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Bentuk-Bentuk Badan

Usaha

Choosing a Form of
Ownership
There is no one best form of
ownership.
The best form of ownership
depends on an entrepreneurs
particular situation.
Key: Understanding the
characteristics of each form of
ownership and how well they
match an entrepreneurs
business and personal
circumstances.

Factors Affecting the


Choices
Tax considerations
Liability exposure
Start-up and future
capital requirements
Control
Managerial ability
Business goals
Management
succession plans
Cost of formation

Bentuk Bisnis
Perusahaan Perseorangan (Proprietorship)
Perusahaan Persekutuan/Partnership
(Firma, CV)
Korporasi/corporation

Perusahaan Perseorangan

Perusahaan Perseorangan adalah


Bisnis yang dimiliki oleh seorang Pemilik

Sole Proprietorships
Characteristics :
Business owned (and usually operated)
by one person
Simplest form of business ownership
Most popular form of business
organization 72% of all
Most common in:

Retailing
Service
Agriculture

Sole Proprietorship
Advantages
Advantages
Simple
Simpletotocreate
create
Retention
Retentionofofall
allprofits.
profits.
Ease
Easeofofformation.
formation.
Complete
Completecontrol.
control.
Lower
Lowertaxes.
taxes.
Least
Leastcostly
costlyform
formtotobegin
begin
Total
Totaldecision-making
decision-making
authority
authority
No
Nospecial
speciallegal
legalrestrictions
restrictions
Easy
Easytotodiscontinue
discontinue

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
Incursall
alllosses
losses
Incurs
Unlimitedperson
personliability.
liability.
Unlimited
Financinglimitations.
limitations.
Financing
Limitedskills
skillscapabilities.
capabilities.
Limited
Limitedaccess
accessto
tocapital
capital
Limited
Lackof
ofcontinuity
continuity
Lack

Semua laba
Hanya untuk
pengusaha

Pengendalian
seutuhnya
Keuntungan
Perusahaan
Perseroan

Organisasi
Sederhana

Pajak Rendah

Bertanggung
JawabAtas
Semua
kerugian

Dana Terbatas

Kerugian
Perusahaan
Perseroan
Tanggung
Jawab
Tidak terbatas

Keterampilan
Terbatas

Partnership
Characteristics:

An association of two or more people

who co-own a business for the purpose


of making a profit.

Always wise to create a partnership


agreement.

Best partnerships are built on trust and


respect.

Partnership

Types of Partners
General partners

Take an active role in managing a business.


Have unlimited liability for the partnerships debts.
Every partnership must have at least one general
partner.

Limited partners

Cannot participate in the day-to-day management


of a company.
Have limited liability for the partnerships debts.
Is treated as an investor in the business.

Partnership
Advantages
Advantages
Funding.
Funding.
Losses
Lossesare
areshared.
shared.
Specialization,
Specialization,
Complementary
Complementaryskills
skillsof
of
partners
partners
Easy
Easyto
toestablish
establish
Division
Divisionof
ofprofits
profits
Larger
Largerpool
poolof
ofcapital
capital
Ability
Abilityto
toattract
attractlimited
limited
partners
partners

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
Controlisisshared.
shared.
Control
Sharedprofits.
profits.
Shared
Unlimitedliability
liabilityof
ofatat
Unlimited
leastone
onepartner
partner
least
Difficultyin
indisposing
disposingof
of
Difficulty
partnershipinterest
interest
partnership
Lackof
ofcontinuity
continuity
Lack
Potentialfor
forpersonality
personality
Potential
andauthority
authorityconflicts
conflicts
and
Partnersbound
boundby
bylaw
lawof
of
Partners
agency
agency

Keuntungan Partnership

Dana Tambahan

Kerugian
Ditanggung
Bersama

Lebih ada
Spesialisasi

Kerugian Partnership

Berbagi
Pengendalian

Tanggung
Jawab
Tidak terbatas

Berbagi
Laba

Korporasi

Corporation
Generally larger than other forms (Except for
S-Corporation)

20.1% of all U.S. Businesses


Account for 87.1% of all U.S. Business Income

Considered a separate legal entity

Owners called Stockholders or Shareholders

Ownership evidenced by Stock Certificate


Owners paid

Share value
dividends

Governed by
Board of Directors

Corporations
Privately Held
Ownership is restricted to small group of
investors.
Stock is not traded publicly.
Examples: L. L. Bean, Polo, Ralph Lauren.
Publicly Held
Larger corporations.
Stock is traded publicly.
Act of initially issuing stock: going
public.

Corporations
Advantages
Advantages

Disadvantages
Disadvantages

Limited
Limitedliability
liabilityof
of
stockholders
stockholders
Ability
Abilityto
toattract
attractcapital
capital
Ability
Abilityto
tocontinue
continue
indefinitely
indefinitely
Ease
Easeof
ofOwnership
OwnershipTransfer
Transfer
Unlimited
UnlimitedLife
Life
Specialized
SpecializedManagement
Management
Expertise
Expertise

Costand
andtime
timeof
ofincorporating
incorporating
Cost
Doubletaxation
taxation
Double
Potentialfor
fordiminished
diminished
Potential
managerialincentives
incentives
managerial
Legalrequirements
requirementsand
and
Legal
regulatoryred
redtape
tape
regulatory
Potentialloss
lossof
ofcontrol
controlby
by
Potential
founder(s)
founder(s)
Moredifficult
difficult&
&costly
costlyto
toform
form
More
RequiresaaCorporate
Corporate
Requires
Charter
Charter

Tanggung
Jawab
Terbatas

Akses
Terhadap
Modal

Transfer
Kepemilikan

Keuntungan Korporasi

Kerugian Korporasi

Biaya
Kerorganisasian
Tinggi

Transparansi
Publik

Masalah
Keagenan

Pajak
Tinggi

Perbandingan Bentuk
Bisnis
Business Liability Continuit Manageme Source of
Form
y
nt
Investme
nt
Proprietorshi
p

-Personal
-Unlimited

Ends with
death or
decision of
owner

Personal,
unrestricted

Personal

General
Partnership

-Personal
-Unlimited

End with
death or
decision of
any partner

Unrestricted or
depends on
partnership
agreement

Personal by
Partner(s)

Corporation

Capital
As stated in
Investment charter,
perpetual or
for specified
period of
years

Under control
Purchase of
of board of
Stock
directors, which
is selected by
stockholders

BUMN
Badan Usaha yang sebagian besar
sahamnya dimilik oleh Negara
Kekayaan dipisahkan berdasarkan
peraturan pemerintah

Karaktersitik BUMN
Usahanya bersifat membantu pemerintah,
dalam membangun public utilities
Menghasilkan barang karena pertimbangan
dan keamanan dan kerahasiaan harus
dikuasai negara
Melaksanakan kebijakan strategis pemerintah
Tujuan melindungi keselamatan dan
kesejahteraan masyarakat
Usaha bersifat komersil dan fungsinya dapat
dilakukan swasta

Koperasi
Pemilik adalah anggota sekaligus
pelanggan
Kekuasaan tertinggi ada pada RAT
Satu anggota adalah satu suara
Organisasi diurus secara demokratis
Kummpulan individu
Manajemen bersifat terbuka

Pertimbangan dalam memilih


Bentuk Usaha
Kepemilikan
Organisasi
Modal
Pajak

Syarat-syarat PT Go
Public
Mendaftarkan Pada Bursa Efek
(listing)
Saham perdana IPO (Initial public
offering)
Melakukan good Corporate
governance
Mempublikasikan laporan keuangan
secara berkala

Jenis Perusahaan
Internasional
Multinational Company
International Company

Metode Kepemilikan pada


bisnis
yang Ada
Franchising
Joint Venture
Lisensi
Merger
Acquisition