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Classification of Pumps

Pumps in Steam Power Plants

Turbogenerator & Auxiliaries 3 sets.

Steam generatore equipment 6 sets.
Chemical feed system 13 sets.
Fuel Oil systems 14 sets.
Lubricating oil systems 5 sets.
Fire Protection systems 6 sets.
Service water system 7 sets.
Miscellaneous around 4 sets.

Boiler Feed Pumps

General. Boiler feed pumps are used to pressurize water from the
deaerating feedwater heater or deaerating hot process softener
and feed it through any high pressure closed feedwater heaters to
the boiler inlet.
Discharge from the boiler superheated steam in order to
maintain proper main steam ternperature to the steam turbine
Types. There are two types of centrifugal
multi-stage boiler feed pumps commonly used in steam power
horizontally split case and
barrel type with horizontal or vertical (segmented) split inner
The horizontal split case type will be used on boilers with rated
outlet pressures up to 6Mpa.
Barrel type pumps will be used on boilers with rated outlet
pressure in excess of 6MPa.

Expectations from A Pump

m steam

BF Pump

m water



Hydraulic Power Source

Generate Required Live Steam Conditions !

Steam Turbine

plive water

plive steam

Design criteria
Pump head will be maximum at zero flow with continuously
decreasing head as flow increases to insure stable operation of
one pump, or multiple pumps in parallel, at all loads.
Pumps will operate quietly at all loads without internal flashing
and operate continuously with- out overheating or objectionable
noises at minimum recirculation flow.
Provision will be made in pump design for expansion of

(a) Casing and rotor relative to one another.

(b) Casing relative to the base.
(c) Pump rotor relative to the shaft of the driver.
(d) Inner and outer casing for double casing pumps.

All rotating parts will be balanced statically - and dynamically

for all speeds.

Pump design will provide axial as well as radial balance of the

rotor at all outputs.
One end of the pump shaft will be accessible for portable
tachometer measurements.
Each pump will be provided with a pump warmup system so that
when it is used as a standby it can be hot, ready for quick
This is done by connecting a small bleed line and orifice from the
common discharge header to the pump discharge inside of the
stop and check valve.
Hot water can then flow back through the pump and open suction
valve to the common suction header, thus keeping the pump at
operating temperature.
Pump will be designed so that it will start safely from a cold start
to full load in 60 seconds in an emergency, although it will
normally be warmed before starting as described above.

A General Pump

Geometrical Features of Pump Impeller

Micro Fluid Dynamics of Pump



p absolute

Variation of Absolute Pressure inside A Pump

Flow Path


As the liquid flows onto the impeller of the pump it is accelerated

and initially its pressure falls (Bernoulli).
The pressure subsequently increases as the fluid leaves the
impeller and as the kinetic energy is recovered in the volute
If the pressure of the liquid falls below the vapour pressure, P v, the
liquid boils, generating vapour bubbles or cavities-cavitation.
The bubbles are swept into higher pressure regions by the liquid
flow, where they collapse creating pressure waves and cause
mechanical damage to solid surfaces.
Moreover, pump discharge head is reduced at flow rates above the
cavitation point.
Operation under these conditions is not desirable and damages the

NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head).

Net Positive Suction Head Required, NPSHr

NPSH is one of the most widely used and least understood terms
associated with pumps.
Understanding the significance of NPSH is very much essential
during installation as well as operation of the pumps.
Pumps can pump only liquids, not vapors
Rise in temperature and fall in pressure induces vaporization
NPSH as a measure to prevent liquid vaporization
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is the total head at the suction
flange of the pump less the vapor pressure converted to fluid
column height of the liquid.



Loss of NPSH

NPSHr is a function of pump design

NPSH required is a function of the pump design and is determined

based on actual pump test by the vendor.
As the liquid passes from the pump suction to the eye of the impeller,
the velocity increases and the pressure decreases.
There are also pressure losses due to shock and turbulence as the
liquid strikes the impeller.
The centrifugal force of the impeller vanes further increases the
velocity and decreases the pressure of the liquid.
The NPSH required is the positive head in feet absolute required at
the pump suction to overcome these pressure drops in the pump and
maintain the majority of the liquid above its vapor pressure.
The NPSH is always positive since it is expressed in terms of
absolute fluid column height.
The term "Net" refers to the actual pressure head at the pump suction
flange and not the static suction head.

NPSHr increases as capacity increases

The NPSH required varies with speed and capacity within any
particular pump.
The NPSH required increase as the capacity is increasing because
the velocity of the liquid is increasing, and as anytime the velocity of
a liquid goes up, the pressure or head comes down.
Pump manufacturer's curves normally provide this information.
The NPSH is independent of the fluid density as are all head terms.

Note: It is to be noted that the net positive suction head required

(NPSHr) number shown on the pump curves is for fresh water at
20C and not for the fluid or combinations of fluids being pumped.

Available NPSH At Site

psuction ,min pinlet g H static ,t


h fs

NSPH available psuction ,min pvapour

Kinetic power mvs2/2

Frictional loss in suction piping

Net Positive Suction Head available, NPSHa

Net Positive Suction Head Available is a function of the
system in which the pump operates.
It is the excess pressure of the liquid absolute over its vapor
pressure as it arrives at the pump suction, to be sure that the
pump selected does not cavitate.
It is calculated based on system or process conditions
A limit on Low Pressure feed water heat generation.
Performance of Deaerator influences NPSHa.

Deaerator Outlet Conditions

NPSHa in a nutshell

NPSHa = Pressure head + Static head - Vapor pressure head of

your product Friction head loss in the piping, valves and fittings.
All terms in feet absolute
In an existing system, the NPSHa can also be approximated by a
gauge on the pump suction using the formula:
NPSHa = hpS - hvpS hgS + hvS

hpS = Barometric pressure in feet absolute.

hvpS = Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping

temperature, in feet absolute.
hgS = Gauge reading at the pump suction expressed in feet (plus if
above atmospheric, minus if below atmospheric) corrected to the
pump centerline.
hvS = Velocity head in the suction pipe at the gauge connection,
expressed in feet.
NPSHa should always be greater than NPSHr

In-situ Expectations from A Pump

m steam

BF Pump

m water

Hydraulic Power Source


plive steam

Steam Turbine

plive water


In-Situ Demand

Matching of A Pump with Site

Head Vs Flow Rate & Selection of Operating Point

H f K1 K 2Q 2

Performance of A Damaged Impeller

Performance with Reduced Throat Area

Pump with Minor Wears

Pump with Excessive Wear

Pump with rough impeller & casing

Pump with lower NPSH

Boiler Feed Pump/Turbine

Boiler feed pump/turbine sets should be tested on a routine basis to
determine their current performance level.
The important boiler feed pump/turbine performance indices are
pump capacity, total dynamic head (TDH) at rated speed, and relative
pump/turbine set efficiency.
This test protocol provides a method for measuring pump
performance on a repeatable basis.
These measurements allow you to reliably detect changes in
equipment condition and operating efficiencies.
Adequate information should be developed to determine if a problem
exists in the turbine, the pump, or both.
In addition, pump performance, relative to one another, should be
determined to provide guidance for maintenance efforts.
Where applicable, test results need to be compared to design and
previous test results.

Pump Performance Parameters

Pump tests may be classified as shop tests, field tests, index tests
or model tests.
This protocol describes the index field testing method to
determining the general condition of the boiler feed
An index test helps guide overhaul efforts by detecting changes in
pump performance.
In general, pump performance is described in terms of efficiency
and TDH.
Pump Efficiency, pumpThe ratio of useful power output to
shaft power


Water Power

Pump Power Input (Brake Power)




Pwater m feedwater pdynamic ,total

Pbrake coupling m turbine hthr hexit
hthr, Turbine throttle steam enthalpy
hexit, Turbine exit steam enthalpy

Enthalpy Drop in BFP Turbine

Enthalpy Drop, hthr & hexh (for non-condensing turbines) can be

determined from pressure and temperature measurements.
Condensing turbines provide an additional challenge because the exhaust
enthalpy cannot be accurately determined with commercially available
A reduction in turbine efficiency requires that additional steam be extracted
to provide the same power output.
In this case, the performance of the pump is unchanged, and the capacity
and the TDH at rated conditions should be normal.
In addition, a reduction in pump efficiency requires that additional steam
be extracted to raise pump speed to match the system head requirement.
In this case, pump capacity and TDH at rated conditions will be lower than
When considering pump performance, test results must be corrected to a
standard condition for comparison.
The Affinity Laws state that test flow, head, and water horsepower can be
extrapolated from test speed values to design speed values by multiplying
each parameter by a correction factor.

For flow, the correction factor is the ratio of design speed

(5,600 rpm) to test speed.
For total head, the corrections factor is the ratio squared.
For water horsepower, it is the ratio cubed.
To use these relationships, an accurate measurement of pump
speed must be made during the test.