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Cost

behaviour:
Analysis and
Use

Anggota Kelompok
Kanda Agung Kusuma (312334)
Dede Syahputra (315749)
Wahyu Rizki S (346445)
R Muhammad Fajri (346486)
Rahmat Iman P (352862)

Types of Cost behaviour


Patterns

Total Variable Cost


Example

Total Long Distance


Telephone Bill

Your total long distance telephone bill is


based on how many minutes you talk.

Minutes Talked

Variable Cost Per Unit


Example

Per Minute
Telephone Charge

The cost per minute talked is constant.


For example, 10 pence per minute.

Minutes Talked

Total Fixed Cost Example

Monthly Basic
Telephone Bill

Your monthly basic telephone bill is


probably fixed and does not change
when you make more local calls.

Number of Local Calls

Fixed Cost Per Unit


Example
Monthly Basic Telephone
Bill per Local Call

The fixed cost per local call decreases as


more local calls are made.

Number of Local Calls

Cost behaviour
Examples of normally variable costs
Merchandisers

Service Organizations

Cost of Goods Sold

Supplies and travel

Manufacturers

Merchandisers and
Manufacturers

Direct Material, Direct


labour, and Variable
Manufacturing Overhead

Sales commissions and


shipping costs

Examples of normally fixed costs


Merchandisers, manufacturers, and
service organizations
Real estate taxes, Insurance, Sales salaries
Depreciation, Advertising

The Activity Base


Units
produced

Machine
hours

A measure of the event


causing the incurrence of a
variable cost a cost driver

Miles
driven

Labour
hours

Step-Variable Costs

Cost

Total cost remains


constant within a
narrow range of
activity.

Activity

Step Costs

Cost

Total cost increases to a


new higher cost for the
next higher range of
activity.

Activity

The Linearity Assumption


and the Relevant Range

Total Cost

Economists
Curvilinear Cost
Function

Activity

The Linearity Assumption


and the Relevant Range

Total Cost

Economists
Curvilinear Cost
Function

Accountants Straight-Line
Approximation (constant
unit variable cost)
Activity

Total Cost

The Linearity Assumption


and the Relevant Range

Relevant
Range

AAstraight
straight line
line
closely
closely
Economists
approximates
Curvilinear Cost approximates
aa curvilinear
curvilinear
Function
variable
variable cost
cost
line
line within
within the
the
relevant
relevant
range.
range.
Accountants Straight-Line
Approximation (constant
unit variable cost)

Activity

Types of Fixed Costs


Fixed Costs
Committed

Discretionary

Long-term, cannot be
reduced in the short
term.

May be altered in the


short-term by current
managerial decisions

Examples

Examples

Depreciation on
Buildings and
Equipment

Advertising and
Research and
Development

Trend Toward Fixed Costs


Increased automation.
Increase in salaried knowledge
workers who are difficult to train
and
replace.
Implications
Implications
Managers
Managersare
aremore
morelocked-in
locked-inwith
with fewer
fewer decision
decision
alternatives.
alternatives.
Planning
Planningbecomes
becomesmore
morecrucial
crucial because
becausefixed
fixedcosts
costsare
are
difficult
difficult to
tochange
changewith
withcurrent
current operating
operatingdecisions.
decisions.

Fixed Costs and Relevant


Range
Example: Office space
is available at a rental
rate of 30,000 per
year in increments of
1,000 square metres.
As the business grows
more space is rented,
increasing the total
cost.

Continue

Rent Cost in
Thousands of pounds

Fixed Costs and Relevant


Range
90

60

30
00

Relevant
Range

Total cost doesnt


change for a wide
range of activity,
and then jumps to a
new higher cost for
the next higher
range of activity.

1,000
2,000
3,000
Rented Area (Square metres)

Semi-variable Costs
(also called mixed cost)
A semi-variable
cost
has both fixed
and variable
components.

Consider the
following electric
utility example.

Mixed Costs

Total Utility Cost

l
a
t
To

os
c
d
e
x
i

Variable
Utility Charge
Fixed Monthly

Activity (Kilowatt Hours)

Utility Charge

Mixed Costs
The total mixed cost line can be expressed
as an equation: Y = a + bX

Total Utility Cost

Where:

l
a
t
To

os
c
d
e
x
i

a
=
Y

Y = the total mixed cost

X
b
+

a = the total fixed cost (the


vertical intercept of the line)
b = the variable Variable
cost per unit of
activity (the
slopeCharge
of the line)
Utility
X = the level of activity

Fixed Monthly
Activity (Kilowatt Hours)

Utility Charge

Mixed Costs

Total Utility Cost

m
l
a
t
To

os
c
d
e
x
i

a
=
Y

X
b
+

Variable

bX

Utility Charge
Fixed Monthly

a
Activity (Kilowatt Hours)

Utility Charge

The High-Low Method


WiseCo recorded the following production activity and
maintenance costs for two months:

Using these two levels of activity, compute:


the variable cost per unit;
the fixed cost; and then
express the costs in equation form Y = a + bX.

The High-Low Method

Unit variable cost =

Changein cost
Change in units

The High-Low Method

Unit variable cost = 3,600 4,000 units = 0.90 per unit

The High-Low Method

Unit variable cost = 3,600 4,000 units = 0.90 per unit


Fixed cost = Total cost Total variable cost
Fixed cost = 9,700 (0.90 per unit 9,000 units)
Fixed cost = 9,700 8,100 = 1,600

The High-Low Method

Unit variable cost = 3,600 4,000 units = 0.90 per unit


Fixed cost = Total cost Total variable cost
Fixed cost = 9,700 (0.90 per unit 9,000 units)
Fixed cost = 9,700 8,100 = 1,600

Total cost = Fixed cost + Variable cost (Y = a + bX)


Y = 1,600 + 0.90X

The Scattergraph Method


Plot the data points on a
graph (total cost vs. activity).

Total Cost in
1,000s of pounds

Y
20

10

* *
* *

* ** *
**
X

0
1
2
3
4
Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced

The Scattergraph Method


Draw a line through the data points with about an
equal numbers of points above and below the line.
Total Cost in
1,000s of pounds

Y
20

10

* *
* *

* ** *
**
X

0
1
2
3
4
Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced

The Scattergraph Method

Total Cost in
1,000s of pounds

The slope of this line is the variable unit


cost. (Slope is the change in total cost
for a one unit change in activity).

20

10

* *
* *

* ** *
**

Estimated fixed cost = 10,000


0

0
1
2
3
4
Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced

The Scattergraph Method


Slope =
Total Cost in
1,000s of pounds

Y
20

10

* *
* *

Change in cost
Change in units

* ** *
**

Vertical
distance
is the
change
in cost.

Horizontal distance is
the change in activity.

0
1
2
3
4
Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced

Least-Squares Regression
Method
Accountants and
managers may use
computer software to fit
a regression line
through the data points.
The cost analysis
objective is the same: Y
= a + bx regression
Least-squares
Least-squares
regressionalso
also provides
providesaastatistic,
statistic, called
called
22
the
adjusted
R
the adjusted R ,,that
thatis
is aameasure
measure of
of the
thegoodness
goodness
of
of fit
fitof
ofthe
theregression
regressionline
lineto
tothe
thedata
datapoints.
points.

Least-Squares Regression
Method
R2 is the percentage of the variation
in total cost explained by the activity.

Total Cost

Y
20

* *
* *

10

* ** *
**

R2 for this relationship is near


100% since the data points are
very close to the regression line.
X
1
2
3
4
Activity

The Contribution Format

Lets put our


knowledge of cost
behaviour to work
by preparing a
contribution format
profit statement.

The Contribution Format

The contribution margin format emphasizes cost


behaviour. Contribution margin covers fixed costs
and provides for profit.

The Contribution Format

Used primarily for


external reporting.

Used primarily by
management.

Thank You

Source :
McGraw-Hill. 2002. downloaded from
http://www.slideshare.net/jhoniejhoa
n/cost-behavior-analysis

Pertanyaan
1. Koefisien Determinasi.
2. Mixed cost? Variabel cost aja?
3. Metode terbaik?