accounting Audit
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Where is the firm financially strong/weak as


indicated by financial ratio analysis?
Can the firm raise needed short-term capital?
Can the firm raise needed long-term capital
through debt and/or equity?
Does the firm have sufficient working capital?
Are capital budgeting procedures effective?

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Ch 4 -23

Finance/Accounting Audit
6.
7.

8.

9.

Are dividend payout policies reasonable?


Does the firm have good relations with its
investors and stockholders?
Are the firms financial managers
experienced and well trained?
Is the firms debt situation excellent?

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Ch 4 -24

Production/Operations
Production/Operations Functions

Process

Capacity

Inventory

Workforce

Quality
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Ch 4 -25

Production/Operations Audit
Are
Are suppliers
suppliers of
of materials,
materials, parts,
parts, etc.
etc.
reliable
reliable and
and reasonable?
reasonable?
Are
Are facilities,
facilities, equipment,
equipment, machinery,
machinery,and
and
offices
offices in
in good
good condition?
condition?
Are
Are inventory-control
inventory-control policies
policies and
and
procedures
procedures effective?
effective?

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Ch 4 -26

Production/Operations Audit
Are
Are quality-control
quality-control policies
policies && procedures
procedures
effective?
effective?
Are
Are facilities,
facilities, resources,
resources, and
and markets
markets
strategically
strategically located?
located?
Does
Does the
the firm
firm have
have technological
technological
competencies?
competencies?

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Ch 4 -27

Research & Development


Research & Development Functions

Development of new products before


competitors

Improving product quality

Improving manufacturing processes to


reduce costs

These functions can be done internally or


externally
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Ch 4 -28

Research & Development Audit


Are
Are the
the R&D
R&D facilities
facilities adequate?
adequate?
IfIf R&D
R&D is
is outsourced,
outsourced, is
is itit cost-effective?
cost-effective?
Are
Are the
the R&D
R&D personnel
personnel well
well qualified?
qualified?
Are
Are R&D
R&D resources
resources allocated
allocated effectively?
effectively?

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Ch 4 -29

Research & Development Audit


Are
Are MIS
MIS and
and computer
computer systems
systems
adequate?
adequate?
Is
Is communication
communication between
between R&D
R&D and
and
other
other organizational
organizational units
units effective?
effective?
Are
Are present
present products
products technologically
technologically
competitive?
competitive?

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Ch 4 -30

Management Information Systems


Purpose

Improve performance of an
enterprise by improving the quality
of managerial decisions

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Ch 4 -31

Management Information Systems


Audit

Do all managers use the information system


to make decisions?
Is there a CIO or Director of Information
Systems position in the firm?
Are data updated regularly?
Do managers from all functional areas
contribute input to the information system?
Are there effective passwords for entry into
the firms information system?
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Ch 4 -32

Management Information Systems


Audit

Are strategists of the firm familiar with the


information systems of rival firms?
Is the information system user-friendly?
Do all users understand the competitive
advantages that information can provide?
Are computer training workshops provided for
users?
Is the firms system being improved?
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Ch 4 -33

Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix

1. List key internal factors


2. Assign a weight ranging from 0.0 to 1.0
3. Assign a 1 to 4 rating to each factor
4. Multiply the weight times the rating
5. Sum the weighted scores

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Ch 4 -34