Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

EEE381B

AEROSPACE
SYSTEMS
& AVIONICS
Radar
Part 2 The radar range equation
Ref: Moir & Seabridge 2006, Chapter 3,4
Dr Ron Smith

OUTLINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Basic radar range equation


Developing the radar range equation
Design impacts
Receiver sensitivity
Radar cross-section
Low observability
Exercises

EEE381B

1. BASIC RADAR RANGE


EQUATION

There are many different versions of the


radar range equation.
We will use, and fully derive, the one
presented below.

Pt G
4
3
(4 ) S min
2 2

RMax

EEE381B

1.1 COMPONENTS OF THE


EQUATION

Rmax the maximum range of the radar

Pt average power of the transmitter

G gain of the transmit/receive antenna


wavelength of the operating frequency
radar cross-section of the target
Smin minimum detectable signal power

EEE381B

1.2 UNITS OF THE EQUATION

Pt G
4
3
(4 ) S min
2 2

RMax

units of RMax

2
2
W
m
m
4
m
W

EEE381B

2. DEVELOPING RADAR RANGE


EQUATION

EEE381B

2.1 TRANSMITTED POWER

Recall from the previous lecture that the


average transmitted power is a function of
peak pulse power and the pulse duration:

Pt Pave

Ppeak
Tp
EEE381B

1
, where Tp
PRF

2.2 POWER DENSITY AT TARGET


[4]

Recall that power density decreases as a


function of distance traveled:

Pt G
power density at range R
2
4R
EEE381B

2.3 REFLECTED POWER

The amount of power


reflected back from a
target is a function of
the power density at the
target and the targets
radar cross-section, :

Pt G
power density reflected

2
4R
EEE381B

2.4 POWER DENSITY OF ECHO


AT ANTENNA

The power density of the returned signal,


echo, again spreads as it travels back
towards the radar receive antenna.

Pt G

power density received at antenna

2
4R 4R 2

EEE381B

2.5 POWER OF ECHO AT


RECEIVER*

The antenna captures only a portion of


the echoed power density as a function of
the receive antennas effective aperture:

Pt G
Pt G 22
power at receiver , Pr
Ae
,
2 4
3 4
(4 ) R
(4 ) R

2G
recalling that Ae
4
* In this equation the receiver is assumed to be all radar
receive chain components except the antenna.
EEE381B

2.5.1 RELATIVE POWER RECEIVED


RANGE

EEE381B

2.6 MINIMUM DETECTABLE SIGNAL


POWER

Therefore a radar system is capable of


detecting targets as long as the received echo
power is greater than or equal to the minimum
detectable signal power of the receive chain:

for Pr S min , Rmax

EEE381B

Pt G 2 2
4
3
(4 ) S min

3.

RADAR DESIGN IMPACTS

A careful study of the radar range


equation provides further insight as to the
effect of several radar design decisions.

In general the equation tells us that for a


radar to have a long range, the
transmitter must be high power, the
antenna must be large and have high gain,
and the receiver must be very sensitive.

EEE381B

3.1 POWER, PT

Increases in transmitter power yield a


surprisingly small increase in radar range,
since range increases by the inverse fourth
power.
For

example, a doubling of transmitter peak power


results increases radar range by only 19%,
4

2 1.19

EEE381B

3.2 TIME-ON-TARGET, /TP

The average power transmitted can also be increased


by increasing the pulse duty cycle, sometimes
referred to as the time-on-target.
A combined doubling of the pulse width and doubling
of the transmitter peak power will give a fourfold
increase in average transmitted power, and ~41%
increase in radar range.
4

4 1.41
EEE381B

3.3 GAIN, G

Antenna gain is a major consideration in the


design of the radar system.
For

a parabolic dish, doubling the antenna size


(diameter) will yield a fourfold increase in gain and
a doubling of radar range.

For a dish G Ap or ( D / 2) 2
and Rmax 4 G 2 or
EEE381B

D4

3.4 RECEIVER SENSITIVITY, SMIN

Similar to that of transmitter power, increases in


receiver sensitivity yield relatively small increases in
radar range.
Only

19% range increase for a halving of sensitivity, and at the


expense of false alarms.

Receiver design is a complex subject beyond the scope


of this course, see 3.5.3.
Simplistically, the smaller the radar pulse width, the
larger the required receiver bandwidth and the larger
the receiver noise floor.

EEE381B

3.4.1 RECEIVER BANDWIDTH

EEE381B

3.4.2 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE

EEE381B

3.4.3 RECEIVER THRESHOLD

EEE381B

4.

RADAR CROSS-SECTION,

The radar cross-section of a target is a


measure of its size as seen by a radar,
expressed as an area, m2.
It is a complex function of the geometric
cross-section of the target at the incident
angle of the radar signal, as well as the
directivity and reflectivity of the target.
The RCS is a characteristic of the target,
not the radar.

EEE381B

4.1.1 RCS OF A METAL PLATE

Large RCS, but decreases


rapidly as the incident
angle deviates from the
normal.

4a b

2 2

EEE381B

4.1.2 RCS OF A METAL SPHERE

Small RCS, but is


independent of incident
angle.

EEE381B

4.1.3 RCS OF A METAL CYLINDER

RCS can be quite small or


fairly large depending on
orientation.

2ra 2

, as viewed

4 r

, from the end


2

3 4

EEE381B

4.1.4 RCS OF A TRIHEDRAL CORNER


REFLECTOR

The RCS of a trihedral


(corner) is both large and
relatively independent of
incident angle.

EEE381B

5.

LOW OBSERVABILITY

From the previous discussion on the radar


cross-section of targets, it should be
obvious that determining the radar crosssection of an airplane is a complicated
task.
The art of designing an aircraft to
specifically have a low RCS is known as
low observability, or more commonly
known as stealth.
Stealth is a relatively new technology,
even

full RCS prediction is only 2 decades old.


EEE381B

5.1 HISTORY* OF STEALTH


AIRCRAFT [1]

EEE381B

5.2 AIRCRAFT HIGH RCS AREAS


[1]

EEE381B

5.3 LOW OBSERVABILITY DESIGN


AREAS [1]

EEE381B

5.3.1 LOW OBSERVABILITY DESIGN


EXAMPLE[1]

EEE381B

5.3.2 LOW OBSERVABILITY DESIGN


EXAMPLE[1]

EEE381B

5.4 COMPARATIVE RCS

EEE381B

[1]

6. IN-CLASS EXERCISES

EEE381B

6.1 QUICK RESPONSE EXERCISE #


1

Think carefully about the derivation of the


radar range equation just presented. Is
there a potentially significant loss
component missing?
Hint:

recall the simple link equation from your


very early lectures.

EEE381B

6.2 QUICK RESPONSE EXERCISE #


2

Why have designers of stealth aircraft sought


to blend the physical transitions / features of
the aircraft?

Will reduction in your aircraft RCS alone


make you invisible to the enemy?
How

else might they find you?

EEE381B

6.3 RADAR RANGE EQUATION


CALCULATION

EEE381B

6.3 RADAR RANGE EQUATION


CALCULATION

The US Navy AN/SPS-48 Air Search Radar is a


medium-range, three-dimensional (height,
range, and bearing) air search radar.
Published technical specifications include:
Operating frequency 2900-3100 MHz
Transmitter peak power 60-2200 kW
PRF 161-1366 Hz, and pulse widths of 9 / 3 sec
Phased array antenna with a gain of 38.5 dB

For its published maximum range of 250 miles for


a nominal target such as the F-18, what is the
receiver chain sensitivity in bBm?

EEE381B

REFERENCES
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

6)

Moir & Seabridge, Military Avionics Systems, American Institute of


Aeronautics & Astronautics, 2006. [Sections 2.6 & 2.7]
David Adamy, EW101 - A First Course in Electronic Warfare, Artech
House, 2000. [Chapters 3,4 & 6]
George W. Stimson, Introduction to Airborne Radar, Second Edition,
SciTch Publishing, 1998.
Principles of Radar Systems, student laboratory manual, 38542-00, LabVolt (Quebec) Ltd, 2006.
John C. Vaquer, US Navy Surface Officer Warfare School Documents,
Combat Systems Engineering : Radar,
http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/swos/cmd/fun12/12-1/sl
d001.htm
Mark A. Hicks, "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on
DiscoverySchool.com"

EEE381B