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MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND HIGH CURRENTS

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MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND HIGH CURRENTS

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CURRENTS

By

Anish John paul. M

Head of School

School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Resistance potential divider

Generating voltmeter

Sphere and other sphere gaps

V = IR

The resistance is constructed from a large no. of wire

wound resistors in series.

Limitations:

Power dissipation

Temperature effects and long time stability,

Voltage dependence of resistive elements,

sensitivity to mechanical stresses.

d.c. with an accuracy better than 0.2%.

impedance voltmeter.

Let, V2-Voltage across R2

V2 V1

R2

(R1 R2 )

Highvoltagemagnitude,

V1 V2

(R1 R2 )

R2

elements is eliminated in the voltage divider

arrangement.

Sudden voltage changes during transients due to:

Switching operation

Flashover of test objects

To avoid sudden changes in voltages, voltage

controlling capacitors are connected across the

elements

electrostatic voltage generator.

It generates current proportional to the applied external

voltage.

This arrangement provides loss free measurement of

DC and AC voltages

The device is driven by an external synchronous or

constant speed motor and does not absorb power or

energy from the voltage measuring source.

The capacitance is a function of time as the area A varies with time and, therefore,

the charge q(t) is given as,

and,

For d.c. Voltages,

Hence

If the capacitance C varies sinusoidally between the limits C 0 and (C0 + Cm) then

C = C0 + Cm sin t

and the current i' is then given as, i(t) = im cos t , where im = VCm

Here is the angular frequency of variation of the capacitance.

capacitance.

The high voltage source is connected to a disc electrode S3 which is kept at a

fixed distance on the axis of the other low voltage electrodes S0, S1 and S2.

The rotor S0 is driven at a constant speed by a synchronous motor at a

suitable speed (1500,1800,3000, or 3600 rpm).

The rotor vanes of S0 cause periodic change in capacitance between the

insulated disc S2 and the h.v. electrode S3.

The shape and number of the vanes of S0 and S1 are so designed that they

produce sinusoidal variation in the capacitance.

The generated a.c. current through the resistance R is rectified and read by a

moving coil instrument.

If the current is small an amplifier may be used before the current is measured.

10

No direct connection to high voltage electrode,

Scale is linear and extension of range is easy,

A very convenient instrument for electrostatic devices such as Van de Graaff

They require calibration,

Careful construction is needed

Disturbance in position and mounting of the electrodes make the calibration

invalid.

11

Potential dividers (resistance or capacitance type)

Potential transformers (Electromagnetic or CVT)

Electrostatic voltmeter

Sphere gaps

12

Electrostatic Voltmeter

by means of electro-static voltmeters.

For voltages above 10 kV, generally the attracted disc

type of electrostatic voltmeter is used.

When two parallel conducting plates (cross section area

A and spacing s) are charged q and have a potential

difference V, then the energy stored in the is given by

1

1

CV 2 dW V 2 dC F ds

2

2

1

dC

Force, F V 2

Newton

2

ds

W

A

dC

A

2

s

ds

s

1 V2

F A 2 Newton

2 s

It is thus seen that the force of attraction is proportional to the square of the potential difference

applied, so that the meter reads the square value (or can be marked to read the rms value).

13

13

14

Electrostatic voltmeters of the attracted disc type may be connected across the high

voltage circuit directly to measure up to about 200 kV, without the use of any

potential divider or other reduction method. [The force in these electrostatic

instruments can be used to measure both a.c. and d.c. voltages].

The centre portion of the left hand disc is cut away and encloses a small disc which

is movable and is geared to the pointer of the instrument.

balance or its suspension on a spring

The small movement is generally transmitted and amplified by a spot light and

mirror system, but many other systems have also been used.

An incident light beam will therefore be reflected toward a scale calibrated to read

the applied voltage magnitude.

The electrostatic measuring device can be used for absolute voltage measurements

since the calibration can be made in terms of the fundamental quantities of the gap

length and forces.

15

Electrostatic Voltmeter

Advantages:

i.

ii.

Disadvantage:

i.

be overcome by varying the gap distance d in appropriate steps.

16

16

For power frequency a.c. measurements the series impedance may be a pure

resistance or a reactance.

But use of resistances yields the followings,

Power losses

Temperature problem

Residual inductance of the resistance gives rise to an impedance different from its ohmic

resistance.

High resistance units for high voltages have stray capacitances and hence a unit

resistance will have an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig.

At any frequency of the a.c. voltage, R+jXL is connected in parallel with jXC.

1

R jL

jC

Z

2

1

1

LC jCR

R jL

jC

R jL

Since, 2 LC jCR,

Z

R jL

1 jCR

17

17

R jL 1 jCR

1 jCR 1 jCR

R jL jCR 2 2 LCR

Z

1 2C 2 R 2

L

Z R jL jCR 2 R 1 j

CR

R

CR

R

Resistor unit then has to be taken as a transmission line equivalent, for calculating

the effective resistance.

Ground or stray capacitance of each element influences the current flowing in the

unit, and the indication of the meter results in an error.

Stray ground capacitance effects can be removed by shielding the resistor R by a

second surrounding spiral RS which shunts the actual resistor but does not

contribute to the current through the instrument.

18

18

capacitor is used instead of a resistor for a.c. high voltage measurements.

Current through the instrument, Ic=V/Xc=jCV

The rms value of the voltage V with harmonics is given by,

where V1,V2 ,... ,Vn represent the rms value of the fundamental, second... and

nth harmonics.

The currents due to these harmonics are

I1=CV1 , I2=2CV2 , In=nCVn

2

Not recommended when a.c. voltages are not pure sinusoidal waves but

contain considerable harmonics.

Used for measuring rms values up to 1000 kV.

19

19

C capacitor

D1,D2 Diodes

OP Protective devices

I indicating meter

Ic(t) capacitor current

waveform

20

CPD with ESV.

Long Cable needs calibration

Gas filled condensers C1 and C2 are used as

shown in figure.

C1 is a three terminal capacitor, connected to

C2 by shielded cable.

C1 C2 Cm

C1

V1 V2

where,

C2 - Standard Low Voltage Condenser

ESV- Electrostatic Voltmeter

P -Protective Gap

C.C - Connecting Cable

V2 - Reading of Voltmeter

21

21

22

22

isolating potential transformer tuned for resonance condition is often used in power

systems for voltage measurements.

CPD can be connected only to high impedance meter or ESV. But, CVT can be

connected to low impedance device like pressure coil of wattmeter or relay coil.

C1 is few units of HV capacitance, and the total capacitance will be around a few

thousand picofarads

C2 is a non-inductive capacitance

Value of the tuning choke L is chosen to bring resonance condition. This condition

is satisfied when,

L LT

1

C1 C 2

where,

L - Inductance of the choke

LT - Equivalent inductance of the transformer referred to

h.v. side

23

23

Advantages:

simple design and easy installation,

can be used both as a voltage measuring device for meter

provides isolation between the high voltage terminal and low voltage metering.

Disadvantages:

the voltage ratio is susceptible to temperature variations, and

the problem of inducing ferro-resonance in power systems.

24

24

Peak Value=RMS Value X 2

If the waveform is not sinusoidal. In that case,

Peak Value RMS Value X 2

Types:

Series Capacitance Peak Voltmeter (Chubb-Frotscue Method)

Digital Peak Voltmeter

Peak Voltmeter with potential divider

25

25

Chubb Frotscue Method:

Chubb and Fortescue suggested a simple and accurate

The basic circuit consists of a standard capacitor, two

diodes and a current integrating ammeter (MC ammeter) as

shown in Fig. 4.11 (a).

The displacement current ic(t), is given by the rate of change

of the charge and hence the voltage V(t) to be measured

flows through the high voltage capacitor C and is

subdivided into positive and negative components by the

back to back connected diodes

The voltage drop across these diodes can be neglected (1 V for Si diodes) as compared with

the voltage to be measured

The measuring instrument (M.C. ammeter) is included in one of the branches. The ammeter

reads the mean value of the current,

An increased current would be obtained if the current reaches zero more than once during

one half cycle

26

26

(Chubb Frotscue Method Continued)

This means the wave shapes of the voltage would contain more than one maxima per half cycle.

The standard a.c. voltages for testing should not contain any harmonics and, therefore, there

could be very short and rapid voltages caused by the heavy predischarges, within the test circuit

which could introduce errors in measurements.

To eliminate this problem filtering of a.c. voltage is carried out by introducing a damping resistor

in between the capacitor and the diode circuit, Fig. 4.11 (b).

The measurement of symmetrical a.c. voltages using Chubb and Fortescue method is quite

accurate and it can be used for calibration of other peak voltage measuring devices.

27

27

Digital Peak Voltmeter:

In contrast to the method discussed just now, the rectified current is not

measured directly, instead a proportional analog voltage signal is derived

which is then converted into a proportional medium frequency for using a

voltage to frequency convertor (Block A in Fig. 4.13).

The frequency ratio fm/f is measured with a gate circuit controlled by the a.c.

power frequency (supply frequency f) and a counter that opens for an

adjustable number of period t = p/f. The number of cycles n counted during

this interval is

28

28

Peak voltmeter with Potential divider:

Diode D is used for rectification

Voltage across C is used to charge C

2

3

V2 is reduced

Voltage across Cs Peak value to be measured

Discharge time constant=CsRd1 to 10 sec

This arrangement gives discharge error.

Discharge error depends on frequency of the supply

29

29

Sphere Gaps

A spark gap can be used for measurement of the peak value of the voltage, if the

gap distance is known.

Applications:

Voltage Measurement (Peak) - Peak values of voltages may be measured from 2 kV up to

about 2500 kV by means of spheres.

Arrangements:

1. Vertically with lower sphere grounded (For Higher Voltages)

2. Horizontally with both spheres connected to the source voltage or one sphere grounded

(For Lower Voltages).

30

30

Sphere Gaps

31

31

Sphere Gaps

The arrangement is selected based on the relation between the peak voltage,

determined by sparkover between the spheres, and the reading of a voltmeter on the

primary or input side of the high-voltage source. This relation should be within 3%

(IEC, 1973).

Standard values of sphere diameter are 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200

cm.

The Clearance around the sphere gaps:

sphere gaps

32

32

Sphere Gaps

3%.

Temperature and pressure, however, have a significant influence on breakdown

voltage.

Breakdown Voltage under normal atmospheric conditions is, Vs=kVn where k is a

factor related to the relative air density (RAD) .

Under impulse voltages, the voltage at which there is a 50% breakdown probability

is recognized as the breakdown level.

33

33

Sphere Gaps

Factors Influencing the Sparkover Voltage of Sphere Gaps

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

The limits of accuracy are dependant on the ratio of the spacing d to the sphere

diameter D, as follows:

Atmospheric conditions and humidity,

Irradiation, and

Polarity and rise time of voltage waveforms.

d < 0.5 D

0.75 D > d > 0.5 D

Accuracy = 3 %

Accuracy = 5 %

For accurate measurement purposes, gap distances in excess of 0.75D are not used

34

34

35

Type of Current

Method used

D.C Current

1. Resistant shunt

2. Hall Generator

technique

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Resistive shunts

Magnetic potentiometers or probes

Magnetic links

Hall generators

Faraday Generators

36

36

Hall Generators

high direct current.

Whenever electric current flows

through a metal plate placed in a

magnetic field perpendicular to it,

Lorenz force will deflect the

electrons in the metal structure in a

direction perpendicular to the

direction of both the magnetic field

and the flow of current.

The

change

in

displacement

generates an e.m.f called Hall

Voltage

37

37

Hall Generators

Hall Voltage, VH

BI

d

BI

d

where, B-Magnetic Flux density

I-Current

d-Thickness of the metal plate

R-Hall Coefficient (depends on Material of

the plate & temperature)

R is small for metals and High for

semiconductors

VH R

circuit

38

38

Hall Generators

air gap at a depth d is given by,

1

H

2d

The Hall element is placed in the air gap and a small constant

d.c. current is passed through the element.

The voltage developed across the Hall element is measured

and by using the expression for Hall voltage the flux density B

is calculated and hence the value of current I is obtained.

39

39

Method

of polarisation in materials by the magnetic field which is

proportional to the current (Faraday effect).

When a linearly polarised light beam passes through a transparent

crystal in the presence of a magnetic field, the plane of polarisation

of the light beam undergoes rotation. The angle of rotation is given

by,

= Bl

where,

= A constant of the cyrstal which is a function of the wave length of the

light.

B = Magnetic flux density due to the current to be measured in this case.

l = Length of the crystal.

40

40

Method

Crystal C is placed parallel to the magnetic field produced by the

current to be measured.

A beam of light from a stabilised light source is made incident on the

crystal C after it is passed through the polariser P1.

The light beam undergoes rotation of its plane of polarisation.

After the beam passes through the analyser P2, the beam is focussed on

a photomultiplier, the output of which is fed to a CRO.

41

41

Method

The filter F allows only the monochromatic light to pass through it.

Photoluminescent diodes too, the momentary light emission of which is

proportional to the current flowing through them, can be used for

current measurement.

Advantages:

1.

2.

3.

It provides isolation of the measuring set up from the main current circuit.

It is insensitive to overloading.

As the signal transmission is through an optical system no insulation problem

is faced. However, this device does not operate for D.C current.

42

42

surrounded by a coil as shown in Fig.

and M is the mutual inductance between the coil and the conductor, the

voltage across the coil terminals will be:

di

v(t) M

dt

Usually the coil is wound on a non-magnetic former in the form of a

toroid and has a large number of turns, to have sufficient voltage

induced which could be recorded.

43

43

If N is the number of turns of the coil, A the coil area and lm its mean

length, the mutual inductance is given by

NA

M 0

lm

Usually an integrating circuit RC is employed as shown in Fig to

obtain the output voltage proportional to the current to be measured.

The output voltage is given by

t

1

1

di

M

M

v0 (t)

v(t)dt

dt

di

i(t)

RC 0

RC

dt

RC

RC

The frequency response of the Rogowski coil is flat upto 100 MHz but

beyond that it is affected by the stray electric and magnetic fields and

also by the skin effect.

44

44

Resistive Shunt

(a) Ohmic shunt

Used for high impulse current measurements is a low ohmic pure resistive

shunt.

Current through the resistive element R produces a voltage drop v(t)=i(t)R.

v(t) is transmitted to a CRO through a coaxial cable of surge impedance Z 0.

Cable at oscilloscope end is terminated by a resistance Ri = Z0 to avoid

reflections.

45

45

Resistive Shunt

terminal capacitance C.

L may be neglected for low frequencies (), but becomes appreciable at

higher frequencies when L is of the order of R.

C has to be considered when the reactance 1/ C is of comparable value

L and C are important above 1MHz Frequency.

Resistance: 10 to few milliohms makes few volts drop.

Resistance value is determined by the thermal capacity and heat dissipation

of the shunt.

Voltage drop is given by,

V (s)

R sL

I ( s)

V ( s ) R sL I ( s )

LC

where, V(s) and I(s) are the transformed quantities of the signals v(t) and i(t)

s- Laplace Operator or Complex Frequency

1 sRC s

46

46

Resistive Shunt

Types:

1. Bifilar flat strip design,

2. Coaxial tube or Park's shunt design, and

3. Coaxial squirrel cage design

47

47

opposite directions and folded back,

with both ends insulated by a teflon or

other high quality insulation.

The voltage signal is picked up through

a ultra high frequency (UHF) coaxial

connector.

The shunt suffers from stray inductance

associated with the resistance element

Its potential leads are linked to a small

part of the magnetic flux generated by

the current that is measured.

To overcome these problems, coaxial

shunts are chosen.

48

to enter through an inner cylinder or

resistive element and is made to return

through an outer conducting cylinder of

copper or brass.

The voltage drop across the resistive

element is measured between the

potential pick-up point and the outer case.

The space between the inner and the outer

cylinder is air and hence acts like a pure

insulator.

The maximum frequency limit is about

1000 MHz and the response time is a few

nanoseconds.

49

ohmic value shunts which can dissipate

larger energy are required.

In such cases tubular shunts are not suitable

due to their limitations of heat dissipation,

larger wall thickness, and the skin effect.

To overcome these problems, the resistive

cylinder is replaced by thick rods or strips,

and the structure resembles the rotor

construction of double squirrel cage

induction motor.

The equivalent circuit for squirrel cage

construction is different, and complex.

The shunts show peaky response for step

input, and a compensating network has to be

designed to get optimum response.

50

Measurements

Resistive or capacative or mixed

used for high voltage impulse

measurements, high frequency a.c

measurements, or for fast rising

transient voltage measurements.

The low voltage arm of the divider is

usually connected to a fast recording

oscillograph or a peak reading

instrument through a delay cable.

In high voltage dividers, Each element

has a self resistance or capacitance. In

addition, the resistive elements have

residual inductances, a terminal stray

capacitance to ground, and terminal to

terminal capacitances.

a delay cable and oscilloscope

Z1-Resistor or Series of resistors in Resistor Dividers

(or) Capacitor or No. of Capacitors in Capacitance

divider

Z2-A resistor or a capacitor or an R-C impedance

depending upon the type of the divider

51

51

Measurements

Eq. Circuit of resistive element

have been discussed already.

A capacitance potential divider also has the same equivalent where C S will

be the capacitance of each elemental capacitor, C g will be the terminal

capacitance to ground, and R will be the equivalent leakage resistance and

resistance due to dielectric loss in the element.

When a step or fast rising voltage is applied at the high voltage terminal,

the voltage developed across the element Z 2 will not have the true

waveform as that of the applied voltage.

The cable can also introduce distortion in the waveshape.

52

52

Measurements

The following elements mainly constitute the different errors in the

measurement:

Residual inductance in the elements;

Stray capacitance occurring

i.

ii.

a.

b.

c.

iii.

a.

b.

iv.

from sections and terminals of the elements to ground, and

from the high voltage lead to the elements or sections;

connecting leads between the divider and the test objects, and

ground return leads and current in ground leads; and

high voltage terminal to ground.

53

53

Measurements

The effect to residual and lead inductances becomes pronounced when fast

rising impulses of less than one microsecond are to be measured.

The residual inductances damp and slow down the fast rising pulses.

Secondly, the layout of the test objects, the impulse generator, and the

ground leads also require special attention to minimize recording errors.

54

54

55

Hall effect principle is used.If an electric current flows

through a metal plate located in a magnetic field

perpendicular to it,Lorenz forces will deflect the electrons in

the metal structure in a direction normal to the direction of

both the current and magnetic field.

The charge displacement generates an emf in the normal

direction (Hall voltage).

VH=RBi/d

H=I/

56

technique.

A voltage signal proportional to the measuring current is

generated and it is transmitted to the ground side through

electro optical device.

Light pulses proportional to the voltage signal are

transmitted by a glass optical fibre bundle to a photo

detector and converted back into an analog voltage signal.

57

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