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# Channel Model and Simulation

Using Matlab
Abdul-Aziz .M Al-Yami
Khurram Masood

Channel Model

Doppler filter
Jakes model
fd = 100 Hz

## Power of paths = [1 0.5]

Signal Bandwidth (Lowpass equivalent) Bs = 10 kHz
Data Rate = 10k sym/sec
Sampling rate = 160k samples/sec
Samples/symbol = 16

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## Sampling and Doppler Bandwidth

An important aspect of the Tapped Delay Line (TDL) model is the sampling rate for
simulations.
In simulation we use sampled values which should be sampled at 8 to 32 times the
bandwidth
The doppler bandwidth, or the doppler spread, Bd, is the bandwidth of the doppler
spectrum Sd(), and is an indicator of how fast the channel characteristics are changing
(fading) as a function of time. If Bd is of the order of the signal bandwidth Bs ( 1/Ts),
the channel characteristics are changing (fading) at a rate comparable to the symbol
rate, and the channel is said to be fast fading. Otherwise the channel is said to be slow
Bd << Bs 1/Ts (Slow fading channel)
Bd >> Bs 1/Ts (Fast fading channel)

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Parameters
Signal bandwidth = Bs = 10kHz
Ts = 0.1 msec
Maximum doppler frequency = fd = 100 Hz
Sampling frequency = fs = 16*Bs = 160k samples/sec

## Simulation length = 5 / (fd) = 50 msec = 8k samples

Interpolation factor = 100
Delay between taps = 8 samples = 0.5 Ts
Carrier
c(t) = exp[j2(1000)t]

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## Tap Input Process Data

Two independent Gaussian random variables x1 and x2 are
generated
X1,X2 ~ N(0,1)

## For a given Doppler Frequency fd and system symbol rate

1/Ts.
The term fdTs is known as the fade rate.
Each I and Q components should have this fade rate.
The envelope should be Rayleigh distributed and the phase
should be uniformly distributed
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Doppler Filter
The models for doppler power spectral densities for mobile
applications assume:
there are many multipath components
each multipath has different delays
all components have the same doppler spectrum.

## Each multipath component (ray)

made up of a large number of simultaneously arriving unresolvable
multipath components
angle of arrival with a uniform angular distribution at the receive
antenna.
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Jakes Model
Jakes derived the first comprehensive mobile radio channel
model for both doppler effects and amplitude fading effects
The classical Jakes doppler spectrum has the form

where
fd is the maximum doppler shift

## The Jakes filter is implemented via FIR filter in time domain

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Doppler Filter
PSD of Jakes filter with fD = 100 Hz

PSD

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-100

-80

-60

-40

-20
0
20
Frequency [Hz]

40

60

80

100

Input PSD

0.5

200

400

600

800
1000
Frequency (Hz)

1200

1400

1600

1800

200

400

600

800
1000
Frequency (Hz)

1200

1400

1600

1800

Output PSD

1.5
1
0.5
0

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Linear Interpolation
In generating the tap gain processes it should be noted that the
bandwidth of the tap gain processes for slowly time-varying channels will
be very small compared to the bandwidth of the signals that flow through
them.
In this case, the tap gain filter should be designed and executed at a
slower sampling rate.
Interpolation can be used at the output of the filter to produce denser
samples at a rate consistent with the sampling rate of the signal coming
into the tap.
Designing the filter at the higher rate will lead to computational
inefficiencies as well as stability problems.
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## Channel Input / Output

Direct Input

2
1
0
-1
-2

50

100

150

200
250
300
Sample Index

350

400

450

500

50

100

150

200
250
300
Sample Index

350

400

450

500

Direct Output

4
2
0
-2
-4

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Envelope of output
3

Envelope Magnitude

2.5

1.5

0.5

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500

1000

1500
2000
Sample Index

2500

3000

3500

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