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Systems Recap
What did we learn?

What is an Information System?

What is Information Technology?
Information Processing cycle
Data vs Information
Qualities of Information
Computer vs Human capabilities

1) processor-bound

2) takes over when
computer fails
A. Server
3) works with client
B. Stylus:
C. Supercomputer: 4) electronic pen

The four size categories of
conventional personal computers
notebook, and

Supercomputers outperform humans
when it comes to pattern recognition.

The power of a PC is directly
proportional to its physical size.


1. Explain the purpose and objectives of an


operating system.
List common operating system platforms.
Understand the fundamental concepts and
terminology associated with the Windows
operating environment.
List the function and uses of software suite
Discuss popular personal computing software
including graphics, home, education,
edutainment, reference, business and financial.

The collection of programs, and the
associated documentation, that directs
the operation of the computer to
complete a desired end result.


Two main software categories:

System software
Application software

System Software

includes the operating system and

utility programs
monitors and controls all the input,
output, and processing activities of
the computer system from start-up.

Explain the purpose and objectives

of an operating system.

The Operating System

The key to all software activity.
It does not matter what the other software

on the machine is, if there is not an

operating system, nothing is going to work.
Gives a computer the ability to perform as
multi-purpose computers, rather than a
dedicated computer, like the ones in
control devices such as cars.

Operating System Functions

Think of the operating system as the

launching pad from which everything else is

Kernel an operating system program that

load programs into RAM (the main internal

memory) as they are needed.

The concurrent operation of more
than one program at one time.
(The key word there is
Programs run either in the
foreground or the background of

Multitasking environment terms:

In a multitasking environment:
the foreground is the part of RAM that

contains the active or current program and is

usually given priority.
Other programs that are open, but not the

active program, are in the background part

of RAM.

Utility programs
A kind of system software
help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer.
helps users with the day-to-day chores associated with personal

computing and keeping a system running at peak performance

Focuses on how the computer infrastructure (computer

hardware, operating system, application software and data

storage) operates.
Utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an

advanced level of computer knowledge.

For eg. Disk defragmenters, disk partitions, Registry cleaners

Application Software
Provides user-oriented or output-

oriented functionality & allows users

to do things like creating text
documents, playing games, listening
to music or surfing the web.
For eg. WordProcessor software

WHAT ARE THE 2 main user


PC Operating Systems
and Platforms
The Platform: combination of the

processor & OS
Software for one platform will not run

on another platform.

Two main platforms:

When the computer is a server, the IT

specialist chooses the platform. In a

user PC environment, the user chooses
the operating system they wish to use:
Wintel platforms
Macintosh family

Wintel platform
Most PCs today use a Wintel

combination: a Microsoft Windows

OS & an Intel processor.
Currently, Windows 8 is the latest
version of Windows.
Wintel platforms are mostly
backwards compatible, meaning
they allow older programs to run on
new operating systems.
Windows XP is so different however,

The PC/Windows
Plug-and-play : Windows feature that

permits the user to simply plug a

peripheral device into the computer
(such as a printer or digital camera) and
OS will automatically detect that a new

device has been installed. This starts

wizard that guides user through installing
the device so it will run on computer.

Macintosh Platform
Macintosh family: The operating system is

Mac OS X.
Mac OS X: is a series of Unix-based
operating systems and graphical user
interfaces developed, marketed, and sold
by Apple Inc.
Built on a rock-solid UNIX foundation, OS X
is engineered to take full advantage of the
technologies in every new Mac.
-Steve Jobs

is a multitasking, multi-user

computer operating system originally

developed in 1969 by a group of
AT&T employees

Linux Linus Torvalds

Linux sprung from UNIX
Linux is a free operating system offered on the Internet.
It is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled

under the model of free and open source software

development and distribution
Why Linux is Popular?
an excellent operating system.

Understand the broad

scope of popular PC

software available for

download for free or for a
nominal price from the
These software applications come in the way of:
copyrighted software
downloaded for free
but a small fee is paid to the authors on the honor system.

copyrighted software
can be downloaded
used free of charge.

Public-domain software:
not copyrighted
can be used without restriction.


Multimedia is an umbrella term ,

which refers to the capability that

allows the integration of computerbased text with graphics, motion
visuals, animations, and sound.
Graphics software enables the
creation, changing and
management of computer-based

Commonly used graphics formats:

JPEG or JPG :commonly used on Web pages and in

digital photography
BMP :common format used in the Microsoft Windows
GIF :patented format used in Web pages and for
downloadable online images
TIFF or TIF :the industry standard for high-resolution
bit-mapped images used in print publishing.
PCX :introduced for PC Paintbrush but is supported by
many graphics packages and by scanners and faxes.
PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF.

The following software is used in

multimedia viewing and creation:

Digital camera to capture high-resolution digital

Video camera, videocassette recorder/player,
audiocassette player, CD-audio player, and
CD-RW or DVD + RW to burn multimedia CD-ROMs or
Synthesizer :reproduce a variety of special effects
and sounds and to create source music.
Video capture card to capture and digitize full-motion
color video.
Color scanner to scan hard-copy source material.