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# KNF1023

Engineering Mathematics II

Week 13-14
Fourier Series

Week 13-14
Fourier Series

Chapter Contents:
Introduction to Fourier Series
Calculating a Fourier Series
(Finding the Fourier coefficients)

Week 13-14
Introduction to Fourier Series
The representation of a function in the form of
a series is common in mathematics.
The most familiar expansions are Power
Series:
f ( x) an x n 1, x, x 2 , x 3 ,........, x n
n 0

## Also, we are familiar with Exponential

Function, which may be represented by infinite
n
2
3
n

series:
x
x
x
x
ex
1 x .......... ....
2! 3!
n!
n 0 n!

Week 13-14
Introduction to Fourier Series

## So why do we want to expand a function

a
series?
into
Because the first few terms are simple and
easy to deal with, we can use it as a good
approximation for the whole function.

## Thus, we can apply integration or

differentiation transforms.

Week 13-14
Introduction to Fourier Series

## A periodic function f(t) can be expressed as

the sum of an infinite number of sine and/or
cosine functions.
This infinite sum is known as Fourier
Series.

Week 13-14
Introduction to Fourier Series

f (t ) 2 sin t

2
f (t ) 2 sin t sin 2t sin 3t
3

f (t ) 2 sin t sin 2t

2
1
f (t ) 2 sin t sin 2t sin 3t sin 4t
3
2

Week 13-14
Introduction to Fourier Series

## As more and more sine terms are included

the graph appear to resemble more and
more closely the periodic saw-tooth
waveform:

Week 13-14
Introduction to Fourier Series

## The infinite series of sine functions is the

Fourier Series of the saw-tooth waveform.
Fourier Series is built-up of sine functions of
increasing frequencies and decreasing
amplitudes.

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series

## To calculate a Fourier Series, the technique

of integration by parts will be needed.
Given a periodic function f(t), with period T,
calculate the quantities a0, an and bn.
These quantities a0, an and bn are called the
Fourier coefficients.

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series

## Formulae for finding Fourier Coefficients:

2 T
a0 f (t )dt
T 0
2 T
2nt
an f (t ) cos
dt ,
T 0
T

n 1,2,3,...

2 T
2nt
bn f (t ) sin
dt ,
T 0
T

n 1,2,3,...

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series

## After the coefficients are calculated, the

Fourier Series is given by the formula:
a0
2nt
2nt
f (t ) an cos
bn sin
2 n 1
T
T

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series
Example 1:
Obtain the Fourier series expansion of the periodic function
f (t )2
t ,defined
(0 t by
2 )
f(x) of period
Solution:
Fourier series expansion,

f (t ) a0 an cos nt bn sin nt

(1)

1 d T
a0
f (t )dt

d
2
1
1 d T
b

an f (t ) cos ntdt n

(2)

n 1

n 1

d T

f (t ) sin ntdt

(3) &
(4)
To write out the series expansion of equation (1), we need to
find
d

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series
Solution (continue):
Given f(t) = t with the interval (0 < t < 2)
1
a

So, 0
2

f (t )dt 1
2

1 t2
tdt

2 2

1 d T
From formula (3):an d f (t ) cos ntdt

1 2
an t cos ntdt
0
2
t cos ntdt
Using integration by parts to solve

1
t cos ntdt

sin nt cos nt
t n n 2

## sin 2n = 0 and cos 2n = 1

1
an

2 2

1
2

2
2

1 1
1
2 2 0
n n

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series
Solution (continue):

1 d T
From formula (4): bn d f (t ) sin ntdt
1 2
bn t sin ntdt
0
2

t sin ntdt
Using integration by parts to0 solve
1
bn

1
t sin ntdt

sin nt
t

cos
nt

n
n 2

:
1 2
2

cos 2n

n
n

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series
Solution (continue):
Thus, the Fourier series expansion from equation (1) :

1
f (t ) a0 an cos nt bn sin nt
2
n 1
n 1

where founda0 ,

an 0

2
bn and
n

2
f (t ) 0 cos nt sin nt
n
n 1
n 1

2
f (t ) sin nt
n 1 n

Week 13-14
Calculating a Fourier Series
Example 2 (Sample Final Exam Semester 2
2009/2010):
Obtain
the Fourier series expansion of the periodic function
2
f ( x) 2
xdefined
x, (by x )
f(x) of period
Solution:
Fourier Series expansion,

n 1

n 1

f ( x) a0 an cos nx bn sin nx

(1) 1

a0
an

2
1

1
bn

-----------------------------

f ( x)dx

f ( x) cos nxdx

f ( x) sin nxdx

--------------------------------------------- (2)
---------------------------------------- (3)
---------------------------------------- (4)

KNF1023
Engineering Mathematics II

The End