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# Chassis design and analysis

1. Bending case

vehicle frame

2. Torsion case

## 3. Combined bending and torsion

sion cannot exist without bending as gravitational forces are always pre

Bending case

Unsprung mass

Torsion case

## dynamic factors in this case are typically 1.3 for

1.5 and for cross-country vehicles a factor of 1.8
may be used.

## Combined bending and torsion

assuming
the front track tf = 1450 mm and
rear track tr = 1400 mm.
The load on the right wheel Re
=6184 N,
The torque on the body 4328 Nm and
RF is 5971 N.

Allowable stress
Stress due to static load Dynamic Factor 2/3
yield stress
This means that under the worst dynamic load
condition the stress should not exceed 67% of
the yield stress
Bending stiffness
Torsional stiffness

Cruciform frames

## Torque tube backbone frames

main backbone is a closed box section through
which runs the drive shaft between the gearbox
and the final drive unit.
transverse members - resisting lateral loads.

Space frames
Adding depth to a frame considerably
increases its bending strength and
stiffness.
All planes are fully triangulated so that the
beam elements are essentially loaded in
tension or compression.

Integral structures
This is a structure where the component
parts provide both structural and other
functions.
integral structure the whole side frame
with its depth and the roof are made to
contribute to the vehicle bending and
torsional stiffness.
relative stiffnesses.

Redundant Structure

## Structural analysis by simple

structural surfaces method
There are many ways of modelling a vehicle structure.
Equivalent Beam Model
simple structural surfaces
Complex models (Computational Model)
One most useful method was Simple Structural
Surfaces. It is possible with this method to determine the
loads on the main structural members of an integral
structure.
Definition of a Simple Structural Surface (SSS)
A Simple Structural Surface is rigid in its own plane but
flexible out of plane. That is, it can carry loads in its plane
(tension, compression, shear, bending) but loads normal to
the plane and bending out of the plane are not possible.

## Simple Structural Surfaces

representing a box van in torsion

## The equilibrium of the SSS-2 and SSS-3

SSS-2 (Front cross-beam)

## Now consider the loads from the cross-beams acting on

the left hand sideframe (SSS-6).

typical SSS
idealizations

## Simple Structural Surfaces

representing a saloon car in bending

## Simple Structural Surfaces

representing a saloon car in torsion

Computational methods
Structural analysis is now centred around the Finite
Element Analysis method where the vehicle
structure is divided into small elements.
The equations of statics (and/or dynamics) plus the
equations of stress analysis and elasticity for each
element are solved simultaneously using matrix
methods.

Early models