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Research

methodology
UNIT-I

Research
Methodology:-Basics
What is Research ?
What is Research Methodology?
What are Research Methods & Techniques?
Research in Management : Why & Where &

what

Research:-

information

knowledge

solution

RESEARCH.
Research can be defined as a

Systematic & Scientific


Search or investigation
for pertinent information/knowledge/solution
on a specific topic/subject/problem.
Research is a scientific and systematic search
for pertinent information on a specific topic. It
is a careful investigation or enquiry specially
through search for knowledge. It is a
movement from known to unknown

Research:- (Diagram)

Search

INFORMATION/
KNOWLEDGE

on
a
Topi
c

Research menans
Research

means

finding

answers

to

the

questions.
It is a systematic search for truth.
Through
research,
new
and
original
information, ideas about the world we live in,
are obtained.
Research is search for knowledge.
Research is defined as a scientific and
systematic search for information on a specific
topic.

RESEARCH PROCESS
FF

Review the literature

Define
Research
Problem

Review
Concepts
And
theories

FF

Formulate
hypothesis

Review
Previous
Research
findings

Design
Research
(Including
Sample
Design)

Collect
Data

IV

III

II

Interpret
and
report

Analyse
Data

VI

F
F
FF

Feed Back
Feed Forward

VII

Research compared
The differences between knowledge arrived at
through common sense and intuition on the one
hand, and scientific research on the other, can
be expressed by concepts such as organized,
structured, methodical, systematic,
testable and specifically by the notion of
disciplinary inquiry.
Selinger and shohamy (1989)

Research methodology
The way/science

systematically

&
TO DO/CONDUCT
RESEARCH

scientifically

Research methodology..
Research Methodology says that

how
to do/conduct research
systematically & scientifically.

Research methodology

not only provides


the knowledge of various types of methods & techniques
for Sampling , data collection, data analysis & report writing etc.
but also guides
that which particular method or technique
for sampling/data collection/data analysis should be used or
not
& why should /shouldn't do so.

Research methodology
diagram
The Way/Science

To Do/Conduct
Research

Systematically

Scientifically

Nature of Business
Research
Nature of Business Research involves:

academics policy-makers practitioners


trans-disciplinarily related to context not easily
replicated more emphasis on dissemination &
exploitation

Ways of business
research..
Research is a systematic inquiry whose
objective is to provide information to
solve managerial problems.
Business Research Methods can be
employed in each of the following four
stages:
1. Identification of problems and/or opportunities.
Diagnosing and Assessment of problems and/or
opportunities.
3. Selection and Implementation of Courses of
Action.
4. Evaluating the Course of Action.
2.

Selected Examples of Real-Life Situations in Which


Business Research Methods are Used
A firm wants to produce and market a new product but first

wants to ascertain if there is a potential consumer demand for


this product in markets x,y and z
A multinational firm wants to establish a production facility in

another country after determining its technical and economic


feasibility
A government agency wants to ascertain the satisfaction level

of its employees, the causes for any possible discontent, and


propose a scheme for enhancing this level
A financial institution wants to invest in commodities and

commissions a study to determine the past trends and forecast


future returns in a portfolio of commodities
MNC wants to find out the trends in retail and wholesale sector

Defined.
Business research is defined as the

systematic and objective process of


generating information for aid in making
business decisions

Social Research
M.H. Gopal defined it as it is scientific

analysis of the nature and trends of social


phenomena of groups or in general of human
behavior so as to formulate broad principles
and scientific concepts.

Applied research
Is carried on to find solution to a real life

problem requiring an action or policy decision.


It is thus problem oriented and action
directed.
It seeks an immediate and practical resulet.
E.g; market research carried on for developing
a new market for studying the post purchage
experience of customers.

Pure research
Pure research is undertaken for the sake of

knowledge without any intention to apply it in


practice.
E.g : einsteins theory of relativity,newtoms
contribution,galileos contribution
pure research is also known as basic of
fundamental research . It is undertaken out of
intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness.
It is necessarily problem oriented.
It aims extension of knowledge.

Steps in Social
Research
Although different methods are used in social

science research, the common goal of a social


research is one the same, i.e. furthering our
understanding of society and thus all share certain
basic stages such as:
Choosing the research problems and stating the
hypothesis.
Formulating the Research Design.
Gathering the Data.
Coding and Analysis the Data.
Interpreting the results so as to test the hypothesis

Qualitative& Quantitative
As sometimes it goes for collect
qualitative information like attitude,
satisfaction level, perception etc. of
consumers, retailers, employees ,hence it
is qualitative & sometimes it collects &
present information in numerical forms too
like number of people, percentage of
consumers/retailers/employees, etc. so it is
quantitative too.

APPLIED RESEARCH
Applied research refers to scientific study and

research that seeks to solve practical problems. Applied


research is used to find solutions to everyday problems,
cure illness, and develop innovative technologies,
rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake.
For example, applied researchers may investigate ways

to:
Improve agricultural crop production
Treat or cure a specific disease
Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or

modes of transportation

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
Descriptive researchrefers to research that

provides an accurate portrayal of


characteristics of a particular individual,
situation, or group. Descriptive research, also
known asstatisticalresearch.
These studies are a means of discovering new

meaning, describing what exists, determining


the frequency with which something occurs,
and categorizing information.

Cont.
In shortdescriptive researchdeals with

everything that can be counted and


studied, which has an impact of the lives
of the people it deals with.
For example,
finding the most frequent disease that affects

the children of a town. The reader of the


research will know what to do to prevent that
disease thus, more people will live a healthy
life.

Cont
Advantages:
The people individual studied are unaware so they act naturally or as they

usually do in everyday situation;


It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative experiments;
Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying;
As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is to start the
research with it;

Disadvantages

Descriptive research requires more skills.


Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon
Response rate is low in this research.
Results of this research can change over the period of time.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Experimental research is an objective, systematic,

controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and


controlling phenomena and examining probability and
causality among selected variables.
Advantages
Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships
Disadvantages
Artificiality
Feasibility
Unethical

The simplest experimental design includes two variables and two

groups of participants.
The two variables(Independent versus Dependent variables).
The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the outcome

variable.
Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's effect on the
DV.
The two groups of participants (Control versus Experimental

group).
Before beginning the experiment, the researcher (randomly) assigns
his/her sample to two different groups: the control group and the
experimental (treatment group or clinical group).
The control group receives no manipulation of the IV (no treatment),
whereas the experimental group receives the manipulation of the IV

What is Hypothesis
A Hypothesis is the statement or an

assumption about relationships between


variables.
or
A Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for

certain behaviors, phenomenon or events that


have occurred or will occur.

Hypothesis
Construction
It should be empirically testable, whether it is

right or wrong.
It should be specific and precise.
The statements in the hypothesis should not
be contradictory.
It should specify variables between which the
relationship is to be established.
It should describe one issue only.

A Hypothesis
must make a prediction
must identify at least two variables
should have an elucidating power
should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation or

accounting of a fact
must be falsifiable meaning hypotheses must be
capable of being refuted based on the results of the
study
must be formulated in simple, understandable terms
should correspond with existing knowledge
In general, a hypothesis needs to be unambiguous,
specific, quantifiable, testable and generalizable.

Characteristics of a Testable Hypothesis


1. A Hypothesis must be conceptually clear

- concepts should be clearly defined


- the definitions should be commonly accepted
- the definitions should be easily communicable
2. The hypothesis should have empirical reference

- Variables in the hypothesis should be empirical


realities
- If they are not it would not be possible to make
the observation and ultimately the test
3. The Hypothesis must be specific

- Place, situation and operation

4. A hypothesis should be related to available techniques of research

- Either the techniques are already available or


- The researcher should be in a position to develop suitable
techniques
5. The hypothesis should be related to a body of theory

- Hypothesis has to be supported by theoretical argumentation


- It should depend on the existing body of knowledge
In this way
the study could benefit from the existing knowledge and
later on through testing the hypothesis could contribute to the
reservoir of knowledge

Categorizing Hypotheses
. Null Hypotheses and Alternate Hypotheses
Null hypothesis always predicts that
no differences between the groups being studied

(e.g., experimental vs. control group) or


no relationship between the variables being studied

By contrast, the alternate hypothesis always

predicts that there will be a difference between


the groups being studied (or a relationship
between the variables being studied)

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

Types of Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis (H0)
Alternative Hypothesis (Ha or H1)
Each of the following statements is an example of a
null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

Establish Critical or Rejection region

Select the Suitable Test of


significance or Test Statistic
Whether the test involves one sample, two

samples, or samples?
Whether two or more samples used are
independent or related?
Is the measurement scale nominal, ordinal,
interval, or ratio?

The choice of a probability distribution of a sample


statistics is guided but the sample size n and the value of
population standard deviation as shown in the table.

Rule to Accept Null


Hypothesis
Accept H0 if the test statistic value falls within

the area of acceptance.


Reject otherwise

ERRORS IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING

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