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Advanced Engineering

Mathematics
LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Laplace Transform

st

f (t )dt lim e st f (t )dt

t0
L f (t ) F ( s )

Laplace Transform
Problem 1:

L 1 e st (1) dt lim e st dt
b

e st
lim
s
b

e sb 1
lim
s
b
1

s0
s

Linear Transform
L f (t ) g (t ) L f (t ) L g (t )
F ( s) G ( s)

Laplace Transform
Problem 2:

Evaluate L{t}

L t e st (t ) dt
0

te
lim
s
b
1

s
1
2
s

st

1 st
e
s 0

1 1
1
s s
s0

Transformation Laplace
Problem 3:

Evaluate L{e-3t}

L {e } e e
3t

st 3t

( s 3) t

e
s3

dt e ( s 3)t dt
0

1
s3

s 3

Transformation Laplace
Problem 4:

Evaluate L{sin2 t}
1
1
1 cos 2t

L
1

L cos 2t

2
2
2

11 1 s
2

2 s 2 s 2 4 s ( s 2 4)

L {sin 2 t} L

Transformation Laplace
Problem 2:
L 1

1
s

L t n

n!
s n 1
1
L e at
sa

n 1, 2, 3,

k
s2 k 2
s
L cos kt 2
s k2
k
L sinh kt 2
s k2
s
L cosh kt 2
s k2
L sin kt

Inverse Transform
f (t ) L -1 F ( s )
1

1 L -1

n!
n 1
s

t n L -1

n 1, 2, 3,

s a
k

sin kt L -1 2
2
s k
s

cos kt L -1 2
2
s k
e at L -1

k
2
s k
s

cosh kt L -1 2
2
s k

sinh kt L -1

Linear Transform

L -1 F ( s ) G ( s ) L -1 F ( s ) L -1 G ( s )

Inverse Transform
Problem 1:

1
5
s

Evaluate L 1

1 1 4!
1 4
1

t
5
5
4! s
24
s

n 4 L 1

Inverse Transform
Problem 2:

s 64

Evaluate L 1

1
1 1
8
1

sin 8t

2
2
s

64
8
s

64
8

k 2 64 L 1

Inverse Transform
Problem 3:
3s 5

2
s 7

Evaluate L 1

s
5 1
7
5
3s 5
1

3
L

3
cos
7
t

sin 7t

2
2
2
s

7
7
7
s 7
s 7

L 1

Applications
Deflection of Beams

Axis of symmetry

Deflection of curve
Beam is assumed as a homogeneous, and
has uniform cross sections along its length
Deflection curve can be derived from
differential equation based on elasticity
concept.

Applications
Deflection of Beams
L

y(x)

y
Elasticity theory: bending moment M(x) at a point x along
the beam is related to the load per unit length w(x)
d 2M
w( x)
dx 2
M ( x) EI
E Young' s Modulus of elasticity
I Moment inertia of cross section of the beam

Applications
Deflection of Beams
d 2M
w( x)
2
dx

0
y

y(x)

M ( x) EIk
y
k
3/ 2
1 ( y) 2
E Young' s Modulus of elasticity

I Moment inertia of cross section of the beam

y ( x) is small y 0 1 ( y) 2
k y M EIy
d 2M
d2
d4y
EI 2 y EI 4
dx 2
dx
dx
d4y
EI 4 w( x)
dx

3/ 2

Applications
Deflection of Beams

0
y

y(x)

y(0) = 0 at embedded end.


y(0) = 0 (deflection curve is
tangent to the x-axis at
embedded end)
y(L) = 0, bending moment at
free end is zer0.
y(L) = 0, shear force is zero
at a free end. EIy = dM/dx is
the shear force.

Applications
Determining deflection of a Beam
using Laplace Transform
w0
Wall

x
L
y

A beam of length L is embedded at both ends. In this case the deflection y(x)
must satisfy:
4
d M
w( x)
dx 4
y (0) 0, y ( L) 0, y (0) 0,
w( x) w0
0 xL
EI

y( L) 0

Applications
Determining deflection of a Beam
using Laplace Transform

EI s 4Y ( s) s 3 y (0) s 2 y ' (0) sy(0) y(0)


s 4Y ( s) sy(0) y(0)
c1 y(0)

w0
EIs
c1 c2
w0

s 3 s 4 EIs 5
w
4!
0 L -1 5
4! EI
s

c2 y(0) Y s

c1 -1 2! c2 -1 3!
L
L 4
2! s 3
3! s
w
c
c
y ( x) 1 x 2 2 x 3 0 x 4
2
6
24 EI
y x

w0
s

Applications
Determining deflection of a Beam
using Laplace Transform
y( L) 0
w
c
c
1 L2 2 L3 0 L4 0
2
6
24 EI
c
w
c1 L 2 L2 0 L3 0
2
6 EI
c1 w0 L / 12 EI
y ( L) 0

c2 w0 L / 2 EI
w0 L2 2 w0 L 3
w
w
2
y ( x)
x
x 0 x4 0 x2 x L
24 EI
12 EI
24 EI
24 EI