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WIND

ENERGY

Energy available in the wind over the earths surface is


estimated to be

1.6x107 K.W
The problems associated with Utilizing
wind energy
(i) The energy is available in dilute form
(ii) (ii) The availability of the energy varies

Means of storage have to be devised if a continuous


supply of power is required

Wind Kinetic
mill energy of moving air

Classification of wind mills

Horizontal Axis single blade Wind mills

Wind Turbine Cost Breakdown

1 propeller type Wind Mill

2 propellers type Wind Mill

3 propellers type

Holland type

Sail type

Multi-blade

Vertical axis wind turbines

Straight wing type

Darrieus type

Cup type

S- paddle type

Savonius type

Crossflow type

Lift and drag

Stalling effect

Pitch angle

Wind Surveys

1. Instrumentation Wind direction sensors


2. Data recording systems- Strip chart
3. Type of data- Wind speed and directionalhourly averages
4. Data reporting Wind Frequency curves,
Daily, Weekly,
Monthly

Wind direction sensors

Strip chart

Strip chart

Site Selection Consideration

1. High annual average wind speed


2. Availability of anemometry
3. Availability of Wind V(t) curve at
proposed site
4. Wind Structure at the proposed site
5. Altitude of the proposed site
6. Distance to Roads and Railways
7. Nearness of site to local center/user
8. Nature of ground
9. Favorable Land cost

Anemometer

Methods of Generating Synchronous Power


from WTGs
Rotor

Generator

Constant Speed
Variable pitch Fixed
Ratio gear

AC
Generator

Constant Speed
Variable pitch Two
stage ratio gear

AC
Generator

The conversion systems

Rotor

Generator

Constant Speed Fixed


pitch Variable Ratio
gear

AC
Generator

Variable Speed Fixed


pitch

DC
Generator/
DC
Motor /AC
generator

The conversion systems

Rotor
Variable Speed Fixed
pitch

Variable Speed Fixed


pitch

Generator
AC
Generator/
Rectifier/DC
motor/ AC
generator

AC
Generator/
Rectifier/
Inverter

The conversion systems

Rotor

Generator

Variable Speed Fixed


pitch

Direct
Converter
(Matrix
Converter)

Variable Speed Fixed


pitch

Wound Rotor
Induction
Generator

The conversion systems

Rotor

Generator

Variable Speed Fixed


pitch

Wound Rotor
Induction
Generator
and
Cycloconvert
er circuit in
the rotor
circuit

The conversion systems

Induction Generator

Two Types of Induction Generator


1. Normal Type (Non-Isolated)
2. Isolated Type (Self Excited)

Normal Type (Non-Isolated)

Normal Type (Non-Isolated)

Isolated Type (Self Excited)

Controls

1. Orientation of the rotor


2. Start up and cut-in
3. Varying Pitch of the blades
4. Generator output monitoring
5. Shutdown and cut out owing to malfunction or very
high winds
6. Maintenance Mode

Controls

Controls

Power in the Wind :

Po = 0.5* *A* Cp*v3

Where
= density of air
v= wind speed
Cp= efficiency factor or Power Coefficient
A= Cross-sectional area of turbine disc

Maximum wind turbine efficiency the Betz limit

The power developed by the wind turbine is

Power =(P1 - P2 ) *
At *Ut

where At is the turbine disc area

Volume flow continuity

Au *Uu = Ad *Ud =
At *Ut
Force on the turbine

F = m*Uu
-m*Ud

Power extracted by the


Turbine:
PT = F*Ut =m(Uu Ud
)*Ut