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POWER QUALITY WORKSHOP

MODULE PQ TRANSIENT & SURGE


PROTECTION

Power Quality Transient and Surge Protection


Version 1.00, March 2015

SYNOPSIS HEP AND SPD


INTRODUCTION to SPD

Transients Class and SPD


Parts of IEC364 and other IEC standards
dealing with SPD
Definition and Types of SPD
Number of port, technology type,
Selection of SPD
Risk analysis, Design Check, SPD Selection
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

Introduction

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

INTRODUCTION

Surge Protective Device ?

A device that is intended:


(1) to limit transient overvoltages; and
(2) divert surge currents.
It contains at least one non-linear component.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

INTRODUCTION

Why Surge Protection ?

Increasing sophistication of LV networks.


Increasing use of sensitive equipment.
Lower consumer tolerance for bad PQ.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

INTRODUCTION

Forums dealing with SPD ?

Forum on EMC
Forum on Power Quality
Forum on Wiring Installation
Forum on Lightning Protection
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

Transient Class and SPD

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TRANSIENT CLASS & SPD
2 Types of transients defined in IEC
61000 series (EMC)
61000-4-4 EFT is in the 100MHz
61000-4-4 EFT (Electrical Fast Transient)
bandwidth
range.
Note
ESD
or
burst
transient
(electrostatic discharge) is in the
nano second range. ESD is of
particular
importance
to
semiconductor
manufacturing
facilities.

61000-4-5
ST (Slow Transient)
ST is in the 100kHz bandwidth

ond
c
e
s
Nano lse
pu

ond
c
e
s
Micro lse
pu

range.
ST is in the micro second range.
HEP refers mainly to strong
electromagnetic induced pulse such
as
lightning
and
atmospheric
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

TWO TYPES OF TRANSIENT CLASS

61000-4-4 EFT (Electrical Fast Transient) or burst


transient
EFT is in the nano second range (100 MHz bandwidth)
Each EFT spike is 100ns . A collection of EFT spikes within 15ms
is a burst.
EFT principally occurs due to switching surge (current chopping,
arc re-ignition in switching etc).
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is also within the nanosecond range
d
econ
s
o
n
Na
pulse

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

10

2 TYPES OF TRANSIENT CLASS

61000-4-5 ST (Slow Transient)


ST (Slow Transient) is in the micro second range (100 kHz bandwidth)
2 types of ST which is
(1) HEP (high energy pulse) switching surges, arc re-ginition in
breakers, curren chopping lightning phenomenon
(2) LEP (Low energy pulse), switching surges, radiated surge.
ond
c
e
s
o
Micr lse
pu

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

11

TRANSIENT CLASS SWITCHING


SURGE

Voltage = Inductance x Rate of Change of Current


V = -L x di/dt

1. When the current is chopped or cut to zero within


the very short time;
2. The rate of change of current becomes very high.
3. Together with the innate inductance the voltage
across the gap will increase to a high value.
4. This will cause the arc to re-strike across the gap.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

12

TRANSIENT CLASS SWITCHING


SURGE

1. TRV1 , TRV2 , TRV3 are


voltage across the
contact
gap
as
current
is
interrupted.
2. When the voltage
reaches
breakdown
a
flashover
will
occur across the
gap.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

13

TRANSIENT CLASS SWITCHING


SURGE

Voltage = Inductance x Rate of Change of Current


V = L x di/dt
A
highly
inductive
or
capacitive
circuit.

cus
o
f
n
tatio low
n
e
s
pre
yS
This h Energ nsient
a
ig
on H , Slow Tr
e
Puls

Switching such a circuit at zero (or near zero) current


crossing can cause transient.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

SPD Standards

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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STANDARDS DEALING WITH SPD

PARTS OF MS/IEC 60364 Dealing with SPD

Part 5-53 Selection and erection of


electrical equipment Isolation, switching
and control

Part 4-44 Protection for safety Protection


against voltage disturbances and electromagnetic disturbances

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

16

STANDARDS DEALING WITH SPD

IEC Standards dealing with SPD


IEC TS 61312-3 Protection against lightning electro-magnetic
impulse - Part 3: Requirements of surge protective devices
(SPDs)
IEC 61643-1 Surge protective devices connected to lowvoltage power distribution systems - Part 1: Performance
requirements and testing methods
IEC 61643-12 Low-voltage surge protective devices - Part 12:
Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power
distribution systems - Selection and application principles
IEC 61643-21 Low voltage surge protective devices Part 21:
Surge protective devices connected to telecommunications
and signalling networks Performance requirements and
testing methods.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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STANDARDS DEALING WITH SPD

IEC Standards dealing with SPD


IEC 61643-311 Components for low-voltage surge protective
devices - Part 311: Specification for gas discharge tubes
(GDT)
IEC 61643-321 Components for low-voltage surge protective
devices - Part 321: Specifications for avalanche breakdown
diode (ABD)
IEC 61643-331 Components for low-voltage surge protective
devices - Part 331: Specification for metal oxide varistors
(MOV)
IEC 61643-341 Components for low-voltage surge protective
devices - Part 341: Specification for thyristor surge
suppressors (TSS)
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

Types of SPD

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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TYPES OF SPD BY NUMBER OF


PORTS

SPD by Number of Ports 1 Port SPD

1-port
1-portSPD
SPD

SPD

1-port
1-portSPDwith
SPDwithseparate
separate
input/output
terminals
input/output terminals

One port SPD is connected in shunt


with the circuit to be protected.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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TYPES OF SPD 2 PORTS

SPD by Number of Ports 2 Port SPD

33terminals,
terminals,22port
port

SPD

44terminals,
terminals,22port
port

Two port SPD can be connected


in different mode (ph-ph, ph-N,
ph-E etc). A series impedance is
inserted between the terminals.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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TYPES OF SPD TECHNOLOGY

Technology/Design Type
voltage
limiting

voltage
switching

Clamping type

Has a high impedance when no surge is present.


Impedance will reduce continuously with
increase surge current and voltages

Has a high impedance when no surge is present.


Impedance will change suddenly in response
to a voltage surge.
Crowbar type

combination

Incoporates both v-switching and v-limiting types


components, may exhibit v-switching or v-limiting
or both v-switching & v-limiting behaviour
depending on characteristics of applied voltage,
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CLAMPING


TYPE

Technology/Design Type
Clamping type
(Voltage limiting)

Standard
combination wave
8/20 I-Impulse &
1.2/50 V-Impulse

Clamping
voltage
Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV)
Avalanche Breakdown Diode (ABD)
zener (avalanche) diode
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CLAMPING


TYPE

Clamping type (Voltage limiting) Device

Limits voltage transient to specified level by varying


internal resistance in response to an applied voltage
Have quick response time.
Must absorb the transient energy and therefore cannot
withstand very high current levels.
Subject to leakage currents, capacitive values may be
higher than GDT.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CLAMPING ZENER


DIODE

ABD or Zener (avalanche) Diode


Closet to an ideal V-clamp !
Fast
response
potential.

to

rising

Wide range of clamping voltage (from 10V to 300V).


Ideal
for
low
voltages,
transients on data lines, power
supply to computer buses,
protection of IC from static.

Higher powered transient volage suppressors


(TCS) using large junction zeners,
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CLAMPING


MOV

Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV)

Voltage variable resistor with


sintered metal oxide (generally
ZnO).
Handles higher peak at longer
duration then diodes
Experience
cumulative
degradation with large
current pulses.
Some engineer recommend
fuse to be used with MOV to
prevent large current surge
from fusing/ damaging the
sintered oxide.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CROW BAR

Crowbar type
(Voltage switching)

Standard
combination wave
8/20 I-Impulse &
1.2/50 V-Impulse
Gas Discharge Tude (GDT)
Spark Gap

Sudden
switching

Carbon block
Thryristor surge suppressor
Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
Common Usage:
Telecom terminal block (low energy)
Lightning SPD high voltage switchgear
O/H transformer spark gap.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CROW BAR

Crowbar type (Voltage switching) Device

Limits voltage transient energy delivered to the protected


circuit by abruptly changing from a high impedance to a low
impedance state in response to a rise in voltage level.
The crowbar device switches into conducting mode
diverting the transient energy to ground or to dissipative
circuits in the design. This allows higher withstand energy.
Have very quick response time.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CLAMPING


TYPE

Spark gap, GDT, carbon block

IEC 61643-311

Air Gap 2 conductors placed at a separtion distance which will


permit a arc to develop on a specified potential.
Gap not enclosed.
Sometimes installed as back-up to GDT.
GDT gap placed inside a seal tube
filled with gas.
Can withstand repeated surges,
long life
Can withstand very high current.
Surges compared to other SPD.
Carbon block pair of carbon element
separated by micro inch gap (.0030.004)
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY CROW BAR

Thryistor surge supressor (TSS)

IEC 61643-341

TSS Class of monolithic semi conductor devices incoporating diode,


triodes or tetrode in configuration with switching/blocking functions in
forward and/or reverse directions.
SCR silicon controlled rectifier;
class of TSS with simple forward
switching function.
Conduction mode is triggered by a
signal usually from a zener diode
initiation is in response to surge.
The SCR will continue conducting
until the applied voltage drops to
zero or to a specified value.
TSS have faster response time than GDT.
Allow design for protection in both directions !
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY

Summarised Comparison of Technologies

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TECHNOLOGY COMBINATION SPD

Combination SPD
Characteristics of clamping combined with crowbar.
Resistors are added between terminals in multi-port
devices.
Capacitor/filters are sometimes added to modify
behaviour of device.

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TECHNOLOGY COMBINATION SPD

Combination SPD

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CLASS BY TEST

Classification By Test
1.2/50 Voltage Impulse

8/20 Current Impulse

UNIPOLAR PULSE (IEEE) Combination Wave (IEC61643)


Up 6kV with 3kA (Maximum available destruction energy = 90 joules)
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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CLASS BY TEST

Classification By Test

IEEE62.41 only

IEC61643 & IEEE62.41

Unipolar Pulse 6kV with 3kA 90 joules


Ringwave 6kV at 100kHz, 200A to 500A (depending on the location grade 2.6 joules to 6.5 joules
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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CLASS BY TEST

Classification By Test IEC61643-12


Class I
Test

Class II
Class III
Test

Intended to sImulate partial conducted


lightning current impulses.
Recommended for locations of high exposure
e.g. entrance to building etc.

Subjected to impulses of shorter duration.


Recommended for locations with lesser
exposure to direct impulse.

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

Selection of SPD

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SPD SELECTION PROCEDURE

Selection Procedure

Comp
lete R
SPD
desig oadmap to
n and
in IEC
selec
61643
tion
-Part
12

Risk Analysis
Need for SPD, determine energy withstand, risk /
cost analysis.

Design/ Installation Check


Mode of protection, choice of location, classes
coordination, protection zone concept etc.

Selection of SPD
Ratings, specifications, interaction/
coordination with other devices (RCD, O/C etc.)
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SELECTION OF SPD

Risk Analysis
Group A Environment
A1 Lightning incidence
A2 Power switching incidence
A3 Exposure and coupling with LPS
A4 Location of facility of building
Group B Equipment and
Facilities
B1 Equipment withstand category & immunity level
B2 Earthing system
B3 Power system layout

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SELECTION OF SPD

Risk Analysis
Group C Economics and services interruption
C1 Service degradation or loss of services
C2 Loss of operation
C3 Repair or replacement of equipment or facilities
C4 Emergency services
Group D Safety
Safety risk to people /personnel.
Group E Cost of Protection
Design of installation
Material and devices
Installation cost

IEC 61662
describes
method fo
r ris
assessmen k
t related to
lightning s
urge. Risk
assessmen
t for sw itch
ing
surge still
under
considerat
ion by IEC
.
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SELECTION OF SPD

Design/ Installation Check


6.1.1 Mode of protection and installation

Install as close as possible to the origin of


the installation

6.1.2 Oscillation phenomenon

Install as
equipment

6.1.3 Connected lead length

Connecting conductors to SPD shall be as


short as possible

6.1.4 Need for additional protection

SPDs at the entrance of the installation and


others close to the equipment

6.1.5 Choice of the location of SPD


depending on class of test

Class I, II & III tests required at entrace,


class II & III for locations close to the
equipment

6.1.6 Protection zone concept

When such a concept is used SPDs should


be installed at the zone boundaries.

close

as

possible

to

the

Note: The numbering correspond to the clause numbering in section 6 of IEC61643-12..


PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SELECTION OF SPD

Design/ Installation Check Mode of Protection


Possible mode of protection for various LV systems
SPD Between

TT

TN-C

TN-S

IT

Line and neutral

Xa

Line and PE

Xa

Line and PEN

Neutral and PE

Line to line

A When the neutral is distributed.


PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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SELECTION OF SPD

Design/ Installation Check


6.1.2
6.1.2 Oscillation
Oscillationphenomenon
phenomenon

Under certain circumstances when distance between SPD


and equipment is too large, oscillation may occur, leading
to voltage rise at terminal of equipment LOAD
RESONANCE
Install as close as possible to the origin of the installation
6.1.3 Connected lead length

Lead length have influence due to their inductance.

Avoid

Preferred

P
P

Acceptable
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SELECTION OF SPD

Design/ Installation Check


6.1.4
6.1.4 Need
Needfor
foradditional
additionalprotection
protection

Additional SPD arises from analysis of source of surges,


immunity levels of equipment and location in protection zone.
SPD nearest equipment with V-protective level at least 30%
below voltage withstand of equipment
If SPD at entrance combine with distance from equipment
lead to voltage below 0.8UW then additional SPD required.
6.1.5 Choice based on class of test

SPD at entrance tested to class I.


SPD nearer equipment test to class II or III.

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SELECTION OF SPD LIGHTNING


Pr

Design/ Installation Check Zone of Protection

otection
accordin Zone
g to IEC
61312

LPZ=
Lightining
Protection
System

PDS=power
distribution
system

PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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LIGHTNING PROTECTION ZONE, IEC


61312

Design/ Installation Check Zone of Protection

Lightning protection zone


OA subject to direct strike, unattenuated EM field
OB not subject to direct strike, unattenuated EM field
Protection Zone
PZ1 subject to partial strike, conducted impulse reduced
compared to O zones.
PZ2 remnants of impulse reduced compared to PZ1
PZ3 surges caused by oscillation effects, magnetic field
couplings, internal switching.
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LIGHTNING IEEE 62.41

Zone of Protection IEEE 62.41

Category A

Category B

Category C

Outlets and long branch


circuits.
All outlets at more than
10m (30ft) from Category
B
All outlets at more than
20m (60ft) from Category
C

Feeder and short branch


circuits.
Distribution panel devices.
Bus and feeder industrial
plants.
Heavy appliance outlets
with short connections to
service entrance.

Outside
and
service
entrance.
Service drop from pole to
building.
Run between meter and
panel.
Overhead line to detached
building.
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DESIGN CRITERIA IEC 61643-12

Selection of SPD

6 Steps Design
Criteria IEC6164312

6.2.1 Select Uc, UT, In/ IImp/ UDC

6.2.2 Protective distance

Location of SPD

6.2.3 Prospective life & failure mode

Acceptable ?

6.2.4 Interaction of SPD with other devices


Continue next page
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

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DESIGN CRITERIA IEC 61643-12


From previous page

Selection of SPD
6.2.4 Interaction of SPD with other devices

Normal
Conditions

Fault
Conditions

Surge coordination between


SPD & O/C

IC shall be
safe!

SPD shall not


intefere with
RCD or CB

Check In for O/C


operation.

Choice of voltage
protection level
Coordination with
other SPD

Take into account:


Surge withstand of equipment
Nominal voltage of system
When two SPDs are used on the same
conductor
PQ-SPD, V1; February 2015

POWER QUALITY WORKSHOP


MODULE PQ TRANSIENT & SURGE
PROTECTION

PLANNING AN URBAN
TRANSITION
Ir. Dahari Mat Siran (xxx@xxx.com)
B .SUSTAINABILITY
Eng (Hons),
BENCHMARKS

Thank You for Your Attention